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ioprio_get, ioprio_set - get/set I/O scheduling class and priority
int ioprio_get(int which, int who);
int ioprio_set(int which, int who, int ioprio);
The ioprio_get() and ioprio_set() system calls respectively get and set
the I/O scheduling class and priority of one or more processes.
The which and who arguments identify the process(es) on which the
system calls operate. The which argument determines how who is
interpreted, and has one of the following values:
who is a process ID identifying a single process.
who is a process group ID identifying all the members of a
who is a user ID identifying all of the processes that have a
matching real UID.
If which is specified as IOPRIO_WHO_PGRP or IOPRIO_WHO_USER when
calling ioprio_get(), and more than one process matches who, then the
returned priority will be the highest one found among all of the
matching processes. One priority is said to be higher than another one
if it belongs to a higher priority class (IOPRIO_CLASS_RT is the
highest priority class; IOPRIO_CLASS_IDLE is the lowest) or if it
belongs to the same priority class as the other process but has a
higher priority level (a lower priority number means a higher priority
The ioprio argument given to ioprio_set() is a bit mask that specifies
both the scheduling class and the priority to be assigned to the target
process(es). The following macros are used for assembling and
dissecting ioprio values:
Given a scheduling class and priority (data), this macro
combines the two values to produce an ioprio value, which is
returned as the result of the macro.
Given mask (an ioprio value), this macro returns its I/O class
component, that is, one of the values IOPRIO_CLASS_RT,
IOPRIO_CLASS_BE, or IOPRIO_CLASS_IDLE.
Given mask (an ioprio value), this macro returns its priority
See the NOTES section for more information on scheduling classes and
I/O priorities are supported for reads and for synchronous (O_DIRECT,
O_SYNC) writes. I/O priorities are not supported for asynchronous
writes because they are issued outside the context of the program
dirtying the memory, and thus program-specific priorities do not apply.
On success, ioprio_get() returns the ioprio value of the process with
highest I/O priority of any of the processes that match the criteria
specified in which and who. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set
to indicate the error.
On success, ioprio_set() returns 0. On error, -1 is returned, and
errno is set to indicate the error.
EINVAL Invalid value for which or ioprio. Refer to the NOTES section
for available scheduler classes and priority levels for ioprio.
EPERM The calling process does not have the privilege needed to assign
this ioprio to the specified process(es). See the NOTES section
for more information on required privileges for ioprio_set().
ESRCH No process(es) could be found that matched the specification in
which and who.
These system calls have been available on Linux since kernel 2.6.13.
These system calls are Linux-specific.
Glibc does not provide wrapper for these system calls; call them using
These system calls only have an effect when used in conjunction with an
I/O scheduler that supports I/O priorities. As at kernel 2.6.17 the
only such scheduler is the Completely Fair Queuing (CFQ) I/O scheduler.
Selecting an I/O Scheduler
I/O Schedulers are selected on a per-device basis via the special file
One can view the current I/O scheduler via the /sys file system. For
example, the following command displays a list of all schedulers
currently loaded in the kernel:
$ cat /sys/block/hda/queue/scheduler
noop anticipatory deadline [cfq]
The scheduler surrounded by brackets is the one actually in use for the
device (hda in the example). Setting another scheduler is done by
writing the name of the new scheduler to this file. For example, the
following command will set the scheduler for the hda device to cfq:
# echo cfq > /sys/block/hda/queue/scheduler
The Completely Fair Queuing (CFQ) I/O Scheduler
Since v3 (aka CFQ Time Sliced) CFQ implements I/O nice levels similar
to those of CPU scheduling. These nice levels are grouped in three
scheduling classes each one containing one or more priority levels:
This is the real-time I/O class. This scheduling class is given
higher priority than any other class: processes from this class
are given first access to the disk every time. Thus this I/O
class needs to be used with some care: one I/O real-time process
can starve the entire system. Within the real-time class, there
are 8 levels of class data (priority) that determine exactly how
much time this process needs the disk for on each service. The
highest real-time priority level is 0; the lowest is 7. In the
future this might change to be more directly mappable to
performance, by passing in a desired data rate instead.
This is the best-effort scheduling class, which is the default
for any process that hasn’t set a specific I/O priority. The
class data (priority) determines how much I/O bandwidth the
process will get. Best-effort priority levels are analogous to
CPU nice values (see getpriority(2)). The priority level
determines a priority relative to other processes in the best-
effort scheduling class. Priority levels range from 0 (highest)
to 7 (lowest).
This is the idle scheduling class. Processes running at this
level only get I/O time when no-one else needs the disk. The
idle class has no class data. Attention is required when
assigning this priority class to a process, since it may become
starved if higher priority processes are constantly accessing
Refer to Documentation/block/ioprio.txt for more information on the CFQ
I/O Scheduler and an example program.
Required permissions to set I/O priorities
Permission to change a process’s priority is granted or denied based on
An unprivileged process may only set the I/O priority of a
process whose real UID matches the real or effective UID of the
calling process. A process which has the CAP_SYS_NICE
capability can change the priority of any process.
What is the desired priority
Attempts to set very high priorities (IOPRIO_CLASS_RT) or very
low ones (IOPRIO_CLASS_IDLE) require the CAP_SYS_ADMIN
A call to ioprio_set() must follow both rules, or the call will fail
with the error EPERM.
Glibc does not yet provide a suitable header file defining the function
prototypes and macros described on this page. Suitable definitions can
be found in linux/ioprio.h.
getpriority(2), open(2), capabilities(7)
Documentation/block/ioprio.txt in the kernel source tree.
This page is part of release 3.01 of the Linux man-pages project. A
description of the project, and information about reporting bugs, can
be found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.