Provided by: libgps-dev_2.37-4_i386 bug

NAME

       rtcm-104 - RTCM-104 dump format emitted by GPSD tools

OVERVIEW

       RTCM-104 is a serial protocol used for broadcasting pseudorange
       corrections from differential-GPS reference stations. This manual page
       describes some aspects of the RTCM protocol, mainly in order to explain
       the RTCM-104 dump format emitted by rtcmdecode(1). It describes that
       dump format completely.

       The applicable standard is RTCM Recommended Standards for Differential
       NAVSTAR GPS Service RTCM Paper 194-93/SC 104-STD. Ordering instructions
       are accessible from the website of the Radio Technical Commission for
       Maritime Services[1] under "Publications".

RTCM WIRE FORMAT

       Differential-GPS correction stations consist of a GPS reference
       receiver coupled to a low frequency (LF) transmitter. The GPS reference
       receiver is a survey-grade GPS that does GPS carrier tracking and can
       work out its own position to a few millimeters. It generates range and
       range-rate corrections and encodes them into RTCM104. It ships the
       RTCM104 to the LF transmitter over serial rs-232 signal at 100 baud or
       200 baud depending on the requirements of the transmitter.

       The LF transmitter broadcasts the the approximately 300khz radio signal
       that differential-GPS radio receivers pick up. Transmitters that are
       meant to have a higher range will need to transmit at the slower rate.
       The higher the data rate the harder it will be for the remote radio
       receiver to receive with a good signal-to-noise ration. (Higher data
       rate signals can´t be averaged over as long a time frame, hence they
       appear noisier.)

       An RTCM message consists of a sequence of up to 33 30-bit words. The 24
       most significant bits of each word are data and the six least
       significant bits are parity. The parity algorithm used is the same as
       that used on GPS satellite downlinks.

       Each message consists of two header words followed by zero or more data
       words, depending upon message type.

RTCM DUMP FORMAT

       For each message, the header is listed first, followed by zero or more
       lines containing the specific data for that message. The general format
       is a line beginning with a capital letter, followed by a tab, followed
       by the fields of the message separated by tabs, terminated by a
       newline.

   Header message (H)
           H <message type> <reference station id> <modified z_count> <sequence no>
             <message length> <station health> [T <useful length>]

       Here is an example:

           H    9    687  337.2     4    5    0

       <message type> is one of

       1
           full corrections - one message containing corrections for all
           satellites in view. This is not common.

       3
           reference station parameters - the position of the reference
           station GPS antenna.

       4
           datum — the datum to which the DGPS data is referred.

       5
           constellation health — information about the satellites the beacon
           can see

       6
           null message — just a filler.

       7
           radio beacon almanac — information about this or other beacons.

       9
           subset corrections — a message containing corrections for only a
           subset of the satellites in view.

       16
           special message — a text message from the beacon operator.

       <reference station id> is the id of the GPS reference receiver. The LF
       transmitters also have (different) id numbers.

       <modified z_count> is the reference time of the corrections in the
       message in seconds within the current hour. Note that it is the current
       hour in GPS time, which is several seconds ahead of UTC (14 as of
       January 2006).

       <sequence no> is a number which increments, modulo 8, for each message
       transmitted.

       <message length> is the number of words after the header that comprise
       the message.

       <station health> indicates the health of the beacon as a reference
       source. Any nonzero value means the satellite is probably transmitting
       bad data and should not be used in a fix. 6 means the transmission is
       unmonitored. 7 means the station is not working properly. Other values
       are defined by the beacon operator.

       If the message contains a parity error after the header but before the
       end of the message, then the extra fields [T <useful length>] are
       appended to indicate a truncated message.

       Here is an example:

           H    9    687  331.8     1    5    0    T    4

       <useful length> indicates the number of useful words before the parity
       error. Depending on the message type, useful information may still be
       extracted.

   Correction data (S)
       One or more of these follow the header for type 1 or type 9 messages.
       Here is the format:

           S <satellite> <udre> <iod> <modified z_count> <range error>
             <range error rate>

       Here is an example:

           S    7    0    199  331.8     -12.160   0.288

       <satellite> is the PRN number of the satellite for which this is
       correction data.

       <udre> is User Differential Range Error with the following values:

           0    1-sigma error  <= 1m
           1    1-sigma error  <= 4m
           2    1-sigma error  <= 8m
           3    1-sigma error  >  8m

       <iod> is Issue Of Data, matching the IOD for the current ephemeris of
       this satellite, as transmitted by the satellite. The IOD is a unique
       tag that identifies the ephemeris; the GPS using the DGPS correction
       and the DGPS generating the data must use the same orbital positions
       for the satellite.

       <modified z_count> is just a copy of the same field from the header.

