Provided by: graphicsmagick_1.1.11-3.2_i386 bug

SYNOPSIS

       gm animate [ options ... ] file [ [ options ... ] file ... ]

       gm composite [ options ... ] change-image  base-image  [  mask-image  ]
       output-image

       gm conjure [ options ] script.msl [ [ options ] script.msl ]

       gm convert [ [ options ... ] [ input-file ...  ] ... [ output-file ] ]

       gm display [ options ... ] file ...  [ [options ... ]file ... ]

       gm identify file [ file ... ]

       gm import [ options ... ] file

       gm mogrify [ options ... ] file ...

       gm  montage  [  options ... ] file [ [ options ... ] file ... ] output-
       file

DESCRIPTION

        GraphicsMagick’s gm provides a suite  of  command-line  utilities  for
       creating, converting, editing, and displaying images:

       Gm  display  is a machine architecture independent image processing and
       display facility. It can display an image on  any  workstation  display
       running an X server.

       Gm  import  reads  an  image from any visible window on an X server and
       outputs it as an image file. You  can  capture  a  single  window,  the
       entire screen, or any rectangular portion of the screen.

       Gm  montage  creates  a composite by combining several separate images.
       The images are tiled on the composite image with the name of the  image
       optionally appearing just below the individual tile.

       Gm  convert  converts an input file using one image format to an output
       file with  the  same  or  differing  image  format  while  applying  an
       arbitrary number of image transformations.

       Gm  mogrify  transforms  an  image  or  a  sequence  of  images.  These
       transforms include image scaling, image rotation, color reduction,  and
       others. The transmogrified image overwrites the original image.

       Gm  identify  describes  the  format and characteristics of one or more
       image files. It will also report if an image is incomplete or  corrupt.

       Gm  composite  composites  images (blends or merges images together) to
       create new images.

       Gm conjure interprets and executes  scripts  in  the  Magick  Scripting
       Language (MSL).

       The GraphicsMagick utilities recognize the following image formats:

       Name   Mode Description
        o  8BIM      *rw- Photoshop resource format
        o  AFM       *r-- TrueType font
        o  APP1      *rw- Photoshop resource format
        o  ART       *r-- PF1: 1st Publisher
        o  AVI       *r-- Audio/Visual Interleaved
        o  AVS       *rw+ AVS X image
        o  BIE       *rw- Joint Bi-level Image experts Group
                          interchange format
        o  BMP       *rw+ Microsoft Windows bitmap image
        o  CAPTION   *r+  Caption (requires separate size info)
        o  CMYK      *rw- Raw cyan, magenta, yellow, and black
                          samples (8 or 16 bits, depending on
                          the image depth)
        o  CMYKA     *rw- Raw cyan, magenta, yellow, black, and
                          matte samples (8 or 16 bits, depending
                          on the image depth)
        o  CUT       *r-- DR Halo
        o  DCM       *r-- Digital Imaging and Communications in
                           Medicine image
        o  DCX       *rw+ ZSoft IBM PC multi-page Paintbrush
        o  DIB       *rw+ Microsoft Windows bitmap image
        o  DPS       *r-- Display PostScript
        o  DPX       *r-- Digital Moving Picture Exchange
        o  EPDF      *rw- Encapsulated Portable Document Format
        o  EPI       *rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript
                          Interchange format
        o  EPS       *rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript
        o  EPS2      *-w- Adobe Level II Encapsulated PostScript
        o  EPS3      *-w- Adobe Level III Encapsulated PostScript
        o  EPSF      *rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript
        o  EPSI      *rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript
                          Interchange format
        o  EPT       *rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript with TIFF
                          preview
        o  FAX       *rw+ Group 3 FAX
        o  FILE      *r-- Uniform Resource Locator
        o  FITS      *rw- Flexible Image Transport System
        o  FPX       *rw- FlashPix Format
        o  FTP       *r-- Uniform Resource Locator
        o  G3        *rw- Group 3 FAX
        o  GIF       *rw+ CompuServe graphics interchange format
        o  GIF87     *rw- CompuServe graphics interchange format
                          (version 87a)
        o  GRADIENT  *r-- Gradual passing from one shade to
                          another
        o  GRANITE   *r-- Granite texture
        o  GRAY      *rw+ Raw gray samples (8 or 16 bits,
                          depending on the image depth)
        o  H         *rw- Internal format
        o  HDF       -rw+ Hierarchical Data Format
        o  HISTOGRAM *-w- Histogram of the image
        o  HTM       *-w- Hypertext Markup Language and a
                          client-side image map
        o  HTML      *-w- Hypertext Markup Language and a
                          client-side image map
        o  HTTP      *r-- Uniform Resource Locator
        o  ICB       *rw+ Truevision Targa image
        o  ICM       *rw- ICC Color Profile
        o  ICO       *r-- Microsoft icon
        o  ICON      *r-- Microsoft icon
        o  IPTC      *rw- IPTC Newsphoto
        o  JBG       *rw+ Joint Bi-level Image experts Group
                          interchange format
        o  JBIG      *rw+ Joint Bi-level Image experts Group
                          interchange format
        o  JP2       *rw- JPEG-2000 JP2 File Format Syntax
        o  JPC       *rw- JPEG-2000 Code Stream Syntax
        o  JPEG      *rw- Joint Photographic Experts Group
                          JFIF format
        o  JPG       *rw- Joint Photographic Experts Group
                          JFIF format
        o  LABEL     *r-- Text image format
        o  LOGO      *rw- GraphicsMagick Logo
        o  M2V       *rw+ MPEG-2 Video Stream
        o  MAP       *rw- Colormap intensities (8 or 16 bits,
                          depending on the image depth) and
                          indices (8 or 16 bits, depending
                          on whether colors exceeds 256).
        o  MAT       *-w+ MATLAB image format
        o  MATTE     *-w+ MATTE format
        o  MIFF      *rw+ Magick image format
        o  MNG       *rw+ Multiple-image Network Graphics
        o  MONO      *rw- Bi-level bitmap in least-significant-
                          -byte-first order
        o  MPC       -rw- Magick Persistent Cache image format
        o  MPEG      *rw+ MPEG-1 Video Stream
        o  MPG       *rw+ MPEG-1 Video Stream
        o  MPR       *r-- Magick Persistent Registry
        o  MSL       *r-- Magick Scripting Language
        o  MTV       *rw+ MTV Raytracing image format
        o  MVG       *rw- Magick Vector Graphics
        o  NETSCAPE  *r-- Netscape 216 color cube
        o  NULL      *r-- Constant image of uniform color
        o  OTB       *rw- On-the-air bitmap
        o  P7        *rw+ Xv thumbnail format
        o  PAL       *rw- 16bit/pixel interleaved YUV
        o  PALM      *rw- Palm Pixmap format
        o  PBM       *rw+ Portable bitmap format (black and white)
        o  PCD       *rw- Photo CD
        o  PCDS      *rw- Photo CD
        o  PCL       *-w- Page Control Language
        o  PCT       *rw- Apple Macintosh QuickDraw/PICT
        o  PCX       *rw- ZSoft IBM PC Paintbrush
        o  PDB       *r-- Pilot Image Format
        o  PDF       *rw+ Portable Document Format
        o  PFA       *r-- TrueType font
        o  PFB       *r-- TrueType font
        o  PFM       *r-- TrueType font
        o  PGM       *rw+ Portable graymap format (gray scale)
        o  PICON     *rw- Personal Icon
        o  PICT      *rw- Apple Macintosh QuickDraw/PICT
        o  PIX       *r-- Alias/Wavefront RLE image format
        o  PLASMA    *r-- Plasma fractal image
        o  PM        *rw- X Windows system pixmap (color)
        o  PNG       *rw- Portable Network Graphics
        o  PNM       *rw+ Portable anymap
        o  PPM       *rw+ Portable pixmap format (color)
        o  PREVIEW   *-w- Show a preview an image enhancement,
                          effect, or f/x
        o  PS        *rw+ Adobe PostScript
        o  PS2       *-w+ Adobe Level II PostScript
        o  PS3       *-w+ Adobe Level III PostScript
        o  PSD       *rw- Adobe Photoshop bitmap
        o  PTIF      *rw- Pyramid encoded TIFF
        o  PWP       *r-- Seattle Film Works
        o  RAS       *rw+ SUN Rasterfile
        o  RGB       *rw+ Raw red, green, and blue samples (8 or
                          16 bits, depending on the image depth)
        o  RGBA      *rw+ Raw red, green, blue, and matte samples
                          (8 or 16 bits, depending on the image
                          depth)
        o  RLA       *r-- Alias/Wavefront image
        o  RLE       *r-- Utah Run length encoded image
        o  ROSE      *rw- 70x46 Truecolor test image
        o  SCT       *r-- Scitex HandShake
        o  SFW       *r-- Seattle Film Works
        o  SGI       *rw+ Irix RGB image
        o  SHTML     *-w- Hypertext Markup Language and a
                          client-side image map
        o  STEGANO   *r-- Steganographic image
        o  SUN       *rw+ SUN Rasterfile
        o  SVG       *rw+ Scalable Vector Gaphics
        o  TEXT      *rw+ Raw text
        o  TGA       *rw+ Truevision Targa image
        o  TIF       *rw+ Tagged Image File Format
        o  TIFF      *rw+ Tagged Image File Format
        o  TILE      *r-- Tile image with a texture
        o  TIM       *r-- PSX TIM
        o  TTF       *r-- TrueType font
        o  TXT       *rw+ Raw text
        o  UIL       *-w- X-Motif UIL table
        o  UYVY      *rw- 16bit/pixel interleaved YUV
        o  VDA       *rw+ Truevision Targa image
        o  VICAR     *rw- VICAR rasterfile format
        o  VID       *rw+ Visual Image Directory
        o  VIFF      *rw+ Khoros Visualization image
        o  VST       *rw+ Truevision Targa image
        o  WBMP      *rw- Wireless Bitmap (level 0) image
        o  WMF       *r-- Windows Metafile
        o  WPG       *r-- Word Perfect Graphics
        o  X         *rw- X Image
        o  XBM       *rw- X Windows system bitmap (black
                          and white)
        o  XC        *r-- Constant image uniform color
        o  XCF       *r-- GIMP image
        o  XML       *r-- Scalable Vector Gaphics
        o  XPM       *rw- X Windows system pixmap (color)
        o  XV        *rw+ Khoros Visualization image
        o  XWD       *rw- X Windows system window dump (color)
        o  YUV       *rw- CCIR 601 4:1:1

           Modes:
                     *    Native blob support
                     r    Read
                     w    Write
                     +    Multi-image

       Support  for  some  of  these  formats  require  additional programs or
       libraries.  README tells where to find this software.

