Provided by: amanda-server_2.5.2p1-3_i386 bug


       amanda - Advanced Maryland Automatic Network Disk Archiver


       amadmin config command [options]

       amcheck [options] config

       amcheckdb config

       amcleanup config


       amdd [options]

       amdump config


       amflush [-f] config

       amgetconf [config] parameter

       amlabel config label [slot slot]

       ammt [options]

       amoverview config [options]

       amplot [options] amdump-files

       amrecover [config] [options]

       amreport [config] [options]

       amrestore [options] tapedevice [hostname [diskname]]

       amfetchdump [options] config [hostname [diskname [date [level]]]]

       amrmtape [options] config label

       amstatus config [options]

       amtape config command [options]

       amtapetype [options]

       amtoc [options] logfile

       amverify config

       amverifyrun config


       Amanda is the "Advanced Maryland Automatic Network Disk Archiver". This
       manual page gives an overview of the Amanda commands and configuration
       files for quick reference.

       Here are all the Amanda commands. Each one has its own manual page. See
       them for all the gory details.

           Take care of automatic Amanda backups. This is normally executed by
           cron on a computer called the tape server host and requests backups
           of file systems located on backup clients.  Amdump backs up all
           disks in the disklist file (discussed below) to tape or, if there
           is a problem, to a special holding disk. After all backups are
           done, amdump sends mail reporting failures and successes.

           Flush backups from the holding disk to tape.  Amflush is used after
           amdump has reported it could not write backups to tape for some
           reason. When this happens, backups stay in the holding disk. Run
           amflush after the tape problem is corrected to write backups from
           the holding disk to tape.

           Clean up after an interrupted amdump. This command is only needed
           if amdump was unable to complete for some reason, usually because
           the tape server host crashed while amdump was running.

           Provides an interactive interface to browse the Amanda index files
           (backup image catalogues) and select which tapes to recover files
           from. It can also run amrestore and a restore program (e.g.  tar)
           to actually recover the files.

           Read an Amanda tape, searching for requested backups.  Amrestore is
           suitable for everything from interactive restores of single files
           to a full restore of all partitions on a failed disk.

           Performs Amanda tape restoration, similar to amrestore. Additional
           capabilities include "hands-off" searching of multiple tapes,
           automatic retrieval of specific dump files based on dump logs, and
           assembly of tape-spanning split dump files.

           Write an Amanda format label onto a tape. All Amanda tapes must be
           labeled with amlabel.  Amdump and amflush will not write to an
           unlabeled tape (see TAPE MANAGEMENT below).

           Verify the correct tape is mounted and all file systems on all
           backup client systems are ready to be backed up. Often run by cron
           before amdump to generate a mail warning that backups might fail
           unless corrective action is taken.

           Take care of administrative tasks like finding out which tapes are
           needed to restore a filesystem, forcing hosts to do full backups of
           selected disks and looking at schedule balance information.

           Take care of tape changer control operations like loading
           particular tapes, ejecting tapes and scanning the tape storage

           Check Amanda backup tapes for errors.

           Delete a tape from the Amanda databases.

           Report the status of a running or completed amdump.

           Display a chart of hosts and file systems backed up every run.

           Generate utilization plots of Amanda runs for performance tuning.

           Generate an Amanda summary E-mail report.

           Generate table of content files for Amanda tapes.

           Verify every tape Amanda knows about is consistent in the database.

           Look up parameters in the Amanda configuration file.

           Generate a tapetype definition.

           Wrapper program from aespipe (data encryption utility)

           Reference encryption program for Amanda symmetric data encryption


       There are three user-editable files that control the behavior of

       The first is amanda.conf, the main configuration file. It contains
       parameters to customize Amanda for the site. Refer to the
       amanda.conf(5), manpage for details on Amanda configuration parameters.

       Second is the disklist file, which lists hosts and disk partitions to
       back up.

