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NAME

       modprobe — program to add and remove modules from the Linux Kernel

SYNOPSIS

       modprobe  [-v]   [-V]   [-C  config-file]   [-n]  [-i]  [-q]  [-Q]  [-o
       modulename]  [modulename]  [module parameters ...]

       modprobe [-r]  [-v]  [-n]  [-i]  [modulename ...]

       modprobe [-l]  [-t dirname]  [wildcard]

       modprobe [-c]

       modprobe [--dump-modversions]

Description

       modprobe intelligently adds or removes a module from the Linux  kernel:
       note  that  for  convenience, there is no difference between _ and - in
       module   names.    modprobe   looks    in    the    module    directory
       /lib/modules/uname -r‘ for all the modules and other files, except for
       the optional /etc/modprobe.conf configuration file and  /etc/modprobe.d
       directory     (see     modprobe.conf(5)).     All    files    in    the
       /etc/modprobe.d/arch/ directory are ignored.

       Note that this version of modprobe does not do anything to  the  module
       itself:  the  work of resolving symbols and understanding parameters is
       done inside the kernel.  So module failure is sometimes accompanied  by
       a kernel message: see dmesg(8).

       modprobe expects an up-to-date modules.dep file, as generated by depmod
       (see depmod(8)).  This file lists what other modules each module  needs
       (if  any),  and  modprobe uses this to add or remove these dependencies
       automatically.  See modules.dep(5)).

       If any arguments are given after the modulename, they are passed to the
       kernel (in addition to any options listed in the configuration file).

OPTIONS

       -v --verbose
                 Print  messages  about  what  the  program is doing.  Usually
                 modprobe only prints messages if something goes wrong.

                 This  option  is  passed  through  install         or  remove
                 commands  to  other modprobe commands in the MODPROBE_OPTIONS
                 environment variable.

       -C --config
                 This  option  overrides  the   default   configuration   file
                 (/etc/modprobe.conf or /etc/modprobe.d/ if that isn’t found).

                 This  option  is  passed  through  install         or  remove
                 commands  to  other modprobe commands in the MODPROBE_OPTIONS
                 environment variable.

       -c --showconfig
                 Dump out the configuration file and exit.

       -n --dry-run
                 This option does everything but actually insert or delete the
                 modules  (or  run  the install or remove commands).  Combined
                 with -v, it is useful for debugging problems.

       -i --ignore-install --ignore-remove
                 This option causes modprobe  to  ignore  install  and  remove
                 commands  in  the configuration file (if any), for the module
                 on the command line (any dependent modules are still  subject
                 to  commands  set  for  them in the configuration file).  See
                 modprobe.conf(5).

       -b --use-blacklist
                 This option causes modprobe to apply the  blacklist  commands
                 in  the  configuration file (if any) to module names as well.
                 It is usually used by udev(7).

       -q --quiet
                 Normally modprobe will report an error if you try  to  remove
                 or  insert  a  module  it  can’t  find (and isn’t an alias or
                 install/remove          command).  With this  flag,  modprobe
                           will simply ignore any bogus names (the kernel uses
                 this to  opportunistically  probe  for  modules  which  might
                 exist).

       -Q --silent
                 As -q with the addition that all warnings and errors are also
                 silenced.

       -r --remove
                 This option causes modprobe to remove, rather than  insert  a
                 module.   If  the  modules  it  depends  on  are also unused,
                 modprobe will try to remove  them,  too.   Unlike  insertion,
                 more than one module can be specified on the command line (it
                 does  not  make  sense  to  specify  module  parameters  when
                 removing modules).

                 There  is usually no reason to remove modules, but some buggy
                 modules require it.  Your kernel may not support  removal  of
                 modules.

       -V --version
                 Show  version  of  program,  and exit.  See below for caveats
                 when run on older kernels.

       -f --force
                 Try to strip any  versioning  information  from  the  module,
                 which  might otherwise stop it from loading: this is the same
                 as  using  both  --force-vermagic   and   --force-modversion.
                 Naturally,  these  checks  are  there for your protection, so
                 using this option is dangerous.

                 This applies to any modules inserted:  both  the  module  (or
                 alias) on the command line, and any modules it depends on.