       Note, a format delineated with + means that if more than one  image  is
       specified, it is composited into a single multi-image file. Use +adjoin
       if you want a single image produced for each frame.

       Your installation might not support all of the formats in the list.  To
       get  an  up-to-date listing of the formats supported by your particular
       configuration, run "convert -list format".

       Raw images are expected to  have  one  byte  per  pixel  unless  gm  is
       compiled  in  16-bit  mode  or  in  32-bit  mode. Here, the raw data is
       expected to be stored two or four bytes  per  pixel,  respectively,  in
       most-significant-byte-first  order.  You can tell if gm was compiled in
       16-bit mode by typing "gm version" without any options, and looking for
       "Q:16" in the first line of output.

FILES AND FORMATS

       By  default,  the image format is determined by its magic number, i.e.,
       the first few bytes of the file. To specify a particular image  format,
       precede   the   filename   with  an  image  format  name  and  a  colon
       (i.e.ps:image) or specify the image type as the filename  suffix.   The
       magic  number  takes precedence over the filename suffix and the prefix
       takes precedence over the magic number and the suffix in  input  files.
       The  prefix  takes precedence over the filename suffix in output files.
       To read the "built-in" formats (GRANITE, H, LOGO, NETSCAPE, PLASMA, and
       ROSE)  use a prefix (including the colon) without a filename or suffix.
       To read the XC format, follow the colon with a color specification.  To
       read  the CAPTION format, follow the colon with a text string or with a
       filename prefixed with the at symbol (@).

       When you specify X  as  your  image  type,  the  filename  has  special
       meaning.  It specifies an X window by id, name, or root. If no filename
       is specified, the window is selected  by  clicking  the  mouse  in  the
       desired window.

       Specify  input_file  as  -  for  standard  input,  output_file as - for
       standard output.  If input_file has the extension .Z or .gz,  the  file
       is uncompressed with uncompress or gunzip respectively.  If output_file
       has the extension .Z or .gz, the file is compressed using with compress
       or gzip respectively.

       Finally,  when  running  on  platforms that allow it, precede the image
       file name with | to pipe to or from a system command (this  feature  is
       not  available  on VMS, Win32 and Macintosh platforms). Use a backslash
       or quotation marks to prevent your shell from interpreting the |.

       Use an optional index enclosed in brackets after an input file name  to
       specify  a  desired  subimage  of  a multi-resolution image format like
       Photo CD (e.g. "img0001.pcd[4]") or  a  range  for  MPEG  images  (e.g.
       "video.mpg[50-75]").  A  subimage  specification  can be disjoint (e.g.
       "image.tiff[2,7,4]").  For  raw  images,  specify  a  subimage  with  a
       geometry (e.g. -size 640x512 "image.rgb[320x256+50+50]").  Surround the
       image name with quotation marks to prevent your shell from interpreting
       the  square  brackets.  Single images are written with the filename you
       specify. However, multi-part  images  (e.g.,  a  multi-page  PostScript
       document with +adjoin specified) are written with the filename followed
       by a period (.)  and the scene number. You can change this behavior  by
       embedding a %d format specification in the file name. For example,

           image%02d.miff

       writes   files   image00.miff,   image01.miff,   etc.   Only  a  single
       specification is allowed within an output filename. If  more  than  one
       specification is present, it will be ignored.

       When  running  a commandline utility, you can prepend an at sign @ to a
       filename to read a list of image filenames  from  that  file.  This  is
       convenient in the event you have too many image filenames to fit on the
       command line.

OPTIONS

       Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify  on
       the  command line remains in effect for the set of images that follows,
       until the set is terminated by the appearance of any option  or  -noop.
       Some  options  only  affect  the decoding of images and others only the
       encoding.  The latter can appear after the final group of input images.

       This  is  a  combined  list  of  the  commandline  options  used by the
       GraphicsMagick  utilities  (animate,   composite,   convert,   display,
       identify, import, mogrify and montage).

       In  this  document,  angle  brackets ("<>") enclose variables and curly
       brackets  ("{}")  enclose  optional  parameters.  For  example,  "-fuzz
       <distance>{%}" means you can use the option "-fuzz 10" or "-fuzz 2%".

       -adjoin
              join images into a single multi-image file

              By  default,  all  images of an image sequence are stored in the
              same file. However, some formats (e.g. JPEG) do not support more
              than  one  image and are saved to separate files. Use +adjoin to
              force this behavior.

       -affine <matrix>
              drawing transform matrix

              This option provides a transform matrix {sx,rx,ry,sy,tx,ty}  for
              use by subsequent -draw or -transform options.

       -antialias
              remove pixel aliasing

              By default antialiasing algorithms are used when drawing objects
              (e.g.  lines)  or  rendering  vector  formats  (e.g.   WMF   and
              Postscript).  Use  +antialias  to  disable  use  of antialiasing
              algorithms. Reasons to  disable  antialiasing  include  avoiding
              increasing colors in the image, or improving rendering speed.

       -append
              append a set of images

              This  option  creates  a  single  image  where the images in the
              original set are stacked top-to-bottom.  If they are not of  the
              same  width, any narrow images will be expanded to fit using the
              background color.  Use +append to  stack  images  left-to-right.
              The set of images is terminated by the appearance of any option.
              If the -append option appears after all of the input images, all
              images are appended.

       -authenticate <string>
              decrypt image with this password

              Use  this option to supply a password for decrypting an image or
              an image sequence, if it is being read from a format such as PDF
              that  supports  encryption.   Encrypting images being written is
              not supported.

       -average
              average a set of images

              The set of images is terminated by the appearance of any option.
              If  the  -average  option appears after all of the input images,
              all images are averaged.

       -backdrop
              display the image centered on a backdrop.

              This backdrop covers the entire workstation screen and is useful
              for  hiding other X window activity while viewing the image. The
              color of the backdrop is specified as the foreground color  (X11
              default  is black).  Refer to "X Resources", below, for details.

       -background <color>
              the background color

              The color is specified using  the  format  described  under  the
              -fill option.

       -blue-primary <x>,<y>
              blue chromaticity primary point

       -blur <radius>{x<sigma>}
              blur the image with a Gaussian operator

              Blur with the given radius and standard deviation (sigma).

       -border <width>x<height>
              surround the image with a border of color

              See -geometry for details about the geometry specification.

       -bordercolor <color>
              the border color

              The  color  is  specified  using  the format described under the
              -fill option.

       -borderwidth <geometry>
              the border width

       -box <color>
              set the color of the annotation bounding box

              The color is specified using  the  format  described  under  the
              -fill option.

              See -draw for further details.

       -cache <threshold>
              (This option has been replaced by the -limit option)

       -channel <type>
              the type of channel

              Choose  from:  Red,  Green, Blue, Opacity, Matte, Cyan, Magenta,
              Yellow, or Black.

              Use this option to extract a particular channel from the  image.
              Matte,  for example, is useful for extracting the opacity values
              from an image.

       -charcoal <factor>
              simulate a charcoal drawing

       -chop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              remove pixels from the interior of an image

              Width and height give the number of columns and rows to  remove,
              and  x  and y are offsets that give the location of the leftmost
              column and topmost row to remove.

              The x offset normally specifies the leftmost column  to  remove.
              If  the  -gravity  option  is  present  with NorthEast, East, or
              SouthEast gravity, it gives the distance leftward from the right
              edge of the image to the rightmost column to remove.  Similarly,
              the y offset normally specifies the topmost row to  remove,  but
              if  the  -gravity  option  is  present with SouthWest, South, or
              SouthEast gravity, it specifies the  distance  upward  from  the
              bottom edge of the image to the bottom row to remove.

              The  -chop option removes entire rows and columns, and moves the
              remaining corner blocks leftward and upward to close the gaps.

       -clip  apply the clipping path, if one is present

              If a clipping path is present, it will be applied to  subsequent
              operations.

              For example, if you type the following command:

                   gm convert -clip -negate cockatoo.tif negated.tif

              only the pixels within the clipping path are negated.

              The  -clip feature requires the XML library.  If the XML library
              is not present, the option is ignored.

       -coalesce
              merge a sequence of images

              Each image N in the sequence after Image 0 is replaced with  the
              image created by flattening images 0 through N.

              The set of images is terminated by the appearance of any option.
              If the -coalesce option appears after all of the  input  images,
              all images are coalesced.

       -colorize <value>
              colorize the image with the pen color

              Specify  the  amount  of  colorization  as a percentage. You can
              apply separate colorization values to the red, green,  and  blue
              channels  of  the image with a colorization value list delimited
              with slashes (e.g. 0/0/50).

       -colormap <type>
              define the colormap type

              Choose between shared or private.

              This option only applies when the default  X  server  visual  is
              PseudoColor  or GRAYScale. Refer to -visual for more details. By
              default, a shared colormap is allocated. The image shares colors
              with  other X clients.  Some image colors could be approximated,
              therefore your image may  look  very  different  than  intended.
              Choose  Private  and the image colors appear exactly as they are
              defined. However, other clients  may  go  technicolor  when  the
              image colormap is installed.

       -colors <value>
              preferred number of colors in the image

              The  actual  number of colors in the image may be less than your
              request, but never more. Note, this is a color reduction option.
              Images  with  less unique colors than specified with this option
              will have any duplicate or unused colors removed.  The  ordering
              of  an existing color palette may be altered. When converting an
              image from color to grayscale, convert the  image  to  the  gray
              colorspace  before  reducing the number of colors since doing so
              is most efficient. Refer to <a href="quantize.html">quantize for
              more details.

              Note,  options  -dither,  -colorspace, and -treedepth affect the
              color reduction algorithm.

       -colorspace <value>
              the type of colorspace

              Choices are: CMYK, GRAY, HSL, HWB, OHTA, RGB, Transparent,  XYZ,
              YCbCr, YIQ, YPbPr, or YUV.