       <range error> is the pseudorange error in meters for this satellite as
       measured by the beacon reference receiver at the epoch indicated by
       <modified z_count>

       <range error rate> is the rate of change of pseudorange error in
       meters/sec for this satellite as measured by the beacon reference
       receiver at the epoch indicated by <modified z_count>. This is used to
       calculate pseudorange errors at other epochs, if required by the GPS
       receiver.

   Reference Station Parameters (R)
       Here is the format:

           R <X-coordinate> <Y-coordinate> <Z-coordinate>

       Here is an example:

           R    3746729.40     -5086.23  5144450.67

       The coordinates are the position of the station, in meters to two
       decimal places, in Earth Centred Earth Fixed coordinates. These are
       usually referred to the WGS84 reference frame, but may be referred to
       NAD83 in the US (essentially identical to WGS84 for all except
       geodesists), or to some other reference frame in other parts of the
       world.

   Datum (D)
       Here is the format:

           D <dgnss type> <dat> <datum name> [ <dx> <dy> <dz> ]

       Here is an (ertificial) example:

           D    GPS  0    ABC12     25.8 30.5 33.0

       <dgnss type> is either GPS or GLONASS.

       <dat> is 0 or 1 and indicates the sense of the offset shift given by
       dx, dy, dz. dat = 0 means that the station coordinates (in the
       reference message) are referred to a local datum and that adding dx,
       dy, dz to that position will render it in GNSS coordinates (WGS84 for
       GPS). If dat = 1 then the ref station position is in GNSS coordinates
       and adding dx, dy, dz will give it referred to the local datum.

       <datum name> is a standard name for the datum.

       <dx> <dy> <dz> are offsets to convert from local datum to GNSS datum or
       vice versa. These fields are optional.

   Constellation Health (C)
       One or more of these follow the header for type 5 messages — one for
       each satellite.

       Here is the format:

           C <sat> <iodl> <health> <snr> <hlth en> <new data> <los warning>
             <time to unhealthy>

       Here is an example:

           C    29   0  0 53   0  0  0    0

       <sat> is the PRN number of the satellite.

       <iodl> is 1 bit. 0 indicates that this information relates to the
       satellite information in an accompanying type 1 or type 9 message.

       <health> 0 indicates that the satellite is healthy. Any other value
       indicates a problem (coding is not known).

       <snr> gives the carrier/noise ratio of the received signal in the range
       25 to 55 dB(Hz).

       <health en> is 1 bit. If set to 1 it indicates that the satellite is
       healthy even if the satellite navigation data says it is unhealthy.

       <new data> is 1 bit. a 1 indicates that the IOD for this satellite will
       soon be updated in type 1 or 9 messages.

       <los warning> is 1 bit. a 1 indicates that the satellite will shortly
       go unhealthy. The healthy time remaining is given in the <time to
       unhealthy> field.

   Radio Beacon Almanac (A)
       Here is the format:

           A <latitude> <longitude> <range> <frequency> <health> <station id>
             <bitrate>

       Here is an example:

           A    54.1176   -0.0714   100  302.5     0    447  2

       <latitude> and <longitude> give the position, in degrees, of the LF
       transmitter antenna for the station for which this is an almanac. North
       and East are positive.

       <range> is the published range of the station in km.

       <frequency> is the broadcast frequency in kHz.

       <health> is the health of the station for which this is an almanac. If
       it is non-zero, the station is issuing suspect data and should not be
       used for fixes. The ITU and RTCM104 standards differ about the mode
       detailed interpretation of the <health> field and even about its bit
       width.

       <station id> is the id of the transmitter. This is not the same as the
       reference id in the header, the latter being the id of the reference
       receiver.

       <bitrate> indicates the transmitted bitrate.

   Special Message (T)
       Here is the format:

           T <text>

       Here is an example:

           T    THLS TRIAL SERVICE

       <text> is just a text message sent by the beacon operator.

   Null (N)
       This just indicates a null message. There are no fields.

   Unknown message (U)
       This is used to dump message words in hexadecimal when the message type
       field doesn´t match any of the known ones.

       Here is the format:

           U <hex-literal>

       Here is an example:

           U    0x76423055

       The <hex-literal> will represent 32 bits of information, after parity
       checks and inversion. The high two bits should be ignored.

   Null (N)
       This just indicates a null message. There are no fields.

SEE ALSO

       gpsd(8), cgps(1), libgps(3), libgpsd(3), gpsprof(1), gpsfake(1).

AUTHOR

       Much of this text was originally written by John Sager
       <john.sager@btinternet.com> in association with his RTCM decoder. Other
       material comes from the GPSD project. There is a project page for gpsd
       here[2].

NOTES

        1. Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services
           http://www.rtcm.org/

        2. here
           http://gpsd.berlios.de/