       Third is the tapelist file, which lists tapes that are currently
       active. These files are described in more detail in the following

       All files are stored in individual configuration directories under
       /usr/local/etc/amanda/. A site will often have more than one
       configuration. For example, it might have a normal configuration for
       everyday backups and an archive configuration for infrequent full
       archival backups. The configuration files would be stored under
       directories /usr/local/etc/amanda/normal/ and
       /usr/local/etc/amanda/archive/, respectively. Part of the job of an
       Amanda administrator is to create, populate and maintain these

       All log and database files generated by Amanda go in corresponding
       directories somewhere. The exact location is controlled by entries in
       amanda.conf. A typical location would be under /var/adm/amanda. For the
       above example, the files might go in /var/adm/amanda/normal/ and

       As log files are no longer needed (no longer contain relevant
       information), Amanda cycles them out in various ways, depending on the
       type of file.

       Detailed information about amdump runs are stored in files named
       amdump.NN where NN is a sequence number, with 1 being the most recent
       file.  Amdump rotates these files each run, keeping roughly the last
       tapecycle (see below) worth of them.

       The file used by amreport to generate the mail summary is named
       log.YYYYMMDD.NN where YYYYMMDD is the datestamp of the start of the
       amdump run and NN is a sequence number started at 0. At the end of each
       amdump run, log files for runs whose tapes have been reused are renamed
       into a subdirectory of the main log directory (see the logdir parameter
       below) named oldlog. It is up to the Amanda administrator to remove
       them from this directory when desired.

       Index (backup image catalogue) files older than the full dump matching
       the oldest backup image for a given client and disk are removed by
       amdump at the end of each run.


       The disklist file determines which disks will be backed up by Amanda.
       The file usually contains one line per disk:

           hostname diskname [diskdevice] dumptype [spindle [interface] ]

       All pairs [ hostname diskname ] must be unique.

       Lines starting with # are ignored, as are blank lines. The fields have
       the following meanings:

           The name of the host to be backed up. If diskdevice refers to a PC
           share, this is the host Amanda will run the Samba smbclient program
           on to back up the share.

           The name of the disk (a label). In most case, you set your diskname
           to the diskdevice and you don’t set the diskdevice.  If you want
           multiple entries with the same diskdevice, you must set a different
           diskname for each entry. It’s the diskname that you use on the
           commandline for any Amanda command. Look at the example/disklist
           file for example.

           Default: same as diskname. The name of the disk device to be backed
           up. It may be a full device name, a device name without the /dev/
           prefix, e.g.  sd0a, or a mount point such as /usr.

           It may also refer to a PC share by starting the name with two
           (forward) slashes, e.g.  //some-pc/home. In this case, the program
           option in the associated dumptype must be entered as GNUTAR. It is
           the combination of the double slash disk name and program GNUTAR in
           the dumptype that triggers the use of Samba.

           Refers to a dumptype defined in the amanda.conf file.  Dumptypes
           specify backup related parameters, such as whether to compress the
           backups, whether to record backup results in /etc/dumpdates, the
           disk’s relative priority, etc.

           Default: -1. A number used to balance backup load on a host.
           Amanda will not run multiple backups at the same time on the same
           spindle, unless the spindle number is -1, which means there is no
           spindle restriction.

           Default: local. The name of a network interface definition in the
           amanda.conf file, used to balance network load.

       Instead of naming a dumptype, it is possible to define one in-line,
       enclosing dumptype options within curly braces, one per line, just like
       a dumptype definition in amanda.conf. Since pre-existing dumptypes are
       valid option names, this syntax may be used to customize dumptypes for
       particular disks.

       A line break must follow the left curly bracket.

       For instance, if a dumptype named normal is used for most disks, but
       use of the holding disk needs to be disabled for the file system that
       holds it, this would work instead of defining a new dumptype:

           hostname diskname [ diskdevice ] {
             holdingdisk never
           } [ spindle [ interface ] ]


       The tapelist file contains the list of tapes in active use. This file
       is maintained entirely by Amanda and should not be created or edited
       during normal operation. It contains lines of the form:

           YYYYMMDD label flags

       Where YYYYMMDD is the date the tape was written, label is a label for
       the tape as written by amlabel and flags tell Amanda whether the tape
       may be reused, etc (see the reuse options of amadmin).