              Color reduction, by default, takes place in the RGB color space.
              Empirical evidence suggests that distances in color spaces  such
              as  YUV  or  YIQ correspond to perceptual color differences more
              closely than do distances in RGB space.  These color spaces  may
              give  better  results  when  color  reducing an image.  Refer to
              quantize for more details.

              The  Transparent  color  space  behaves  uniquely  in  that   it
              preserves the matte channel of the image if it exists.

              The  -colors  or  -monochrome option, or saving to a file format
              which requires color reduction, is required for this  option  to
              take effect.

       -comment <string>
              annotate an image with a comment

              Use  this option to assign a specific comment to the image, when
              writing to an image  format  that  supports  comments.  You  can
              include  the image filename, type, width, height, or other image
              attribute by embedding special format  characters  listed  under
              the  -format option.  The comment is not drawn on the image, but
              is embedded in the image  datastream  via  a  "Comment"  tag  or
              similar mechanism.  If you want the comment to be visible on the
              image itself, use the -draw option.

              For example,

                   -comment "%m:%f %wx%h"

              produces an image comment of MIFF:bird.miff 512x480 for an image
              titled bird.miff and whose width is 512 and height is 480.

              If the first character of string is @, the image comment is read
              from a file titled by the remaining characters in the string.

       -compose <operator>
              the type of image composition

              The description of  composition  uses  abstract  terminology  in
              order  to  allow  the  the  description  to be more clear, while
              avoiding constant values which  are  specific  to  a  particular
              build  configuration.  Each  image  pixel is represented by red,
              green, and blue levels (which  are  equal  for  a  gray  pixel).
              MaxRGB  is the maximum integral value which may be stored in the
              red, green, or blue channels of the image. Each image pixel  may
              also  optionally (if the image matte channel is enabled) have an
              associated  level   of   opacity   (ranging   from   opaque   to
              transparent),  which  may  be used to determine the influence of
              the pixel color when compositing the pixel  with  another  image
              pixel.  If  the image matte channel is disabled, then all pixels
              in the image are treated as opaque.   The  color  of  an  opaque
              pixel  is  fully  visible while the color of a transparent pixel
              color is entirely absent (pixel color is ignored).

              By definition, raster images have a rectangular shape. All image
              rows  are  of  equal length, and all image columns have the same
              number of rows. By treating the  opacity  channel  as  a  visual
              "mask"  the rectangular image may be given a "shape" by treating
              the opacity channel as a cookie-cutter  for  the  image.  Pixels
              within  the shape are opaque, while pixels outside the shape are
              transparent. Pixels on the boundary of the shape may be  between
              opaque   and   transparent  in  order  to  provide  antialiasing
              (visually smooth edges).  The  description  of  the  composition
              operators use this concept of image "shape" in order to make the
              description of the operators easier to understand. While  it  is
              convenient  to  describe the operators in terms of "shapes" they
              are by no means limited to mask-style operations since they  are
              based  on  continuous  floating-point  mathematics  rather  than
              simple boolean operations.

              By default, the Over composite operator is used.  The  following
              composite operators are available:

                   Over
                   In
                   Out
                   Atop
                   Xor
                   Plus
                   Minus
                   Add
                   Subtract
                   Difference
                   Multiply
                   Bumpmap
                   Copy
                   CopyRed
                   CopyGreen
                   CopyBlue
                   CopyOpacity

              The behavior of each operator is described below.

               Over

                    .in  20  The  result  will  be  the union of the two image
                    shapes, with opaque areas of change-image obscuring  base-
                    image in the region of overlap.

               In

                    .in  20 The result is simply change-image cut by the shape
                    of base-image. None of the image data of  base-image  will
                    be in the result.

               Out

                    .in  20 The resulting image is change-image with the shape
                    of base-image cut out.

               Atop

                    .in 20 The result is the same shape  as  base-image,  with
                    change-image  obscuring  base-image where the image shapes
                    overlap. Note this differs from over because  the  portion
                    of change-image outside base-image’s shape does not appear
                    in the result.

               Xor

                    .in 20 The result is the image data from both change-image
                    and  base-image  that  is  outside the overlap region. The
                    overlap region will be blank.

               Plus

                    .in 20 The result is just  the  sum  of  the  image  data.
                    Output  values  are  cropped to MaxRGB (no overflow). This
                    operation is independent of the matte channels.

               Minus

                    .in 20 The  result  of  change-image  -  base-image,  with
                    underflow  cropped  to  zero. The matte channel is ignored
                    (set to opaque, full coverage).

               Add

                    .in 20 The  result  of  change-image  +  base-image,  with
                    overflow wrapping around (mod MaxRGB+1).

               Subtract

                    .in  20  The  result  of  change-image  - base-image, with
                    underflow wrapping around  (mod  MaxRGB+1).  The  add  and
                    subtract  operators  can  be  used  to  perform reversible
                    transformations.

               Difference

                    .in 20 The result of abs(change-image - base-image).  This
                    is useful for comparing two very similar images.

               Multiply

                    .in  20  The  result of change-image * base-image. This is
                    useful for the creation of drop-shadows.

               Bumpmap

                    .in 20 The result base-image shaded by change-image.

               Copy

                    .in 20 The resulting image  is  base-image  replaced  with
                    change-image. Here the matte information is ignored.

               CopyRed

                    .in  20  The  resulting  image is the red channel in base-
                    image replaced with the red channel in  change-image.  The
                    other channels are copied untouched.

               CopyGreen

                    .in  20  The resulting image is the green channel in base-
                    image replaced with the green channel in change-image. The
                    other channels are copied untouched.

               CopyBlue

                    .in  20  The  resulting image is the blue channel in base-
                    image replaced with the blue channel in change-image.  The
                    other channels are copied untouched.

               CopyOpacity

                    .in 20 The resulting image is the opacity channel in base-
                    image replaced with the opacity channel  in  change-image.
                    The other channels are copied untouched.

       -compress <type>
              the type of image compression

              Choices  are:  None, BZip, Fax, Group4, JPEG, Lossless, LZW, RLE
              or Zip.

              Specify +compress to store the binary image in  an  uncompressed
              format.   The  default  is the compression type of the specified
              image file.

              If LZW compression is specified but LZW compression has not been
              enabled,  the  image data will be written in an uncompressed LZW
              format that can be read by LZW decoders.   This  may  result  in
              larger-than-expected GIF files.

              "Lossless"  refers  to lossless JPEG, which is only available if
              the JPEG library has been patched to support it. Use of lossless
              JPEG is generally not recommended.

              Use  the -quality option to set the compression level to be used
              by JPEG, PNG, MIFF, and MPEG encoders.  Use the -sampling-factor
              option  to set the sampling factor to be used by JPEG, MPEG, and
              YUV encoders for downsampling the chroma channels.

       -contrast
              enhance or reduce the image contrast

              This option  enhances  the  intensity  differences  between  the
              lighter  and  darker  elements  of  the  image. Use -contrast to
              enhance the image or +contrast to reduce the image contrast.

              For a more pronounced effect you can repeat the option:

                  gm convert rose: -contrast -contrast rose_c2.png

       -convolve <kernel>
              convolve image with the specified convolution kernel

              The kernel is specified as a comma-separated list  of  integers,
              ordered  left-to right, starting with the top row.  The order of
              the kernel is determined by the square root  of  the  number  of
              entries.  Presently only square kernels are supported.

       -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              preferred size and location of the cropped image

              See -geometry for details about the geometry specification.

              The  width  and  height  give the size of the image that remains
              after cropping, and x and y are offsets that give  the  location
              of  the top left corner of the cropped image with respect to the
              original image.  To specify the amount to be removed, use -shave
              instead.

              If the x and y offsets are present, a single image is generated,
              consisting of the pixels from the cropping region.  The  offsets
              specify  the  location  of the upper left corner of the cropping
              region measured downward and rightward with respect to the upper
              left  corner  of  the  image.  If the -gravity option is present
              with  NorthEast,  East,  or  SouthEast  gravity,  it  gives  the
              distance  leftward from the right edge of the image to the right
              edge of the cropping region.  Similarly, if the -gravity  option
              is  present  with  SouthWest,  South,  or SouthEast gravity, the
              distance is measured upward between the bottom edges.

              If the x and y offsets are  omitted,  a  set  of  tiles  of  the
              specified   geometry,   covering  the  entire  input  image,  is
              generated.  The rightmost tiles and the bottom tiles are smaller
              if  the  specified geometry extends beyond the dimensions of the
              input image.

       -cycle <amount>
              displace image colormap by amount

              Amount defines the  number  of  positions  each  colormap  entry
              isshifted.

       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

              The  events  parameter  specifies which events are to be logged.
              It can be either None, All, or a comma-separated list consisting
              of  one or more of the following domains: Annotate, Blob, Cache,
              Coder,   Configure,   Deprecate,   Error,   Exception,   Locale,
              Render,Resource,  TemporaryFile,  Transform,  Warning,  X11,  or
              User.  For example, to log cache and blob events, use

                  gm convert -debug "Cache,Blob" rose: rose.png

              The "User" domain is normally  empty,  but  developers  can  log
              "User" events in their private copy of GraphicsMagick.

              Use  the -log option to specify the format for debugging output.

              Use +debug to turn off all logging.

              An alternative to  using  -debug  is  to  use  the  MAGICK_DEBUG
              environment  variable.  The  allowed values for the MAGICK_DEBUG
              environment variable are the same as for the -debug option.

       -deconstruct
              break down an image sequence into constituent parts

              This option compares each image with the next in a sequence  and
              returns  the maximum bounding region of any pixel differences it
              discovers.  This method can undo a coalesced  sequence  returned
              by  the  -coalesce  option, and is useful for removing redundant
              information from a GIF or MNG animation.

              The sequence of images is terminated by the  appearance  of  any
              option.   If  the  -deconstruct  option appears after all of the
              input images, all images are deconstructed.

       -define <key>{=<value>},...
              add coder/decoder specific options This option  creates  one  or
              more  definitions  for  coders and decoders to use while reading
              and writing image data. Definitions may be passed to coders  and
              decoders  to  control options that are specific to certain image
              formats. If value is missing for a definition,  an  empty-valued
              definition  of  a  flag  will be created with that name. This is
              used to control on/off options. Use +define <key>,... to  remove
              definitions  previously  created.  Use +define "*" to remove all
              existing definitions.

