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NAME

       mmap, munmap - map or unmap files or devices into memory

SYNOPSIS

       #include <sys/mman.h>

       void *mmap(void *addr, size_t length, int prot, int flags,
                  int fd, off_t offset);
       int munmap(void *addr, size_t length);

DESCRIPTION

       mmap()  creates  a  new  mapping  in  the  virtual address space of the
       calling process.  The starting address for the new mapping is specified
       in addr.  The length argument specifies the length of the mapping.

       If addr is NULL, then the kernel chooses the address at which to create
       the mapping; this is  the  most  portable  method  of  creating  a  new
       mapping.  If addr is not NULL, then the kernel takes it as a hint about
       where to place the mapping; on Linux, the mapping will be created at  a
       nearby  page  boundary.   The address of the new mapping is returned as
       the result of the call.

       The contents of a file mapping (as opposed to an anonymous mapping; see
       MAP_ANONYMOUS  below),  are  initialized using length bytes starting at
       offset offset in the file (or other object) referred  to  by  the  file
       descriptor  fd.  offset must be a multiple of the page size as returned
       by sysconf(_SC_PAGE_SIZE).

       The prot argument  describes  the  desired  memory  protection  of  the
       mapping  (and must not conflict with the open mode of the file).  It is
       either PROT_NONE or the bitwise OR of one  or  more  of  the  following
       flags:

       PROT_EXEC  Pages may be executed.

       PROT_READ  Pages may be read.

       PROT_WRITE Pages may be written.

       PROT_NONE  Pages may not be accessed.

       The  flags  argument  determines  whether  updates  to  the mapping are
       visible to other processes mapping the same region, and whether updates
       are   carried  through  to  the  underlying  file.   This  behavior  is
       determined by including exactly one of the following values in flags:

       MAP_SHARED Share this mapping.  Updates to the mapping are  visible  to
                  other  processes that map this file, and are carried through
                  to the underlying  file.   The  file  may  not  actually  be
                  updated until msync(2) or munmap() is called.

       MAP_PRIVATE
                  Create  a  private  copy-on-write  mapping.   Updates to the
                  mapping are not visible to other processes mapping the  same
                  file,  and  are  not carried through to the underlying file.
                  It is unspecified whether changes made to the file after the
                  mmap() call are visible in the mapped region.

       Both of these flags are described in POSIX.1-2001.

       In addition, zero or more of the following values can be ORed in flags:

       MAP_32BIT (since Linux 2.4.20, 2.6)
              Put the mapping into  the  first  2  Gigabytes  of  the  process
              address  space.   This  flag  is  only  supported on x86-64, for
              64-bit programs.  It was added to  allow  thread  stacks  to  be
              allocated somewhere in the first 2GB of memory, so as to improve
              context-switch performance  on  some  early  64-bit  processors.
              Modern   x86-64  processors  no  longer  have  this  performance
              problem, so use of this flag is not required on  those  systems.
              The MAP_32BIT flag is ignored when MAP_FIXED is set.

       MAP_ANON
              Synonym for MAP_ANONYMOUS.  Deprecated.

       MAP_ANONYMOUS
              The  mapping  is  not  backed  by  any  file;  its  contents are
              initialized to zero.  The fd and offset arguments  are  ignored;
              however,   some   implementations   require   fd  to  be  -1  if
              MAP_ANONYMOUS  (or  MAP_ANON)   is   specified,   and   portable
              applications  should  ensure  this.  The use of MAP_ANONYMOUS in
              conjunction with MAP_SHARED is only  supported  on  Linux  since
              kernel 2.4.

       MAP_DENYWRITE
              This  flag  is ignored.  (Long ago, it signaled that attempts to
              write to the underlying file should  fail  with  ETXTBUSY.   But
              this was a source of denial-of-service attacks.)

       MAP_EXECUTABLE
              This flag is ignored.

       MAP_FILE
              Compatibility flag.  Ignored.

       MAP_FIXED
              Don’t  interpret  addr  as  a hint: place the mapping at exactly
              that address.  addr must be a multiple of the page size.  If the
              memory  region  specified  by addr and len overlaps pages of any
              existing mapping(s), then the overlapped part  of  the  existing
              mapping(s)  will  be discarded.  If the specified address cannot
              be used, mmap() will fail.  Because requiring  a  fixed  address
              for  a  mapping  is  less  portable,  the  use of this option is
              discouraged.

       MAP_GROWSDOWN
              Used for stacks.  Indicates to the kernel virtual memory  system
              that the mapping should extend downwards in memory.

       MAP_LOCKED (since Linux 2.5.37)
              Lock the pages of the mapped region into memory in the manner of
              mlock(2).  This flag is ignored in older kernels.

