Provided by: groff-base_1.18.1.1-20_i386 bug


       troff - the troff processor of the groff text formatting system


       troff [ -abcivzCERU ] [ -dcs ] [ -ffam ] [ -Fdir ] [ -mname ] [ -Mdir ]
             [ -nnum ] [ -olist ] [ -rcn ] [ -Tname ] [ -wname ] [ -Wname ]
             [ files... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its


       This manual page describes the GNU version of troff.  It is part of the
       groff  document  formatting system.  It is functionally compatible with
       UNIX troff, but has many extensions,  see  groff_diff(7).   Usually  it
       should  be  invoked  using  the  groff(1)  command  which will also run
       preprocessors and postprocessors in the appropriate order and with  the
       appropriate options.


       -a        Generate an ASCII approximation of the typeset output.

       -b        Print  a  backtrace with each warning or error message.  This
                 backtrace should help track down the cause of the error.  The
                 line  numbers  given  in  the  backtrace  may  not  always be
                 correct, for troff’s idea of line numbers gets confused by as
                 or am requests.

       -c        Disable color output (always disabled in compatibility mode).

       -C        Enable compatibility mode.

       -dname=s  Define c or name to be a string s; c must  be  a  one  letter

       -E        Inhibit  all error messages of troff.  Note that this doesn’t
                 affect messages output to standard error  by  macro  packages
                 using the tm or tm1 requests.

       -ffam     Use fam as the default font family.

       -Fdir     Search   in   directory   (or   directory   path)   dir   for
                 subdirectories devname (name is the name of the  device)  and
                 there  for  the  DESC  file  and  font files.  dir is scanned
                 before all other font directories.

       -i        Read the standard input after all the named input files  have
                 been processed.

       -mname    Read in the file name.tmac.  If it isn’t found, try
                 instead.  It will be first searched for in directories  given
                 with the -M command line option, then in directories given in
                 the GROFF_TMAC_PATH environment variable, then in the current
                 directory  (only  if  in  unsafe  mode),  the home directory,
                 /usr/lib/groff/site-tmac,   /usr/share/groff/site-tmac,   and

       -Mdir     Search  directory  (or  directory  path) dir for macro files.
                 This is scanned before all other macro directories.

       -nnum     Number the first page num.

       -olist    Output only pages in list, which is a comma-separated list of
                 page ranges; n means print page n, m-n means print every page
                 between m and n, -n means print every page up to n, n-  means
                 print  every page from n.  troff will exit after printing the
                 last page in the list.

       -rname=n  Set number register c or name to n; c must be a one character
                 name; n can be any troff numeric expression.

       -R        Don’t load troffrc and troffrc-end.

       -Tname    Prepare output for device name, rather than the default ps.

       -U        Unsafe  mode.  This will enable the following requests: open,
                 opena,  pso,  sy,  and  pi.   For  security  reasons,   these
                 potentially  dangerous  requests  are disabled otherwise.  It
                 will also add the current directory to the macro search path.

       -v        Print the version number.

       -wname    Enable warning name.  Available warnings are described in the
                 section WARNINGS below.  For example, to enable all warnings,
                 use -w all.  Multiple -w options are allowed.

       -Wname    Inhibit warning name.  Multiple -W options are allowed.

       -z        Suppress formatted output.


       The  warnings that can be given by troff are divided into the following
       categories.  The name associated with each warning is used  by  the  -w
       and  -W  options;  the  number  is used by the warn request, and by the
       .warn register; it is always a power of 2 to allow bitwise composition.

                 |Bit   Code   Warning | Bit    Code      Warning   |
                 |  0      1   char    |  10     1024   reg         |
                 |  1      2   number  |  11     2048   tab         |
                 |  2      4   break   |  12     4096   right-brace |
                 |  3      8   delim   |  13     8192   missing     |
                 |  4     16   el      |  14    16384   input       |
                 |  5     32   scale   |  15    32768   escape      |
                 |  6     64   range   |  16    65536   space       |
                 |  7    128   syntax  |  17   131072   font        |
                 |  8    256   di      |  18   262144   ig          |
                 |  9    512   mac     |  19   524288   color       |

       break           4   In  fill  mode,  lines which could not be broken so
                           that their length was less than  the  line  length.
                           This is enabled by default.