              The following definitions may be created:

               jp2:rate=<value>

                    .in 20

                    Specify  the  compression  factor  to  use  while  writing
                    JPEG-2000  files. The compression factor is the reciprocal
                    of the compression ratio. The valid range is 0.0  to  1.0,
                    with 1.0 indicating lossless compression. If defined, this
                    value overrides the -quality setting. The default  quality
                    setting of 75 results in a rate value of 0.06641.

               jpeg:preserve-settings

                    .in 20

                    If  the  jpeg:preserve-settings  flag is defined, the JPEG
                    encoder will use the same "quality" and  "sampling-factor"
                    settings  that  were found in the input file, if the input
                    was in JPEG format. These settings are also  preserved  if
                    the input is a JPEG file and the output is a JNG file.  If
                    the colorspace of the output file differs from that of the
                    input  file,  the  quality  setting  is  preserved but the
                    sampling-factors are not.

               ps:imagemask

                    .in 20

                    If the ps:imagemask flag is  defined,  the  PS3  and  EPS3
                    coders  will  create  Postscript files that render bilevel
                    images with the Postscript imagemask operator  instead  of
                    the image operator.

               tiff:bits-per-sample=<value>

                    .in 20

                    If the tiff:bits-per-sample key is defined to a value less
                    than the GraphicsMagick Quantum depth, the TIFF coder will
                    write  TIFF  images  with  the  defined  bits  per sample,
                    overriding any value stored in the image.

               tiff:fill-order={msb2lsb|lsb2msb}

                    .in  20   If   the   tiff:fill-order   key   is   defined,
                    GraphicsMagick will use it to determine the bit fill order
                    used while writing  TIFF  files.  The  normal  default  is
                    "msb2lsb",  which  matches  the  native  bit  order of all
                    modern CPUs. The only exception to this is when Group3  or
                    Group4  FAX  compression  is  requested since FAX machines
                    send data in bit-reversed order  and  therefore  RFC  2301
                    recommends using reverse order.

               tiff:samples-per-pixel=<value>

                    .in 20

                    If  the  tiff:samples-per-pixel key is defined to a value,
                    the TIFF coder will write TIFF  images  with  the  defined
                    samples  per  pixel,  overriding  any  value stored in the
                    image.

               For example, to create a postscript file that will render  only
               the black pixels of a bilevel image, use:

                   gm convert bilevel.tif -define ps:imagemask eps3:stencil.ps

       -delay <1/100ths of a second>
              display the next image after pausing

              This option is useful for  regulating  the  animation  of  image
              sequences  Delay/100  seconds  must expire before the display of
              the next image. The default is no delay between each showing  of
              the image sequence. The maximum delay is 65535.

              You  can  specify  a delay range (e.g. -delay 10-500) which sets
              the minimum and maximum delay.

       -density <width>x<height>
              horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the  image  This
              option  specifies the image resolution to store while encoding a
              raster image or the canvas resolution while rendering  (reading)
              vector  formats  such  as  Postscript,  PDF, WMF, and SVG into a
              raster image. Image resolution provides the unit of  measure  to
              apply  when  rendering  to an output device or raster image. The
              default unit of measure is in dots per inch  (DPI).  The  -units
              option may be used to select dots per centimeter instead.
               The default resolution is 72 dots per inch, which is equivalent
              to one point per  pixel  (Macintosh  and  Postscript  standard).
              Computer  screens  are  normally  72  or  96 dots per inch while
              printers typically support 150, 300, 600, or 1200 dots per inch.
              To  determine  the  resolution  of  your display, use a ruler to
              measure the width of your screen in inches, and  divide  by  the
              number  of  horizontal  pixels (1024 on a 1024x768 display).  If
              the file format supports it, this option may be used  to  update
              the  stored  image  resolution.  Note  that Photoshop stores and
              obtains image resolution from a proprietary embedded profile. If
              this profile is not stripped from the image, then Photoshop will
              continue  to  treat  the  image  using  its  former  resolution,
              ignoring  the  image  resolution  specified in the standard file
              header.  The density option is an attribute and does  not  alter
              the  underlying  raster  image.  It  may  be  used to adjust the
              rendered size for desktop publishing purposes by  adjusting  the
              scale  applied  to the pixels. To resize the image so that it is
              the same size at  a  different  resolution,  use  the  -resample
              option.

       -depth <value>
              depth of the image

              This is the number of bits in a color sample within a pixel. The
              only acceptable values are 8 or 16.  Use this option to  specify
              the  depth  of  raw  images whose depth is unknown such as GRAY,
              RGB, or CMYK, or to change the depth of any image after  it  has
              been read.

       -descend
              obtain image by descending window hierarchy

       -despeckle
              reduce the speckles within an image

       -displace <horizontal scale>x<vertical scale>
              shift image pixels as defined by a displacement map

              With this option, composite image is used as a displacement map.
              Black, within  the  displacement  map,  is  a  maximum  positive
              displacement.   White  is  a  maximum  negative displacement and
              middle gray is neutral.  The displacement is scaled to determine
              the  pixel  shift.  By default, the displacement applies in both
              the horizontal and vertical directions.  However, if you specify
              mask,  composite image is the horizontal X displacement and mask
              the vertical Y displacement.

       -display <host:display[.screen]>
              specifies the X server to contact

              This option is used with convert for  obtaining  image  or  font
              from this X server.  See X(1).

       -dispose <method>
              GIF disposal method

              The Disposal Method indicates the way in which the graphic is to
              be treated after being displayed.

              Here are the valid methods:

                  Undefined       No disposal specified.
                  None            Do not dispose between frames.
                  Background      Overwrite the image area with
                                  the background color.
                  Previous        Overwrite the image area with
                                  what was there prior to rendering
                                  the image.

       -dissolve <percent>
              dissolve an image into another by the given percent

              The opacity of the composite image is multiplied  by  the  given
              percent, then it is composited over the main image.

       -dither
              apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

              The basic strategy of dithering is to trade intensity resolution
              for spatial resolution by averaging the intensities  of  several
              neighboring  pixels.  Images which suffer from severe contouring
              when reducing colors can be improved with this option.

              The -colors or -monochrome option is required for this option to
              take effect.

              Use  +dither  to  turn  off  dithering  and to render PostScript
              without text or graphic aliasing. Disabling dithering often (but
              not always) leads to decreased processing time.

       -draw <string>
              annotate an image with one or more graphic primitives

              Use  this  option  to annotate an image with one or more graphic
              primitives.     The    primitives    include    shapes,    text,
              transformations, and pixel operations.  The shape primitives are

                   point           x,y
                   line            x0,y0 x1,y1
                   rectangle       x0,y0 x1,y1
                   roundRectangle  x0,y0 x1,y1 wc,hc
                   arc             x0,y0 x1,y1 a0,a1
                   ellipse         x0,y0 rx,ry a0,a1
                   circle          x0,y0 x1,y1
                   polyline        x0,y0  ...  xn,yn
                   polygon         x0,y0  ...  xn,yn
                   Bezier          x0,y0  ...  xn,yn
                   path            path specification
                   image           operator x0,y0 w,h filename

              The text primitive is

                   text            x0,y0 string

              The text gravity primitive is

                   gravity         NorthWest, North, NorthEast, West, Center,
                                   East, SouthWest, South, or SouthEast

              The text gravity primitive only affects the  placement  of  text
              and  does  not  interact  with  the  other  primitives.   It  is
              equivalent to using the -gravity commandline option, except that
              it  is limited in scope to the -draw option in which it appears.

              The transformation primitives are

                   rotate          degrees
                   translate       dx,dy
                   scale           sx,sy
                   skewX           degrees
                   skewY           degrees

              The pixel operation primitives are

                   color           x0,y0 method
                   matte           x0,y0 method

              The shape primitives are drawn in the  color  specified  in  the
              preceding   -stroke  option.  Except  for  the  line  and  point
              primitives, they are filled with  the  color  specified  in  the
              preceding -fill option.  For unfilled shapes, use -fill none.

              Point requires a single coordinate.

              Line requires a start and end coordinate.

              Rectangle expects an upper left and lower right coordinate.

              RoundRectangle  has  the  upper left and lower right coordinates
              and the width and height of the corners.

              Circle has a center coordinate and a coordinate  for  the  outer
              edge.

              Use  Arc to inscribe an elliptical arc within a rectangle.  Arcs
              require a start and end point as well as the degree of  rotation
              (e.g. 130,30 200,100 45,90).

              Use  Ellipse  to  draw  a  partial ellipse centered at the given
              point with the x-axis and y-axis radius and start and end of arc
              in degrees (e.g. 100,100 100,150 0,360).

              Finally,  polyline and polygon require three or more coordinates
              to define its boundaries.  Coordinates are integers separated by
              an  optional comma.  For example, to define a circle centered at
              100,100 that extends to 150,150 use:

                   -draw ’circle 100,100 150,150’

              Paths (See Paths) represent an outline of  an  object  which  is
              defined  in  terms  of  moveto (set a new current point), lineto
              (draw a straight line), curveto (draw  a  curve  using  a  cubic
              Bezier),  arc  (elliptical or circular arc) and closepath (close
              the current  shape  by  drawing  a  line  to  the  last  moveto)
              elements.  Compound  paths  (i.e.,  a  path  with subpaths, each
              consisting of a single moveto followed by one or  more  line  or
              curve  operations)  are possible to allow effects such as "donut
              holes" in objects.

              Use image to composite an image with another image.  Follow  the
              image keyword with the composite operator, image location, image
              size, and filename:

                   -draw ’image Over 100,100 225,225 image.jpg’

              You can use 0,0 for the image  size,  which  means  to  use  the
              actual  dimensions found in the image header. Otherwise, it will
              be  scaled  to  the  given  dimensions.   See  -compose  for   a
              description of the composite operators.

              Use  text  to  annotate  an  image  with  text.  Follow the text
              coordinates with a string. If the string  has  embedded  spaces,
              enclose  it  in  single  or  double  quotes.  Optionally you can
              include the image filename, type, width, height, or other  image
              attribute  by  embedding  special format character. See -comment
              for details.

              For example,

                   -draw ’text 100,100 "%m:%f %wx%h"’

              annotates the image with MIFF:bird.miff  512x480  for  an  image
              titled bird.miff and whose width is 512 and height is 480.

              If  the  first character of string is @, the text is read from a
              file titled by the remaining characters in the string.

