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       arp - Linux ARP kernel module.


       This  kernel protocol module implements the Address Resolution Protocol
       defined in RFC 826.  It is used  to  convert  between  Layer2  hardware
       addresses  and  IPv4 protocol addresses on directly connected networks.
       The user normally doesn’t interact directly with this module except  to
       configure  it; instead it provides a service for other protocols in the

       A user process can receive ARP  packets  by  using  packet(7)  sockets.
       There  is  also a mechanism for managing the ARP cache in user-space by
       using netlink(7) sockets.  The ARP table can  also  be  controlled  via
       ioctl(2) on any PF_INET socket.

       The ARP module maintains a cache of mappings between hardware addresses
       and protocol addresses.  The cache has a limited size so old  and  less
       frequently  used  entries  are  garbage-collected.   Entries  which are
       marked as permanent are never deleted by  the  garbage-collector.   The
       cache can be directly manipulated by the use of ioctls and its behavior
       can be tuned by the sysctls defined below.

       When there is no positive feedback for an existing mapping  after  some
       time  (see  the  sysctls  below)  a  neighbor cache entry is considered
       stale.  Positive feedback can  be  gotten  from  a  higher  layer;  for
       example  from a successful TCP ACK.  Other protocols can signal forward
       progress using the MSG_CONFIRM flag to sendmsg(2).  When  there  is  no
       forward  progress  ARP tries to reprobe.  It first tries to ask a local
       arp daemon app_solicit times for an updated MAC address.  If that fails
       and  an old MAC address is known an unicast probe is send ucast_solicit
       times.  If that fails too it will broadcast a new ARP  request  to  the
       network.  Requests are only send when there is data queued for sending.

       Linux will automatically add a non-permanent proxy arp  entry  when  it
       receives  a  request  for  an  address  it forwards to and proxy arp is
       enabled on the receiving interface.  When there is a reject  route  for
       the target no proxy arp entry is added.

       Three ioctls are available on all PF_INET sockets.  They take a pointer
       to a struct arpreq as their parameter.

           struct arpreq {
               struct sockaddr arp_pa;      /* protocol address */
               struct sockaddr arp_ha;      /* hardware address */
               int             arp_flags;   /* flags */
               struct sockaddr arp_netmask; /* netmask of protocol address */
               char            arp_dev[16];

       SIOCSARP, SIOCDARP and SIOCGARP respectively set, delete and get an ARP
       mapping.  Setting & deleting ARP maps are privileged operations and may
       only be performed by a process with the CAP_NET_ADMIN capability or  an
       effective UID of 0.

       arp_pa  must be an AF_INET socket and arp_ha must have the same type as
       the device which is specified in arp_dev.  arp_dev is a zero-terminated
       string which names a device.

              |             arp_flags               |
              |flag            | meaning            |
              |ATF_COM         | Lookup complete    |
              |ATF_PERM        | Permanent entry    |
              |ATF_PUBL        | Publish entry      |
              |ATF_USETRAILERS | Trailers requested |
              |ATF_NETMASK     | Use a netmask      |
              |ATF_DONTPUB     | Don’t answer       |

       If  the  ATF_NETMASK  flag  is  set,  then arp_netmask should be valid.
       Linux 2.2 does not support proxy network ARP entries, so this should be
       set  to  0xffffffff,  or  0  to  remove  an  existing  proxy arp entry.
       ATF_USETRAILERS is obsolete and should not be used.

       ARP supports a sysctl interface to configure parameters on a global  or
       per-interface basis.  The sysctls can be accessed by reading or writing
       the /proc/sys/net/ipv4/neigh/*/* files or with the sysctl(2) interface.
       Each   interface   in   the   system   has   its   own   directory   in
       /proc/sys/net/ipv4/neigh/.  The setting in the "default"  directory  is
       used  for  all newly created devices.  Unless otherwise specified time-
       related sysctls are specified in seconds.

