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       strtoul - convert a string to an unsigned long integer.


       #include <stdlib.h>

       unsigned long int strtoul(const char *nptr, char **endptr,
       int base)


       The  strtoul() function converts the string in nptr to an unsigned long
       integer value according to the given base, which must be between 2  and
       36 inclusive, or be the special value 0.

       The  string  must  begin  with  an  arbitrary amount of white space (as
       determined by isspace(3)) followed by a  single  optional  ‘+’  or  ‘-’
       sign.   If  base  is  zero  or  16,  the string may then include a ‘0x’
       prefix, and the number will be read in base 16; otherwise, a zero  base
       is  taken  as  10  (decimal) unless the next character is ‘0’, in which
       case it is taken as 8 (octal).

       The remainder of the string is converted to an unsigned long int  value
       in  the  obvious manner, stopping at the first character which is not a
       valid digit in the given base.  (In bases above 10, the letter  ‘A’  in
       either  upper  or  lower  case represents 10, ‘B’ represents 11, and so
       forth, with ‘Z’ representing 35.)

       If endptr is not NULL,  strtoul()  stores  the  address  of  the  first
       invalid  character  in  *endptr.   If  there  were  no  digits  at all,
       strtoul() stores the original value of  nptr  in  *endptr.   (Thus,  if
       *nptr  is not ‘\0’ but **endptr is ‘\0’ on return, the entire string is


       The strtoul() function returns either the result of the conversion  or,
       if  there  was  a leading minus sign, the negation of the result of the
       conversion, unless the original (non-negated) value would overflow;  in
       the  latter  case,  strtoul()  returns  ULONG_MAX  and  sets the global
       variable errno to ERANGE.


       ERANGE The given string was out of range; the value converted has  been


       SVID 3, BSD 4.3, ISO 9899


       atof(3), atoi(3), atol(3), strtod(3), strtol(3)


       Ignores the current locale.