              Rotate rotates subsequent shape primitives and  text  primitives
              about  the  origin  of  the  main  image.  If the -region option
              precedes the -draw option, the origin for transformations is the
              upper left corner of the region.

              Translate translates them.

              Scale scales them.

              SkewX and SkewY skew them with respect to the origin of the main
              image or the region.

              The transformations modify the current affine matrix,  which  is
              initialized  from  the  initial  affine  matrix  defined  by the
              -affine option.  Transformations are cumulative within the -draw
              option.   The initial affine matrix is not affected; that matrix
              is only changed by the appearance of another -affine option.  If
              another  -draw  option  appears,  the  current  affine matrix is
              reinitialized from the initial affine matrix.

              Use color to change the color of a pixel to the fill color  (see
              -fill). Follow the pixel coordinate with a method:

                   point
                   replace
                   floodfill
                   filltoborder
                   reset

              Consider  the target pixel as that specified by your coordinate.
              The point method recolors the target pixel. The  replace  method
              recolors  any  pixel that matches the color of the target pixel.
              Floodfill recolors any pixel  that  matches  the  color  of  the
              target  pixel  and  is a neighbor, whereas filltoborder recolors
              any neighbor pixel that is not the border color. Finally,  reset
              recolors all pixels.

              Use  matte  to  the change the pixel matte value to transparent.
              Follow the  pixel  coordinate  with  a  method  (see  the  color
              primitive  for  a  description  of  methods).  The  point method
              changes the matte value of the target pixel. The replace  method
              changes  the  matte value of any pixel that matches the color of
              the target pixel. Floodfill changes the matte value of any pixel
              that  matches  the  color of the target pixel and is a neighbor,
              whereas filltoborder changes the matte  value  of  any  neighbor
              pixel  that  is  not  the  border color (-bordercolor).  Finally
              reset changes the matte value of all pixels.

              You can set the primitive color, font,  and  font  bounding  box
              color  with  -fill,  -font,  and  -box respectively. Options are
              processed in command line order so be sure to use these  options
              before the -draw option.

       -edge <radius>
              detect edges within an image

       -emboss <radius>
              emboss an image

       -encoding <type>
              specify the text encoding

              Choose from AdobeCustom, AdobeExpert, AdobeStandard, AppleRoman,
              BIG5, GB2312, Latin 2, None, SJIScode, Symbol, Unicode, Wansung.

       -endian <type>
              specify endianness (MSB or LSB) of output image

              Use +endian to revert to unspecified endianness.

       -enhance
              apply a digital filter to enhance a noisy image

       -equalize
              perform histogram equalization to the image

       -fill <color>
              color to use when filling a graphic primitive

              Colors  are  represented in GraphicsMagick in the same form used
              by SVG. Use "gm convert -list color" to list named colors:

                  name               (named color)
                  #RGB               (hex numbers, 4 bits each)
                  #RRGGBB            (8 bits each)
                  #RRRGGGBBB         (12 bits each)
                  #RRRRGGGGBBBB      (16 bits each)
                  #RGBA              (4 bits each)
                  #RRGGBBAA          (8 bits each)
                  #RRRGGGBBBAAA      (12 bits each)
                  #RRRRGGGGBBBBAAAA  (16 bits each)
                  rgb(r,g,b)         (r,g,b are decimal numbers)
                  rgba(r,g,b,a)      (r,g,b,a are decimal numbers)

              Enclose the color specification in quotation  marks  to  prevent
              the "#" or the parentheses from being interpreted by your shell.

              For example,

                  gm convert -fill blue ...
                  gm convert -fill "#ddddff" ...
                  gm convert -fill "rgb(65000,65000,65535)" ...

              The shorter forms are scaled up, if  necessary  by  replication.
              For   example,   #3af,   #33aaff,   and  #3333aaaaffff  are  all
              equivalent.

              See -draw for further details.

       -filter <type>
              use this type of filter when resizing an image

              Use this option to affect the resizing  operation  of  an  image
              (see -geometry).  Choose from these filters:

                   Point
                   Box
                   Triangle
                   Hermite
                   Hanning
                   Hamming
                   Blackman
                   Gaussian
                   Quadratic
                   Cubic
                   Catrom
                   Mitchell
                   Lanczos
                   Bessel
                   Sinc

              The default filter is automatically selected to provide the best
              quality  while  consuming  a  reasonable  amount  of  time.  The
              Mitchell  filter  is  used  if  the  image  supports  a palette,
              supports a matte channel, or is being  enlarged,  otherwise  the
              Lanczos filter is used.

       -flatten
              flatten a sequence of images

              The  sequence of images is replaced by a single image created by
              composing each image after the first over the first image.

              The sequence of images is terminated by the  appearance  of  any
              option.   If  the -flatten option appears after all of the input
              images, all images are flattened.

       -flip  create a "mirror image"

              reflect the scanlines in the vertical direction.

       -flop  create a "mirror image"

              reflect the scanlines in the horizontal direction.

       -font <name>
              use this font when annotating the image with text

              You can tag a font  to  specify  whether  it  is  a  PostScript,
              TrueType, or OPTION1 font.  For example, Arial.ttf is a TrueType
              font, ps:helvetica is PostScript, and x:fixed is OPTION1.

       -foreground <color>
              define the foreground color

              The color is specified using  the  format  described  under  the
              -fill option.

       -format <type>
              the image format type

              When used with the mogrify utility, this option will convert any
              image to the image format you  specify.   See  GraphicsMagick(1)
              for a list of image format types supported by GraphicsMagick, or
              see the output of ’gm -list format’.

              By default the file is written to its original  name.   However,
              if  the  filename  extension  matches  a  supported  format, the
              extension is replaced with the image format type specified  with
              -format.   For  example,  if you specify tiff as the format type
              and the input image filename  is  image.gif,  the  output  image
              filename becomes image.tiff.

       -format <string>
              output formatted image characteristics

              When  used  with  the identify utility, use this option to print
              information about the image in a format of your  choosing.   You
              can  include the image filename, type, width, height, Exif data,
              or  other  image  attributes   by   embedding   special   format
              characters:

                   %b   file size
                   %c   comment
                   %d   directory
                   %e   filename extension
                   %f   filename
                   %h   height
                   %i   input filename
                   %k   number of unique colors
                   %l   label
                   %m   magick
                   %n   number of scenes
                   %o   output filename
                   %p   page number
                   %q   quantum depth
                   %s   scene number
                   %t   top of filename
                   %u   unique temporary filename
                   %w   width
                   %x   x resolution
                   %y   y resolution
                   %#   signature
                   \n   newline
                   \r   carriage return

              For example,

                   -format "%m:%f %wx%h"

              displays  MIFF:bird.miff  512x480  for an image titled bird.miff
              and whose width is 512 and height is 480.

              If the first character of string is @, the format is read from a
              file titled by the remaining characters in the string.

              You  can  also  use  the  following special formatting syntax to
              print Exif information contained in the file:

                   %[EXIF:<tag>]

              Where "<tag>" can be one of the following:

                   *  (print all Exif tags, in keyword=data format)
                   !  (print all Exif tags, in tag_number data format)
                   #hhhh (print data for Exif tag #hhhh)
                   ImageWidth
                   ImageLength
                   BitsPerSample
                   Compression
                   PhotometricInterpretation
                   FillOrder
                   DocumentName
                   ImageDescription
                   Make
                   Model
                   StripOffsets
                   Orientation
                   SamplesPerPixel
                   RowsPerStrip
                   StripByteCounts
                   XResolution
                   YResolution
                   PlanarConfiguration
                   ResolutionUnit
                   TransferFunction
                   Software
                   DateTime
                   Artist
                   WhitePoint
                   PrimaryChromaticities
                   TransferRange
                   JPEGProc
                   JPEGInterchangeFormat
                   JPEGInterchangeFormatLength
                   YCbCrCoefficients
                   YCbCrSubSampling
                   YCbCrPositioning
                   ReferenceBlackWhite
                   CFARepeatPatternDim
                   CFAPattern
                   BatteryLevel
                   Copyright
                   ExposureTime
                   FNumber
                   IPTC/NAA
                   ExifOffset
                   InterColorProfile
                   ExposureProgram
                   SpectralSensitivity
                   GPSInfo
                   ISOSpeedRatings
                   OECF
                   ExifVersion
                   DateTimeOriginal
                   DateTimeDigitized
                   ComponentsConfiguration
                   CompressedBitsPerPixel
                   ShutterSpeedValue
                   ApertureValue
                   BrightnessValue
                   ExposureBiasValue
                   MaxApertureValue
                   SubjectDistance
                   MeteringMode
                   LightSource
                   Flash
                   FocalLength
                   MakerNote
                   UserComment
                   SubSecTime
                   SubSecTimeOriginal
                   SubSecTimeDigitized
                   FlashPixVersion
                   ColorSpace
                   ExifImageWidth
                   ExifImageLength
                   InteroperabilityOffset
                   FlashEnergy
                   SpatialFrequencyResponse
                   FocalPlaneXResolution
                   FocalPlaneYResolution
                   FocalPlaneResolutionUnit
                   SubjectLocation
                   ExposureIndex
                   SensingMethod
                   FileSource
                   SceneType

              Surround  the  format  specification  with  quotation  marks  to
              prevent  your  shell  from misinterpreting any spaces and square
              brackets.

       -frame <width>x<height>+<outer bevel width>+<inner bevel width>
              surround the image with an ornamental border

              See -geometry for details about the geometry specification.  The
              -frame option is not affected by the -gravity option.

              The  color  of  the  border  is  specified  with the -mattecolor
              command line option.

       -frame include the X window frame in the imported image

       -fuzz <distance>{%}
              colors within this distance are considered equal

              A number of algorithms search for a target color. By default the
              color  must  be  exact. Use this option to match colors that are
              close to the target color in RGB space. For example, if you want
              to  automatically  trim the edges of an image with -trim but the
              image was scanned and the target background color may differ  by
              a small amount. This option can account for these differences.

              The distance can be in absolute intensity units or, by appending
              "%", as a percentage of the  maximum  possible  intensity  (255,
              65535, or 4294967295).