       MAP_NONBLOCK (since Linux 2.5.46)
              Only meaningful in conjunction with MAP_POPULATE.  Don’t perform
              read-ahead:  only  create page tables entries for pages that are
              already present in RAM.  Since Linux 2.6.23,  this  flag  causes
              MAP_POPULATE   to  do  nothing.   One  day  the  combination  of
              MAP_POPULATE and MAP_NONBLOCK may be re-implemented.

       MAP_NORESERVE
              Do not reserve swap space for this mapping.  When swap space  is
              reserved,  one  has  the guarantee that it is possible to modify
              the mapping.  When swap space is  not  reserved  one  might  get
              SIGSEGV  upon  a  write if no physical memory is available.  See
              also the discussion of the  file  /proc/sys/vm/overcommit_memory
              in  proc(5).   In  kernels before 2.6, this flag only had effect
              for private writable mappings.

       MAP_POPULATE (since Linux 2.5.46)
              Populate (prefault) page tables  for  a  mapping.   For  a  file
              mapping,  this causes read-ahead on the file.  Later accesses to
              the mapping will not be blocked by page faults.  MAP_POPULATE is
              only supported for private mappings since Linux 2.6.23.

       Of  the  above  flags,  only  MAP_FIXED  is  specified in POSIX.1-2001.
       However, most  systems  also  support  MAP_ANONYMOUS  (or  its  synonym
       MAP_ANON).

       MAP_STACK (since Linux 2.6.27)
              Allocate  the  mapping  at  an address suitable for a process or
              thread stack.  This flag is currently a no-op, but  is  used  in
              the glibc threading implementation so that if some architectures
              require special treatment for  stack  allocations,  support  can
              later be transparently implemented for glibc.

       Some systems document the additional flags MAP_AUTOGROW, MAP_AUTORESRV,
       MAP_COPY, and MAP_LOCAL.

       Memory mapped by mmap() is preserved  across  fork(2),  with  the  same
       attributes.

       A file is mapped in multiples of the page size.  For a file that is not
       a multiple of the page  size,  the  remaining  memory  is  zeroed  when
       mapped, and writes to that region are not written out to the file.  The
       effect of changing the size of the underlying file of a mapping on  the
       pages  that  correspond  to  added  or  removed  regions of the file is
       unspecified.

   munmap()
       The munmap() system call deletes the mappings for the specified address
       range,  and  causes further references to addresses within the range to
       generate invalid memory references.  The region is  also  automatically
       unmapped  when  the  process is terminated.  On the other hand, closing
       the file descriptor does not unmap the region.

       The address addr must be a  multiple  of  the  page  size.   All  pages
       containing  a  part of the indicated range are unmapped, and subsequent
       references to these pages will generate SIGSEGV.  It is not an error if
       the indicated range does not contain any mapped pages.

   Timestamps changes for file-backed mappings
       For file-backed mappings, the st_atime field for the mapped file may be
       updated at any time between the mmap() and the corresponding unmapping;
       the  first  reference  to a mapped page will update the field if it has
       not been already.

       The st_ctime and st_mtime field for a file mapped with  PROT_WRITE  and
       MAP_SHARED  will  be  updated  after  a write to the mapped region, and
       before a subsequent msync(2) with the MS_SYNC or MS_ASYNC flag, if  one
       occurs.

RETURN VALUE

       On success, mmap() returns a pointer to the mapped area.  On error, the
       value MAP_FAILED (that is, (void *) -1) is returned, and errno  is  set
       appropriately.   On  success,  munmap()  returns  0, on failure -1, and
       errno is set (probably to EINVAL).

ERRORS

       EACCES A file descriptor refers to a non-regular file.  Or  MAP_PRIVATE
              was  requested,  but  fd is not open for reading.  Or MAP_SHARED
              was requested and PROT_WRITE is set,  but  fd  is  not  open  in
              read/write (O_RDWR) mode.  Or PROT_WRITE is set, but the file is
              append-only.

       EAGAIN The file has been locked, or too much  memory  has  been  locked
              (see setrlimit(2)).

       EBADF  fd  is  not  a  valid file descriptor (and MAP_ANONYMOUS was not
              set).

       EINVAL We don’t like addr, length, or offset (e.g., they are too large,
              or not aligned on a page boundary).

       EINVAL (since Linux 2.6.12) length was 0.

       EINVAL flags  contained neither MAP_PRIVATE or MAP_SHARED, or contained
              both of these values.

       ENFILE The system limit on the total number  of  open  files  has  been
              reached.

       ENODEV The  underlying  file  system  of  the  specified  file does not
              support memory mapping.

       ENOMEM No memory is available,  or  the  process’s  maximum  number  of
              mappings would have been exceeded.

       EPERM  The prot argument asks for PROT_EXEC but the mapped area belongs
              to a file on a file system that was mounted no-exec.

