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printf, uprintf, tprintf, log - formatted output conversion
printf(const char *fmt, ...);
tprintf(struct proc *p, int pri, const char *fmt, ...);
uprintf(const char *fmt, ...);
log(int pri, const char *fmt, ...);
The printf(9) family of functions are similar to the printf(3) family of
functions. The different functions each use a different output stream.
The uprintf() function outputs to the current process’ controlling tty,
while printf() writes to the console as well as to the logging facility.
The tprintf() function outputs to the tty associated with the process p
and the logging facility if pri is not -1. The log() function sends the
message to the kernel logging facility, using the log level as indicated
Each of these related functions use the fmt parameter in the same manner
as printf(3). However, printf(9) adds two other conversion specifiers.
The %b identifier expects two arguments: an int and a char *. These are
used as a register value and a print mask for decoding bitmasks. The
print mask is made up of two parts: the base and the arguments. The base
value is the output base expressed as an integer value; for example, \10
gives octal and \20 gives hexadecimal. The arguments are made up of a
sequence of bit identifiers. Each bit identifier begins with an integer
value which is the number of the bit (starting from 1) this identifier
describes. The rest of the identifier is a string of characters
containing the name of the bit. The string is terminated by either the
bit number at the start of the next bit identifier or NUL for the last
The %D identifier is meant to assist in hexdumps. It requires two
arguments: a u_char * pointer and a char * string. The memory pointed to
be the pointer is output in hexadecimal one byte at a time. The string
is used as a delimiter between individual bytes. If present, a width
directive will specify the number of bytes to display. By default, 16
bytes of data are output.
The log() function uses syslog(3) level values LOG_DEBUG through
LOG_EMERG for its pri parameter (mistakenly called ‘priority’ here).
Alternatively, if a pri of -1 is given, the message will be appended to
the last log message started by a previous call to log(). As these
messages are generated by the kernel itself, the facility will always be
The printf() and the uprintf() functions return the number of characters
This example demonstrates the use of the %b and %D conversion specifiers.
printf("reg=%b\n", 3, "\10\2BITTWO\1BITONE\n");
printf("out: %4D\n", "AAAA", ":");
will produce the following output:
log(LOG_DEBUG, "%s%d: been there.\n", sc->sc_name, sc->sc_unit);
will add the appropriate debug message at priority “kern.debug” to the