       -gamma <value>
              level of gamma correction

              The same color image displayed on two different workstations may
              look different due to differences in the  display  monitor.  Use
              gamma correction to adjust for this color difference. Reasonable
              values extend from 0.8 to 2.3. Gamma less than 1.0  darkens  the
              image  and gamma greater than 1.0 lightens it. Large adjustments
              to image gamma may result in the loss of some image  information
              if the pixel quantum size is only eight bits (quantum range 0 to
              255).

              You can apply separate gamma values to the red, green, and  blue
              channels  of  the  image  with a gamma value list delimited with
              slashes (e.g., 1.7/2.3/1.2).

              Use +gamma value to set the image gamma level  without  actually
              adjusting  the  image pixels. This option is useful if the image
              is of a known gamma but not set as an image attribute (e.g.  PNG
              images).

       -Gaussian <radius>{x<sigma>}
              blur the image with a Gaussian operator

              Use the given radius and standard deviation (sigma).

       -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@} {!}{<}{>}
              preferred size and location of the Image window.

              By  default,  the window size is the image size and the location
              is chosen by you when it is mapped.

              By default, the width and height are maximum  values.  That  is,
              the  image is expanded or contracted to fit the width and height
              value while maintaining the aspect ratio of the image. Append an
              exclamation  point  to  the  geometry to force the image size to
              exactly the size  you  specify.  For  example,  if  you  specify
              640x480! the image width is set to 640 pixels and height to 480.

              If only the width is specified, the width assumes the value  and
              the  height is chosen to maintain the aspect ratio of the image.
              Similarly, if only the  height  is  specified  (e.g.,  -geometry
              x256), the width is chosen to maintain the aspect ratio.

              To  specify  a percentage width or height instead, append %. The
              image size is multiplied by the width and height percentages  to
              obtain  the  final  image dimensions. To increase the size of an
              image, use a value greater than 100 (e.g. 125%). To decrease  an
              image’s size, use a percentage less than 100.

              Use @ to specify the maximum area in pixels of an image.

              Use > to change the dimensions of the image only if its width or
              height exceeds the geometry specification. < resizes  the  image
              only  if  both  of  its  dimensions  are  less than the geometry
              specification. For example, if you specify  ’640x480>’  and  the
              image  size is 256x256, the image size does not change. However,
              if the image is 512x512 or 1024x1024, it is resized to  480x480.
              Enclose the geometry specification in quotation marks to prevent
              the < or > from being  interpreted  by  your  shell  as  a  file
              redirection.

              When  used  with animate and display, offsets are handled in the
              same manner as in X(1) and the -gravity option is not used.   If
              the  x  is  negative,  the  offset is measured leftward from the
              right edge of the screen to the right edge of  the  image  being
              displayed.  Similarly, negative y is measured between the bottom
              edges.  The offsets are not affected by  "%";  they  are  always
              measured in pixels.

              When  used as a composite option, -geometry gives the dimensions
              of the image and its location  with  respect  to  the  composite
              image.   If the -gravity option is present with NorthEast, East,
              or SouthEast gravity, the x represents  the  distance  from  the
              right  edge  of  the  image  to  the right edge of the composite
              image.  Similarly,  if  the  -gravity  option  is  present  with
              SouthWest,  South,  or  SouthEast gravity, y is measured between
              the bottom edges. Accordingly,  a  positive  offset  will  never
              point  in  the  direction outside of the image.  The offsets are
              not affected by "%"; they are always  measured  in  pixels.   To
              specify  the  dimensions of the composite image, use the -resize
              option.

              When used as a convert, import or mogrify option,  -geometry  is
              synonymous  with  -resize  and  specifies the size of the output
              image.  The offsets, if present, are ignored.

              When used as a montage option,  -geometry  specifies  the  image
              size  and  border  size  for  each tile; default is 256x256+0+0.
              Negative  offsets  (border  dimensions)  are  meaningless.   The
              -gravity  option  affects  the placement of the image within the
              tile; the default gravity for this purpose is  Center.   If  the
              "%" sign appears in the geometry specification, the tile size is
              the specified percentage of the original dimensions of the first
              tile.  To specify the dimensions of the montage, use the -resize
              option.

       -gravity <type>
              direction primitive  gravitates to when annotating the image.

              Choices are: NorthWest, North, NorthEast,  West,  Center,  East,
              SouthWest, South, SouthEast.

              The  direction  you  choose specifies where to position the text
              when annotating the image. For example Center gravity forces the
              text  to  be  centered  within  the image. By default, the image
              gravity is NorthWest.  See -draw for more details about  graphic
              primitives.  Only the text primitive is affected by the -gravity
              option.

              The -gravity option is also used in concert with  the  -geometry
              option  and  other  options that take <geometry> as a parameter,
              such as the -crop option.  See -geometry for details of how  the
              -gravity  option  interacts with the <x> and <y> parameters of a
              geometry specification.

              When  used  as  an  option  to  composite,  -gravity  gives  the
              direction that the image gravitates within the composite.

              When  used as an option to montage, -gravity gives the direction
              that an image gravitates within a tile.  The default gravity  is
              Center for this purpose.

       -green-primary <x>,<y>
              green chromaticity primary point

       -help  print usage instructions

       -iconGeometry <geometry>
              specify the icon geometry

              Offsets,  if  present in the geometry specification, are handled
              in the same manner as the -geometry option, using X11  style  to
              handle negative offsets.

       -iconic
              iconic animation

       -immutable
              make image immutable

       -implode <factor>
              implode image pixels about the center

       -intent <type>
              use this type of rendering intent when managing the image color

              Use  this option to affect the the color management operation of
              an image (see -profile).  Choose from these  intents:  Absolute,
              Perceptual, Relative, Saturation.

              The default intent is undefined.

       -interlace <type>
              the type of interlacing scheme

              Choices  are:  None,  Line,  Plane, or Partition. The default is
              None.

              This option is used to specify the type  of  interlacing  scheme
              for  raw  image  formats  such as RGB or YUV.  None means do not
              interlace (RGBRGBRGBRGBRGBRGB...),

              Line            uses            scanline             interlacing
              (RRR...GGG...BBB...RRR...GGG...BBB...),  and  Plane  uses  plane
              interlacing (RRRRRR...GGGGGG...BBBBBB...).

              Partition is like plane except the different planes are saved to
              individual files (e.g. image.R, image.G, and image.B).

              Use  Line  or  Plane  to  create  an  interlaced  PNG or  GIF or
              progressive JPEG image.

       -label <name>
              assign a label to an image

              Use this option to assign a specific label to  the  image,  when
              writing  to  an image format that supports labels, such as TIFF,
              PNG,  MIFF,  or  PostScript.  You  can  include  the  the  image
              filename,  type,  width,  height,  or  other  image attribute by
              embedding special format character.  A label is not drawn on the
              image, but is embedded in the image datastream via a "Label" tag
              or similar mechanism.  If you want the label to  be  visible  on
              the  image  itself,  use  the  -draw  option.   See -comment for
              details.

              For example,

                   -label "%m:%f %wx%h"

              produces an image label of MIFF:bird.miff 512x480 for  an  image
              titled bird.miff and whose width is 512 and height is 480.

              If  the  first character of string is @, the image label is read
              from a file titled by the remaining characters in the string.

              When converting to PostScript, use  this  option  to  specify  a
              header  string  to print above the image. Specify the label font
              with -font.

              When creating a montage, by default the label associated with an
              image  is  displayed with the corresponding tile in the montage.
              Use the +label option to suppress this behavior.

       -lat <width>x<height>{+-}<offset>{%}
              perform local adaptive thresholding

              Perform local adaptive thresholding using the  specified  width,
              height,  and  offset.   The offset is a distance in sample space
              from the mean, as an absolute integer  ranging  from  0  to  the
              maximum sample value or as a percentage.

       -level <black_point>{,<gamma>}{,<white_point>}{%}
              adjust the level of image contrast

              Give  one,  two  or  three  values delimited with commas: black-
              point, gamma, white-point (e.g. 10,1.0,250 or  2%,0.5,98%).  The
              black and white points range from 0 to MaxRGB or from 0 to 100%;
              if the white point is omitted it is set  to  MaxRGB-black_point.
              If  a  "%" sign is present anywhere in the string, the black and
              white points are percentages of MaxRGB.  Gamma  is  an  exponent
              that  ranges  from  0.1 to 10.; if it is omitted, the default of
              1.0 (no gamma  correction)  is  assumed.  This  interface  works
              similar  to  Photoshop’s "Image->Adjustments->Levels..."  "Input
              Levels" interface.

       -limit <type> <value>
              Disk, File, Map, or Memory resource limit

              The value for File is in number of files and the values for  the
              other resources are in Megabytes.  By default the limits are 256
              files, 1024MB memory, 4096MB map, and unlimited disk, but  these
              are  adjusted  at  startup  time  on  platforms that can provide
              information  about  available  resources.   When  the  limit  is
              reached,  GraphicsMagick  will  fail  in  some  fashion, or take
              compensating actions if possible.  For example, -limit memory 32
              -limit  map  64  limits  memory When the pixel cache reaches the
              memory limit it uses memory mapping.  When that limit is reached
              it  goes  to  disk.   If disk has a hard limit, the program will
              fail.

              Resource limits may also be set using environment variables. The
              environment   variables  MAGICK_LIMIT_DISK,  MAGICK_LIMIT_FILES,
              MAGICK_LIMIT_MEMORY, and MAGICK_LIMIT_MAP, may be  used  to  set
              the  limits  for disk space, open files, heap memory, and memory
              map size, respectively.

              You can use the option -list resource to find out the limits.

       -linewidth
              the line width for subsequent draw operations

       -list <type>
              the type of list

              Choices are: Color, Delegate, Format, Magic,  Module,  Resource,
              or  Type.  The Module option is only available if GraphicsMagick
              was built to support loadable modules.

              This  option  lists   information   about   the   GraphicsMagick
              configuration.

       -log <string>
              Specify format for debug log

              This  option  specifies  the format for the log printed when the
              -debug option is active.

              You can display the following components  by  embedding  special
              format characters:

                   %d   domain
                   %e   event
                   %f   function
                   %l   line
                   %m   module
                   %p   process ID
                   %r   real CPU time
                   %t   wall clock time
                   %u   user CPU time
                   %%   percent sign
                   \n   newline
                   \r   carriage return

              For example:

                  gm convert -debug coders -log "%u %m:%l %e" in.gif out.png

              The default behavior is to print all of the components.