       --force-vermagic
                 Every  module  contains  a  small string containing important
                 information, such as the kernel and compiler versions.  If  a
                 module  fails  to  load  and  the  kernel  complains that the
                 "version magic" doesn’t match, you can  use  this  option  to
                 remove   it.    Naturally,  this  check  is  there  for  your
                 protection, so this using option is dangerous.

                 This applies to any modules inserted:  both  the  module  (or
                 alias) on the command line, and any modules it depends on.

       --force-modversion
                 When  modules  are  compiled  with  CONFIG_MODVERSIONS set, a
                 section is created detailing the versions of every  interface
                 used  by  (or  supplied by) the module.  If a module fails to
                 load and the kernel complains that the module disagrees about
                 a version of some interface, you can use "--force-modversion"
                 to remove the  version  information  altogether.   Naturally,
                 this check is there for your protection, so using this option
                 is dangerous.

                 This applies any modules inserted: both the module (or alias)
                 on the command line, and any modules it depends on.

       -l --list List  all  modules  matching the given wildcard (or "*" if no
                 wildcard is given).  This option is  provided  for  backwards
                 compatibility:   see  find(1)  and  basename(1)  for  a  more
                 flexible alternative.

       -a --all  Insert all module names on the command line.

       -t --type Restrict -l to modules in directories  matching  the  dirname
                 given.   This option is provided for backwards compatibility:
                 see  find(1)         and  basename(1)  or  a  more   flexible
                 alternative.

       -s --syslog
                 This  option  causes  any  error  messages  to go through the
                 syslog mechanism (as LOG_DAEMON with level LOG_NOTICE) rather
                 than  to  standard error.  This is also automatically enabled
                 when stderr is unavailable.

                 This  option  is  passed  through  install         or  remove
                 commands  to  other modprobe commands in the MODPROBE_OPTIONS
                 environment variable.

       --set-version
                 Set the kernel version, rather than using uname(2) to  decide
                 on  the  kernel  version  (which  dictates  where to find the
                 modules).  This also disables backwards compatibility  checks
                 (so modprobe.old(8) will never be run).

       --show-depends
                 List  the  dependencies of a module (or alias), including the
                 module itself.  This  produces  a  (possibly  empty)  set  of
                 module  filenames, one per line, each starting with "insmod".
                 Install commands which apply are shown prefixed by "install".
                 It  does  not  run  any  of  the install commands.  Note that
                 modinfo(8)         can be used to extract dependencies  of  a
                 module  from  the module itself, but knows nothing of aliases
                 or install commands.

       -o --name This option  tries  to  rename  the  module  which  is  being
                 inserted  into the kernel.  Some testing modules can usefully
                 be inserted multiple times, but the kernel  refuses  to  have
                 two  modules  of the same name.  Normally, modules should not
                 require multiple insertions, as that would make them  useless
                 if there were no module support.

       --first-time
                 Normally,  modprobe  will succeed (and do nothing) if told to
                 insert a module which is already present, or remove a  module
                 which  isn’t  present.  This is backwards compatible with the
                 modutils,  and  ideal  for  simple  scripts.   However,  more
                 complicated  scripts  often  want  to  know  whether modprobe
                 really did something: this option  makes  modprobe  fail  for
                 that case.

       --dump-modversions
                 Print out a list of module versioning information required by
                 a module. This option is commonly used  by  distributions  in
                 order  to  package  up  a  Linuxx  kernel module using module
                 versioning deps.

BACKWARDS COMPATIBILITY

       This version of modprobe is  for  kernels  2.5.48  and  above.   If  it
       detects  a kernel with support for old-style modules (for which much of
       the work was done in userspace), it will attempt to run modprobe.old in
       its place, so it is completely transparent to the user.

ENVIRONMENT

       The  MODPROBE_OPTIONS  environment  variable  can  also be used to pass
       arguments to modprobe.

COPYRIGHT

       This manual page Copyright 2002, Rusty Russell, IBM Corporation.

SEE ALSO

       modprobe.conf(5), lsmod(8), modprobe.old(8)

                                                                   modprobe(8)