       Amdump and amflush will refuse to write to an unlabeled tape, or to a
       labeled tape that is considered active. There must be more tapes in
       active rotation (see the tapecycle option) than there are runs in the
       backup cycle (see the dumpcycle option) to prevent overwriting a backup
       image that would be needed to do a full recovery.


       The normal value for the tapedev parameter, or for what a tape changer
       returns, is a full path name to a non-rewinding tape device, such as
       /dev/nst0 or /dev/rmt/0mn or /dev/nst0.1 or whatever conventions the
       operating system uses.  Amanda provides additional application level
       drivers that support non-traditional tape-simulations or features. To
       access a specific output driver, set tapedev (or configure your changer
       to return) a string of the form driver:driver-info where driver is one
       of the supported drivers and driver-info is optional additional
       information needed by the driver.

       The supported drivers are:

           This is the default driver. The driver-info is the tape device
           name. Entering

               tapedev /dev/rmt/0mn

           is really a short hand for

               tapedev tape:/dev/rmt/0mn

           This driver throws away anything written to it and returns EOF for
           any reads except a special case is made for reading a label, in
           which case a "fake" value is returned that Amanda checks for and
           allows through regardless of what you have set in labelstr. The
           driver-info field is not used and may be left blank:

               tapedev null:

           The length value from the associated tapetype is used to limit the
           amount of data written. When the limit is reached, the driver will
           simulate end of tape.

           This driver should only be used for debugging and testing, and
           probably only with the record option set to no.

           Redundant Array of Inexpensive (?)  Tapes. Reads and writes tapes
           mounted on multiple drives by spreading the data across N-1 drives
           and using the last drive for a checksum. See docs/RAIT for more

           The driver-info field describes the devices to use. Curly braces
           indicate multiple replacements in the string. For instance:

               tapedev rait:/dev/rmt/tps0d{4,5,6}n

           would use the following devices:

           /dev/rmt/tps0d4n /dev/rmt/tps0d5n /dev/rmt/tps0d6n

           This driver emulates a tape device with a set of files in a
           directory. The driver-info field must be the name of an existing
           directory. The driver will test for a subdirectory of that named
           data and return offline until it is present. When present, the
           driver uses two files in the data subdirectory for each tape file.
           One contains the actual data. The other contains record length

           The driver uses a file named status in the file device directory to
           hold driver status information, such as tape position. If not
           present, the driver will create it as though the device is rewound.

           The length value from the associated tapetype is used to limit the
           amount of data written. When the limit is reached, the driver will
           simulate end of tape.

           One way to use this driver with a real device such as a CD-writer
           is to create a directory for the file device and one or more other
           directories for the actual data. Create a symlink named data in the
           file directory to one of the data directories. Set the tapetype
           length to whatever the medium will hold.

           When Amanda fills the file device, remove the symlink and
           (optionally) create a new symlink to another data area. Use a CD
           writer software package to burn the image from the first data area.

           To read the CD, mount it and create the data symlink in the file
           device directory.


       Amanda processes on the tape server host run as the dumpuser user
       listed in amanda.conf. When they connect to a backup client, they do so
       with an Amanda-specific protocol. They do not, for instance, use rsh or
       ssh directly.

       On the client side, the amandad daemon validates the connection using
       one of several methods, depending on how it was compiled and on options
       it is passed:

           Even though Amanda does not use rsh, it can use .rhosts-style
           authentication and a .rhosts file.

           This is essentially the same as .rhosts authentication except a
           different file, with almost the same format, is used. This is the
           default mechanism built into Amanda.

           The format of the .amandahosts file is:

           hostname [ username [ service ]*]

           If username is ommitted, it defaults to the user running amandad,
           i.e. the user listed in the inetd or xinetd configuration file.