       -loop <iterations>
              add Netscape loop extension to your GIF animation

              A value other than zero forces the animation to repeat itself up
              to iterations times.

       -magnify <factor>
              magnify the image

       -map <filename>
              choose a particular set of colors from this image

              [convert or mogrify]

              By default, color reduction chooses an  optimal  set  of  colors
              that  best  represent the original image. Alternatively, you can
              choose a particular set of colors from an image file  with  this
              option.

              Use +map to reduce all images in the image sequence that follows
              to a single optimal set of colors that best  represent  all  the
              images.   The sequence of images is terminated by the appearance
              of any option.  If the +map option  appears  after  all  of  the
              input images, all images are mapped.

       -map <type>
              display image using this type.

              [animate or display]

              Choose from these Standard Colormap types:

                   best
                   default
                   gray
                   red
                   green
                   blue

              The  X  server  must  support  the Standard Colormap you choose,
              otherwise an error occurs. Use list  as  the  type  and  display
              searches the list of colormap types in top-to-bottom order until
              one is located. See xstdcmap(1) for one way of creating Standard
              Colormaps.

       -mask <filename>
              Specify a clipping mask

              The  image  read  from  the file is used as a clipping mask.  It
              must have the same dimensions as the image being masked.

              If the mask image contains an opacity channel,  the  opacity  of
              each pixel is used to define the mask.  Otherwise, the intensity
              (gray level) of each pixel is used.

              Use +mask to remove the clipping mask.

              It is not necessary to use -clip to activate the mask; -clip  is
              implied by -mask.

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

              If  the  image  does  not have a matte channel, create an opaque
              one.

              Use +matte to ignore the matte channel and to  avoid  writing  a
              matte channel in the output file.

       -mattecolor <color>
              specify the color to be used with the -frame option

              The  color  is  specified  using  the format described under the
              -fill option.

       -median <radius>
              apply a median filter to the image

       -mode <value>
              mode of operation

       -modulate brightness[,saturation[,hue]]
              vary the brightness, saturation, and hue of an image

              Specify the percent change in brightness, color saturation,  and
              hue  separated  by  commas.  Default  argument  values  are  100
              percent, resulting in no change. For example,  to  increase  the
              color brightness by 20% and decrease the color saturation by 10%
              and leave the hue unchanged, use: -modulate 120,90.

              Hue is the percentage of  absolute  rotation  from  the  current
              position. For example 50 results in a counter-clockwise rotation
              of 90 degrees,  150  results  in  a  clockwise  rotation  of  90
              degrees,  with  0  and  200  both resulting in a rotation of 180
              degrees.

       -monochrome
              transform the image to black and white

       -morph <frames>
              morphs an image sequence

              Both the image pixels and size are linearly interpolated to give
              the appearance of a meta-morphosis from one image to the next.

              The  sequence  of  images is terminated by the appearance of any
              option.  If the -morph option appears after  all  of  the  input
              images, all images are morphed.

       -mosaic
              create a mosaic from an image or an image sequence

              The  -page option can be used to establish the dimensions of the
              mosaic and to locate the images within the mosaic.

              The sequence of images is terminated by the  appearance  of  any
              option.   If  the  -mosaic option appears after all of the input
              images, all images are included in the mosaic.

       -name  name an image

       -negate
              replace every pixel with its complementary color

              The red, green, and blue intensities of an  image  are  negated.
              White  becomes  black, yellow becomes blue, etc.  Use +negate to
              only negate the grayscale pixels of the image.

       -noise <radius|type>
              add or reduce noise in an image

              The principal function of noise peak elimination  filter  is  to
              smooth   the   objects  within  an  image  without  losing  edge
              information  and  without  creating  undesired  structures.  The
              central  idea  of  the  algorithm is to replace a pixel with its
              next neighbor in value within a pixel window, if this pixel  has
              been  found to be noise. A pixel is defined as noise if and only
              if this pixel is a maximum or minimum within the pixel window.

              Use radius to specify the width of the neighborhood.

              Use +noise followed by a noise type to add noise  to  an  image.
              Choose from these noise types:

                   Uniform
                   Gaussian
                   Multiplicative
                   Impulse
                   Laplacian
                   Poisson

       -noop  NOOP (no option)

              The  -noop option can be used to terminate a group of images and
              reset all options to their default values, when no other  option
              is desired.

       -normalize
              transform image to span the full range of color values

              This is a contrast enhancement technique.

       -opaque <color>
              change this color to the pen color within the image

              The  color  is  specified  using  the format described under the
              -fill option.

              See -fill for more details.

       -operator channel operator rvalue[%]
              apply a mathematical or bitwise operator to an image channel

              Apply a low-level mathematical or bitwise operator to a selected
              image  channel or all image channels. Operations which result in
              negative  results  are  reset  to  zero,  and  operations  which
              overflow  the  available range are reset to the maximum possible
              value.

              Select a channel from: Red, Green, Blue, Opacity,  Matte,  Cyan,
              Magenta, Yellow, Black, or All.

              Select  an operator from Add, And, Divide, LShift, Multiply, Or,
              RShift, Subtract, Xor.

              Rvalue may be any floating point value in  the  range  of  0  to
              MaxRGB,  where  MaxRGB is the largest quantum value supported by
              the GraphicsMagick build  (255,  65535,  or  4294967295).  If  a
              percent  (%)  symbol  is  appended  to  the  argument,  then the
              argument has a range of 0 to 100 percent.

       -ordered-dither <channeltype> <NxN>
              ordered dither the image

              The channel or channels specified in  the  channeltype  argument
              are  reduced  to  binary,  using  an ordered dither method.  The
              choices for channeltype are:

                  all
                  intensity
                  opacity
                  matte

              When channeltype is "all", the color samples are dithered into a
              graylevel  and  then that graylevel is stored in the three color
              channels.  Separately, the opacity channel is  dithered  into  a
              bilevel opacity value which is stored in the opacity channel.

              When  channeltype  is  "intensity",  only  the color samples are
              dithered.  When channeltype is "opacity" or  "matte",  only  the
              opacity channel is dithered.

              The  choices  for  N  are  2, 3, or 4. When N is 2, the image is
              divided into 2x2 pixel tiles.  In each tile, 0, 1, 2,  3,  or  4
              pixels are turned to white depending on their intensity.  When N
              is 3, there  are  3x3  tiles  and  10  levels  of  gray  can  be
              represented.   When N is 4, there are 4x4 tiles and 17 levels of
              gray.

       -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{!}{<}{>}
              size and location of an image canvas

              Use this option to specify the dimensions of the PostScript page
              in  dots  per  inch  or a TEXT page in pixels. The choices for a
              PostScript page are:

                   11x17         792  1224
                   Ledger       1224   792
                   Legal         612  1008
                   Letter        612   792
                   LetterSmall   612   792
                   ArchE        2592  3456
                   ArchD        1728  2592
                   ArchC        1296  1728
                   ArchB         864  1296
                   ArchA         648   864
                   A0           2380  3368
                   A1           1684  2380
                   A2           1190  1684
                   A3            842  1190
                   A4            595   842
                   A4Small       595   842
                   A5            421   595
                   A6            297   421
                   A7            210   297
                   A8            148   210
                   A9            105   148
                   A10            74   105
                   B0           2836  4008
                   B1           2004  2836
                   B2           1418  2004
                   B3           1002  1418
                   B4            709  1002
                   B5            501   709
                   C0           2600  3677
                   C1           1837  2600
                   C2           1298  1837
                   C3            918  1298
                   C4            649   918
                   C5            459   649
                   C6            323   459
                   Flsa          612   936
                   Flse          612   936
                   HalfLetter    396   612

              For convenience you can specify the page size by media (e.g. A4,
              Ledger,  etc.).  Otherwise,  -page  behaves  much like -geometry
              (e.g.  -page letter+43+43>).

              This option is also used to place subimages when  writing  to  a
              multi-image format that supports offsets, such as GIF89 and MNG.
              When used for this purpose the offsets are always  measured from
              the  top  left  corner of the canvas and are not affected by the
              -gravity  option.   To  position  a  GIF  or  MNG   image,   use
              -page{+-}<x>{+-}<y>  (e.g.  -page  +100+200).  When writing to a
              MNG file, a -page option appearing ahead of the first  image  in
              the sequence with nonzero width and height defines the width and
              height values that are written in the  MHDR  chunk.   Otherwise,
              the MNG width and height are computed from the bounding box that
              contains all images in the sequence.  When writing a GIF89 file,
              only   the   bounding  box  method  is  used  to  determine  its
              dimensions.

              For a PostScript page, the image is sized as  in  -geometry  and
              positioned relative to the lower left hand corner of the page by
              {+-}<xoffset>{+-}<y offset>. Use -page 612x792>, for example, to
              center  the image within the page. If the image size exceeds the
              PostScript page, it is reduced to fit  the  page.   The  default
              gravity  for the -page option is NorthWest, i.e., positive x and
              y offset are measured rightward and downward from the  top  left
              corner of the page, unless the -gravity option is present with a
              value other than NorthWest.

              The default page dimensions for a TEXT image is 612x792.

              This option is used in concert with -density.

              Use +page to remove the page settings for an image.

       -paint <radius>
              simulate an oil painting

              Each pixel is replaced by the most frequent color in a  circular
              neighborhood whose width is specified with radius.

       -pause <seconds>
              pause between animation loops [animate]

              Pause  for  the specified number of seconds before repeating the
              animation.

       -pause <seconds>
              pause between snapshots [import]

              Pause for the specified number of seconds before taking the next
              snapshot.

       -pen <color>
              (This option has been replaced by the -fill option)

       -ping  efficiently determine image characteristics

       -pointsize <value>
              pointsize of the PostScript, OPTION1, or TrueType font

       -preview <type>
              image preview type

              Use  this  option  to  affect  the preview operation of an image
              (e.g.   convert  file.png  -preview  Gamma   Preview:gamma.png).
              Choose from these previews:

                   Rotate
                   Shear
                   Roll
                   Hue
                   Saturation
                   Brightness
                   Gamma
                   Spiff
                   Dull
                   Grayscale
                   Quantize
                   Despeckle
                   ReduceNoise
                   Add Noise
                   Sharpen
                   Blur
                   Threshold
                   EdgeDetect
                   Spread
                   Shade
                   Raise
                   Segment
                   Solarize
                   Swirl
                   Implode
                   Wave
                   OilPaint
                   CharcoalDrawing
                   JPEG

              The default preview is JPEG.