       char            1   Non-existent   characters.    This  is  enabled  by

       color      524288   Color related warnings.

       delim           8   Missing or mismatched closing delimiters.

       di            256   Use of di or da without an argument when  there  is
                           no current diversion.

       el             16   Use  of the el request with no matching ie request.

       escape      32768   Unrecognized    escape    sequences.     When    an
                           unrecognized  escape  sequence  is encountered, the
                           escape character is ignored.

       font       131072   Non-existent fonts.  This is enabled by default.

       ig         262144   Invalid  escapes  in  text  ignored  with  the   ig
                           request.  These are conditions that are errors when
                           they do not occur in ignored text.

       input       16384   Invalid input characters.

       mac           512   Use of undefined strings,  macros  and  diversions.
                           When  an  undefined  string,  macro or diversion is
                           used,  that  string  is  automatically  defined  as
                           empty.  So, in most cases, at most one warning will
                           be given for each name.

       missing      8192   Requests that are missing non-optional arguments.

       number          2   Invalid numeric expressions.  This  is  enabled  by

       range          64   Out of range arguments.

       reg          1024   Use   of   undefined  number  registers.   When  an
                           undefined number register is used, that register is
                           automatically defined to have a value of 0.  So, in
                           most cases, at most one warning will be  given  for
                           use of a particular name.

       right-brace  4096   Use of \} where a number was expected.

       scale          32   Meaningless scaling indicators.

       space       65536   Missing  space  between  a request or macro and its
                           argument.  This  warning  will  be  given  when  an
                           undefined   name  longer  than  two  characters  is
                           encountered, and the first two  characters  of  the
                           name  make  a  defined  name.  The request or macro
                           will not be invoked.  When this warning  is  given,
                           no macro is automatically defined.  This is enabled
                           by default.   This  warning  will  never  occur  in
                           compatibility mode.

       syntax        128   Dubious syntax in numeric expressions.

       tab          2048   Inappropriate  use  of a tab character.  Either use
                           of a tab character where a number was expected,  or
                           use of tab character in an unquoted macro argument.

       There are also names that can be used to refer to groups of warnings:

       all    All warnings except di, mac, and reg.  It is intended that  this
              covers  all  warnings  that  are  useful  with traditional macro

       w      All warnings.


              A colon separated list of directories in  which  to  search  for
              macro files.  troff will scan directories given in the -M option
              before these, and in standard directories (current directory  if
              in   unsafe   mode,  home  directory,  /usr/lib/groff/site-tmac,
              /usr/share/groff/site-tmac, /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/tmac)  after

              Default device.

              A colon separated list of directories in which to search for the
              devname directory.  troff will scan directories given in the  -F
              option    before    these,    and    in   standard   directories
              (/usr/share/groff/site-font,       /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/font,
              /usr/lib/font) after these.


              Initialization file (called before any other macro package).

              Initialization file (called after any other macro package).

              Macro files

              Device description file for device name.

              Font file for font F of device name.

       Note  that  troffrc and troffrc-end are neither searched in the current
       nor in the home directory by default for security reasons (even if  the
       -U   option  is  given).   Use  the  -M  command  line  option  or  the
       GROFF_TMAC_PATH environment variable to add these  directories  to  the
       search path if necessary.


       Copyright (C) 1989, 2001, 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This  document  is  distributed  under  the  terms of the FDL (GNU Free
       Documentation License) version 1.1 or later.  You should have  received
       a  copy  of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line at the
       GNU   copyleft   site   〈〉.    This
       document  was  written  by  James Clark, with modifications from Werner
       Lemberg 〈〉 and Bernd Warken 〈〉

       This document is part of groff, the GNU roff distribution.


              The main program of the groff system, a wrapper around troff.

              A description of the  groff  language,  including  a  short  but
              complete  reference  of  all predefined requests, registers, and
              escapes of plain groff.  From the command line, this  is  called

                     man 7 groff

              The  differences  of  the groff language and the classical troff
              language.  Currently, this is the most actual  document  of  the
              groff system.

              An  overview  over  groff  and  other  roff  systems,  including
              pointers to further related documentation.

       The groff info file, cf.  info(1),  presents  all  groff  documentation
       within a single document.