              The maximum number of jiffies to delay before replying to a IPv6
              neighbor  solicitation  message.   Anycast  support  is  not yet
              implemented.  Defaults to 1 second.

              The maximum number of probes to  send  to  the  user  space  ARP
              daemon via netlink before dropping back to multicast probes (see
              mcast_solicit).  Defaults to 0.

              Once a neighbor has been found, the entry is  considered  to  be
              valid  for at least a random value between base_reachable_time/2
              and  3*base_reachable_time/2.   An  entry’s  validity  will   be
              extended  if  it  receives  positive  feedback from higher level
              protocols.  Defaults to 30 seconds.

              Delay before first probe  after  it  has  been  decided  that  a
              neighbor is stale.  Defaults to 5 seconds.

              How frequently the garbage collector for neighbor entries should
              attempt to run.  Defaults to 30 seconds.

              Determines how often to check for stale neighbor entries.   When
              a neighbor entry is considered stale it is resolved again before
              sending data to it.  Defaults to 60 seconds.

              The minimum number of entries to keep in  the  ARP  cache.   The
              garbage  collector  will  not  run  if there are fewer than this
              number of entries in the cache.  Defaults to 128.

              The soft maximum number of entries to keep  in  the  ARP  cache.
              The garbage collector will allow the number of entries to exceed
              this  for  5  seconds  before  collection  will  be   performed.
              Defaults to 512.

              The  hard  maximum  number  of entries to keep in the ARP cache.
              The garbage collector will always run if  there  are  more  than
              this number of entries in the cache.  Defaults to 1024.

              The minimum number of jiffies to keep an ARP entry in the cache.
              This prevents ARP cache thrashing if  there  is  more  than  one
              potential  mapping  (generally due to network misconfiguration).
              Defaults to 1 second.

              The  maximum  number  of  attempts  to  resolve  an  address  by
              multicast/broadcast  before  marking  the  entry as unreachable.
              Defaults to 3.

              When an ARP request for a known proxy-ARP address  is  received,
              delay  up  to proxy_delay jiffies before replying.  This is used
              to prevent network flooding in  some  cases.   Defaults  to  0.8

              The  maximum  number of packets which may be queued to proxy-ARP
              addresses.  Defaults to 64.

              The number of jiffies to delay before retransmitting a  request.
              Defaults to 1 second.

              The  maximum  number  of  attempts to send unicast probes before
              asking the ARP daemon (see app_solicit).  Defaults to 3.

              The maximum number of packets  which  may  be  queued  for  each
              unresolved address by other network layers.  Defaults to 3.


       The  struct  arpreq  changed in Linux 2.0 to include the arp_dev member
       and the ioctl numbers changed at the same time.  Support  for  the  old
       ioctls was dropped in Linux 2.2.

       Support   for  proxy  arp  entries  for  networks  (netmask  not  equal
       0xffffffff) was dropped in Linux 2.2.   It  is  replaced  by  automatic
       proxy  arp  setup  by  the  kernel  for  all  reachable  hosts on other
       interfaces  (when  forwarding  and  proxy  arp  is  enabled   for   the

       The neigh/* sysctls did not exist before Linux 2.2.


       Some  timer  settings  are specified in jiffies, which is architecture-
       and kernel version-dependent; see time(7).

       There is no way to signal positive  feedback  from  user  space.   This
       means  connection  oriented  protocols  implemented  in user space will
       generate excessive ARP traffic, because ndisc  will  regularly  reprobe
       the  MAC  address.   The same problem applies for some kernel protocols
       (e.g., NFS over UDP).

       This man page mashes IPv4 specific and shared  between  IPv4  and  IPv6
       functionality together.


       capabilities(7), ip(7)

       RFC 826 for a description of ARP.
       RFC 2461  for  a  description  of  IPv6 neighbor discovery and the base
       algorithms used.

       Linux 2.2+ IPv4 ARP uses the IPv6 algorithms when applicable.


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