       ETXTBSY
              MAP_DENYWRITE was set but the object specified by fd is open for
              writing.

       Use of a mapped region can result in these signals:

       SIGSEGV
              Attempted write into a region mapped as read-only.

       SIGBUS Attempted  access  to  a  portion  of  the  buffer that does not
              correspond to the file (for example, beyond the end of the file,
              including  the  case  where  another  process  has truncated the
              file).

CONFORMING TO

       SVr4, 4.4BSD, POSIX.1-2001.

AVAILABILITY

       On POSIX systems on which mmap(), msync(2) and munmap() are  available,
       _POSIX_MAPPED_FILES is defined in <unistd.h> to a value greater than 0.
       (See also sysconf(3).)

NOTES

       Since kernel 2.4, this system call has  been  superseded  by  mmap2(2).
       Nowadays,  the  glibc  mmap()  wrapper function invokes mmap2(2) with a
       suitably adjusted value for offset.

       On  some  hardware  architectures  (e.g.,  i386),  PROT_WRITE   implies
       PROT_READ.   It  is  architecture  dependent  whether PROT_READ implies
       PROT_EXEC or not.  Portable programs should  always  set  PROT_EXEC  if
       they intend to execute code in the new mapping.

       The  portable  way  to create a mapping is to specify addr as 0 (NULL),
       and omit MAP_FIXED from flags.  In this case, the  system  chooses  the
       address  for  the  mapping; the address is chosen so as not to conflict
       with any existing mapping, and will not be 0.  If the MAP_FIXED flag is
       specified,  and  addr  is  0  (NULL), then the mapped address will be 0
       (NULL).

BUGS

       On Linux there are no  guarantees  like  those  suggested  above  under
       MAP_NORESERVE.   By  default,  any  process can be killed at any moment
       when the system runs out of memory.

       In kernels before 2.6.7, the MAP_POPULATE flag only has effect if  prot
       is specified as PROT_NONE.

       SUSv3  specifies  that  mmap() should fail if length is 0.  However, in
       kernels before 2.6.12, mmap() succeeded in this case:  no  mapping  was
       created  and the call returned addr.  Since kernel 2.6.12, mmap() fails
       with the error EINVAL for this case.

EXAMPLE

       The following program prints part of the file specified  in  its  first
       command-line  argument  to  standard  output.  The range of bytes to be
       printed is specified via offset and length values  in  the  second  and
       third  command-line arguments.  The program creates a memory mapping of
       the required pages of the file and then uses  write(2)  to  output  the
       desired bytes.

       #include <sys/mman.h>
       #include <sys/stat.h>
       #include <fcntl.h>
       #include <stdio.h>
       #include <stdlib.h>
       #include <unistd.h>

       #define handle_error(msg) \
           do { perror(msg); exit(EXIT_FAILURE); } while (0)

       int
       main(int argc, char *argv[])
       {
           char *addr;
           int fd;
           struct stat sb;
           off_t offset, pa_offset;
           size_t length;
           ssize_t s;

           if (argc < 3 || argc > 4) {
               fprintf(stderr, "%s file offset [length]\n", argv[0]);
               exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
           }

           fd = open(argv[1], O_RDONLY);
           if (fd == -1)
               handle_error("open");

           if (fstat(fd, &sb) == -1)           /* To obtain file size */
               handle_error("fstat");

           offset = atoi(argv[2]);
           pa_offset = offset & ~(sysconf(_SC_PAGE_SIZE) - 1);
               /* offset for mmap() must be page aligned */

           if (offset >= sb.st_size) {
               fprintf(stderr, "offset is past end of file\n");
               exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
           }

           if (argc == 4) {
               length = atoi(argv[3]);
               if (offset + length > sb.st_size)
                   length = sb.st_size - offset;
                       /* Can't display bytes past end of file */

           } else {    /* No length arg ==> display to end of file */
               length = sb.st_size - offset;
           }

           addr = mmap(NULL, length + offset - pa_offset, PROT_READ,
                       MAP_PRIVATE, fd, pa_offset);
           if (addr == MAP_FAILED)
               handle_error("mmap");

           s = write(STDOUT_FILENO, addr + offset - pa_offset, length);
           if (s != length) {
               if (s == -1)
                   handle_error("write");

               fprintf(stderr, "partial write");
               exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
           }

           exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
       } /* main */

SEE ALSO

       getpagesize(2), mincore(2), mlock(2), mmap2(2), mprotect(2), mremap(2),
       msync(2),  remap_file_pages(2),  setrlimit(2),  shmat(2),  shm_open(3),
       shm_overview(7)
       B.O. Gallmeister, POSIX.4, O’Reilly, pp. 128-129 and 389-391.

COLOPHON

       This  page  is  part of release 3.15 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, and information about reporting  bugs,  can
       be found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.