           The service is a list of the service the client is authorized to
           execute: amdump, noop, selfcheck, sendsize, sendbackup, amindexd,
           amidxtaped.  amdump is a shortcut for "noop selfcheck sendsize

           Amanda may use the Kerberos authentication system. Further
           information is in the docs/KERBEROS file that comes with an Amanda

           For Samba access, Amanda needs a file on the Samba server (which
           may or may not also be the tape server) named /etc/amandapass with
           share names, (clear text) passwords and (optional) domain names, in
           that order, one per line, whitespace separated. By default, the
           user used to connect to the PC is the same for all PC’s and is
           compiled into Amanda. It may be changed on a host by host basis by
           listing it first in the password field followed by a percent sign
           and then the password. For instance:

                 //some-pc/home normalpw
                 //another-pc/disk otheruser%otherpw
           With clear text passwords, this file should obviously be tightly
           protected. It only needs to be readable by the Amanda-user on the
           Samba server.

           You can find further information in the docs/SAMBA file that comes
           with an Amanda distribution.


       All host and disk arguments to programs are special expressions. The
       command applies to all disks that match your arguments. This section
       describes the matcher.

       The matcher matches by word, each word is a glob expression, words are
       separated by the separator ’.’ for host and ’/’ for disk. You can
       anchor the expression at left with a ’^’. You can anchor the expression
       at right with a ’$’. The matcher is case insensitive for host but is
       case sensitive for disk. A match succeeds if all words in your
       expression match contiguous words in the host or disk.

       .    word separator for a host
       /    word separator for a disk
       ^    anchor at left
       $    anchor at right
       ?    match exactly one
            character except the
       *    match zero or more
            characters except the
       **   match zero or more
            characters including the

       Some examples:

       ^hosta       hosta     
       sda*         /dev/sda1
       /opt         opt (disk)          opt (host)
       .opt.        opt (host)          opt (disk)
       /            /                   any other disk
       /usr         /usr
       /usr$        /usr                /usr/opt
       hosta        hosta               hostb
       host         host                hosta
       host?        hosta               host
       ho*na        hoina     
       ho**na       hoina


       A datestamp expression is a range expression where we only match the
       prefix. Leading ^ is removed. Trailing $ forces an exact match.

       |20001212-14 | match all dates beginning  |
       |            | with 20001212, 20001213 or |
       |            | 20001214                   |
       |20001212-4  | same as previous           |
       |20001212-24 | match all dates between    |
       |            | 20001212 and 20001224      |
       |2000121     | match all dates that start |
       |            | with 2000121               |
       |            | (20001210-20001219)        |
       |2           | match all dates that start |
       |            | with 2 (20000101-29991231) |
       |2000-10     | match all dates between    |
       |            | 20000101-20101231          |
       |200010$     | match only 200010          |


       A dump specification selects one or more dumps. It has the form
       [host][:disk][@datestamp], where each component is a pattern as
       described above. If a component is missing, it is treated as a
       wildcard. The characters ’:’, ’@’, and ’\’ may be escaped within any
       component by preceding them with a ’\’.

       Some examples:

       DUMPSPEC                          DESCRIPTION
       client17                          all dumps of client17
       @20080615                         All dumps on with
                                         datestamps matching
       webserver:/var/www                All dumps of /var/www on
                                         host webserver
       webserver:/var/www@200806150317   The dump of webserver with
                                         datestamp 200806150317
       :/var/www                         All dumps of /var/www on
                                         any host


       Most command allow to overwrite any configuration parameter on the
       command line with the -o option.

       -o NAME=value

       eg. -o runtapes=2

       eg. -o DUMPTYPE:no-compress:compress="server fast"

       eg. -o TAPETYPE:HP-DAT:length=2000m

       eg. -o INTERFACE:local:use="2000 kbps"


       James da Silva, <> : Original text

       Stefan G. Weichinger, <>, maintainer of the
       Amanda-documentation: XML-conversion, major update


       amadmin(8), amanda.conf(5), amanda-client.conf(5), amcheck(8),
       amcheckdb(8), amcleanup(8), amdd(8), amdump(8), amfetchdump(8)
       amflush(8), amgetconf(8), amlabel(8), ammt(8), amoverview(8),
       amplot(8), amrecover(8), amreport(8), amrestore(8), amrmtape(8),
       amstatus(8), amtape(8), amtapetype(8), amtoc(8), amverify(8),

                                  06/06/2007                         AMANDA(8)