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NAME

       iconv - perform character set conversion

SYNOPSIS

       #include <iconv.h>

       size_t iconv(iconv_t cd,
                    char **inbuf, size_t *inbytesleft,
                    char **outbuf, size_t *outbytesleft);

DESCRIPTION

       The  argument  cd  must  be  a  conversion descriptor created using the
       function iconv_open(3).

       The main case is when inbuf is not NULL and *inbuf  is  not  NULL.   In
       this  case,  the  iconv()  function  converts  the  multibyte  sequence
       starting at *inbuf to a multibyte sequence  starting  at  *outbuf.   At
       most  *inbytesleft  bytes,  starting  at *inbuf, will be read.  At most
       *outbytesleft bytes, starting at *outbuf, will be written.

       The iconv() function converts one multibyte character at  a  time,  and
       for  each  character  conversion  it  increments  *inbuf and decrements
       *inbytesleft by the number of  converted  input  bytes,  it  increments
       *outbuf  and decrements *outbytesleft by the number of converted output
       bytes, and it updates  the  conversion  state  contained  in  cd.   The
       conversion can stop for four reasons:

       1.  An invalid multibyte sequence is encountered in the input.  In this
       case it sets errno to EILSEQ and returns (size_t) -1.  *inbuf  is  left
       pointing to the beginning of the invalid multibyte sequence.

       2.  The  input  byte  sequence  has  been  entirely converted, that is,
       *inbytesleft has gone down to 0.  In  this  case  iconv()  returns  the
       number of non-reversible conversions performed during this call.

       3.  An  incomplete  multibyte sequence is encountered in the input, and
       the input byte sequence terminates after it.   In  this  case  it  sets
       errno  to  EINVAL  and returns (size_t) -1.  *inbuf is left pointing to
       the beginning of the incomplete multibyte sequence.

       4. The output buffer has no more room for the next converted character.
       In this case it sets errno to E2BIG and returns (size_t) -1.

       A different case is when inbuf is NULL or *inbuf is NULL, but outbuf is
       not NULL and *outbuf is not NULL.  In this case, the  iconv()  function
       attempts  to set cd’s conversion state to the initial state and store a
       corresponding shift sequence at *outbuf.  At most *outbytesleft  bytes,
       starting at *outbuf, will be written.  If the output buffer has no more
       room for this reset sequence,  it  sets  errno  to  E2BIG  and  returns
       (size_t) -1.    Otherwise   it   increments   *outbuf   and  decrements
       *outbytesleft by the number of bytes written.

       A third case is when inbuf is NULL or *inbuf is  NULL,  and  outbuf  is
       NULL  or *outbuf is NULL.  In this case, the iconv() function sets cd’s
       conversion state to the initial state.

RETURN VALUE

       The iconv() function returns the number of characters  converted  in  a
       non-reversible  way  during  this  call; reversible conversions are not
       counted.  In case of error, it sets errno and returns (size_t) -1.

ERRORS

       The following errors can occur, among others:

       E2BIG  There is not sufficient room at *outbuf.

       EILSEQ An invalid multibyte sequence has been encountered in the input.

       EINVAL An  incomplete  multibyte  sequence  has been encountered in the
              input.

CONFORMING TO

       POSIX.1-2001.

SEE ALSO

       iconv_close(3), iconv_open(3)

COLOPHON

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