       -process <command>
              process a sequence of images using a process module

              The command argument has the form module=arg1,arg2,arg3,...,argN
              where  module  is  the  name  of  the  module  to  invoke  (e.g.
              "analyze")  and  arg1,arg2,arg3,...,argN are an arbitrary number
              of arguments to pass to the process  module.   The  sequence  of
              images is terminated by the appearance of any option.

              If  the  -process  option appears after all of the input images,
              all images are processed.

       -profile <filename>
              add ICM, IPTC, or generic profile  to image

              -profile filename adds  an  ICM  (ICC  color  management),  IPTC
              (newswire information), or a generic profile to the image.

              Use  +profile  icm,  +profile  iptc, or +profile profile_name to
              remove the respective profile.  Use identify  -verbose  to  find
              out  what  profiles  are in the image file.  Use +profile "*" to
              remove all profiles.

              To extract a profile, the -profile option is not used.  Instead,
              simply  write  the  file  to an image format such as APP1, 8BIM,
              ICM, or IPTC.

              For example, to extract the Exif data (which is stored  in  JPEG
              files in the APP1 profile), use

                  gm convert cockatoo.jpg exifdata.app1

       +progress
              disable progress monitor and busy cursor

              By  default,  when an image is displayed, a progress monitor bar
              is shown in the top left corner of  an  existing  image  display
              window,  and  the  current  cursor is replaced with an hourglass
              cursor. Use +progress to disable the progress monitor  and  busy
              cursor during display operations.  While the progress monitor is
              disabled for all operations, the busy  cursor  continues  to  be
              enabled  for  non-display  operations  such as image processing.
              This option is useful for non-interactive display operations, or
              when a "clean" look is desired.

       -quality <value>
              JPEG/MIFF/PNG compression level
               For the JPEG and MPEG image formats, quality is 0 (lowest image
              quality and highest compression) to 100 (best quality but  least
              effective  compression).  The  default  quality  is 75.  Use the
              -sampling-factor  option  to  specify  the  factors  for  chroma
              downsampling.   To  use  the same quality value as that found by
              the JPEG decoder, use the -define jpeg:preserve-settings flag.

              For the MIFF image format, quality/10 is  the  zlib  compression
              level, which is 0 (worst but fastest compression) to 9 (best but
              slowest).  It has no effect on the image appearance,  since  the
              compression is always lossless.

              For  the  JPEG-2000 image format, quality is mapped using a non-
              linear equation to the compression ratio required by the  Jasper
              library.   This  non-linear  equation  is  intended  to  loosely
              approximate the quality provided by  the  JPEG  v1  format.  The
              default   quality  value  75  results  in  a  request  for  16:1
              compression. The quality value 100 results in a request for non-
              lossy compression.

              For  the  MNG  and PNG image formats, the quality value sets the
              zlib compression level (quality / 10) and filter-type (quality %
              10).  Compression  levels  range from 0 (fastest compression) to
              100 (best but slowest). For compression level  0,  the  Huffman-
              only  strategy is used, which is fastest but not necessarily the
              worst compression.

              If filter-type is 4 or less, the specified filter-type  is  used
              for all scanlines:

                   0: none
                   1: sub
                   2: up
                   3: average
                   4: Paeth

              If  filter-type is 5, adaptive filtering is used when quality is
              greater than 50 and  the  image  does  not  have  a  color  map,
              otherwise no filtering is used.

              If  filter-type  is  6,  adaptive filtering with minimum-sum-of-
              absolute-values is used.

              Only if the output is MNG, if filter-type is 7, the  LOCO  color
              transformation   and  adaptive  filtering  with  minimum-sum-of-
              absolute-values are used.

              The default is quality  is  75,  which  means  nearly  the  best
              compression with adaptive filtering.  The quality setting has no
              effect on the appearance  of  PNG  and  MNG  images,  since  the
              compression is always lossless.

              For further information, see the PNG specification.

              When  writing  a JNG image with transparency, two quality values
              are required, one for the main image and one for  the  grayscale
              image  that conveys the opacity channel.  These are written as a
              single integer equal to the main image quality plus  1000  times
              the opacity quality.  For example, if you want to use quality 75
              for the main image and quality 90 to compress the opacity  data,
              use -quality 90075.

       -raise <width>x<height>
              lighten or darken image edges

              This will create a 3-D effect. See -geometry for details details
              about the geometry specification. Offsets are not used.

              Use -raise to create a raised effect, otherwise use +raise.

       -random-threshold <channeltype> <LOWxHIGH>
              random threshold the image

              The channel or channels specified in the <channeltype>  argument
              are  reduced  to  binary, using an random-threshold method.  The
              choices for channeltype are:

                  all
                  intensity
                  opacity
                  matte

              When channeltype is "all", the  color  samples  are  thresholded
              into  a graylevel and then that graylevel is stored in the three
              color channels.  Separately, the opacity channel is  thresholded
              into  a  bilevel  opacity  value  which is stored in the opacity
              channel.  For each  pixel,  a  new  random  number  is  used  to
              establish the threshold to be used.  The threshold never exceeds
              the  specified  maximum  (HIGH)  and  is  never  less  than  the
              specified minimum (LOW).

              When  channeltype  is  "intensity",  only  the color samples are
              thresholded.  When channeltype is "opacity" or "matte", only the
              opacity channel is thresholded.

       -red-primary <x>,<y>
              red chromaticity primary point

       -region <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>
              apply options to a portion of the image

              The  x and y offsets are treated in the same manner as in -crop.

       -remote
              perform a X11 remote operation

              The -remote command sends a command to a  "gm  display"  or  "gm
              animate"  which  is already running. The only command recognized
              at this time is  the  name  of  an  image  file  to  load.  This
              capability  is very useful to load new images without needing to
              restart  GraphicsMagick  (e.g.  for  a  slide-show  or  to   use
              GraphicsMagick  as the display engine for a different GUI). Also
              see  the  +progress  option  for  a  way  to  disable   progress
              indication for a clean look while loading new images.

       -render
              render vector operations

              Use  +render  to  turn  off rendering vector operations. This is
              useful when saving the result to vector formats such as  MVG  or
              SVG.

       -resample <horizontal>x<vertical>
              Resample image to specified horizontal and vertical resolution

              Resize  the  image so that its rendered size remains the same as
              the original at the  specified  target  resolution.  Either  the
              current image resolution units or the previously set with -units
              are used to interpret the argument. For example, if  a  300  DPI
              image  renders at 3 inches by 2 inches on a 300 DPI device, when
              the image has been resampled to 72 DPI,  it  will  render  at  3
              inches  by  2 inches on a 72 DPI device.  Note that only a small
              number of image formats (e.g. JPEG, PNG, and TIFF)  are  capable
              of  storing  the  image  resolution.  For  formats  which do not
              support an image resolution,  the  original  resolution  of  the
              image  must  be specified via -density on the command line prior
              to specifying the resample resolution.

              Note that Photoshop stores and obtains image resolution  from  a
              proprietary  embedded  profile.  If  this  profile exists in the
              image, then Photoshop will continue to treat the image using its
              former  resolution,  ignoring  the image resolution specified in
              the standard file header.

              Some image formats (e.g. PNG) require use of metric  or  english
              units  so  even  if  the  original  image used a particular unit
              system,  if  it  is  saved  to  a  different  format  prior   to
              resampling,  then  it  may  be  necessary to specify the desired
              resolution units using -units since the original units may  have
              been  lost.  In  other  words, do not assume that the resolution
              units are restored if the image has been saved to a file.

       -resize <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
              resize an image

              This is an alias for the -geometry option and it behaves in  the
              same  manner. If the -filter option precedes the -resize option,
              the specified filter is used.

              There are some exceptions:

              When used as a composite option, -resize conveys  the  preferred
              size  of  the output image, while -geometry conveys the size and
              placement of the composite image within the main image.

              When used as a montage option,  -resize  conveys  the  preferred
              size  of  the montage, while -geometry conveys information about
              the tiles.

       -roll {+-}<x>{+-}<y>
              roll an image vertically or horizontally

              See -geometry for details the geometry specification.  The x and
              y offsets are not affected by the -gravity option.

              A  negative x offset rolls the image left-to-right. A negative y
              offset rolls the image top-to-bottom.

       -rotate <degrees>{<}{>}
              apply Paeth image rotation to the image

              Use > to rotate the image only if its width exceeds the  height.
              <  rotates  the image only if its width is less than the height.
              For example, if you specify -rotate "-90>" and the image size is
              480x640,  the  image  is  not rotated.  However, if the image is
              640x480, it is rotated by -90 degrees.   If  you  use  >  or  <,
              enclose   it  in  quotation  marks  to  prevent  it  from  being
              misinterpreted as a file redirection.

              Empty triangles left over from rotating  the  image  are  filled
              with  the  color  defined as background (class backgroundColor).
              The color is specified using  the  format  described  under  the
              -fill option.

       -sample <geometry>
              scale image using pixel sampling

              See  -geometry  for  details  about  the geometry specification.
              -sample ignores the -filter selection if the -filter  option  is
              present.   Offsets,  if  present  in  the  geometry  string, are
              ignored, and the -gravity option has no effect.

       -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
              sampling  factors  used  by  JPEG  or  MPEG-2  encoder  and  YUV
              decoder/encoder.

              This  option  specifies  the  sampling factors to be used by the
              JPEG  encoder  for  chroma  downsampling.   If  this  option  is
              omitted, the JPEG library will use its own default values.  When
              reading or writing the YUV  format  and  when  writing  the  M2V
              (MPEG-2)  format,  use -sampling-factor 2x1 to specify the 4:2:2
              downsampling method.

              To use the same sampling factors as  those  found  by  the  JPEG
              decoder, use the -define jpeg:preserve-settings flag.

       -scale <geometry>
              scale the image.

              See  -geometry  for  details  about  the geometry specification.
              -scale uses a simpler, faster  algorithm,  and  it  ignores  the
              -filter selection if the -filter option is present.  Offsets, if
              present in the geometry string, are ignored,  and  the  -gravity
              option has no effect.

       -scene <value>
              set scene number

              This option sets the scene number of an image or the first image
              in an image sequence.

       -scenes <value-value>
              range of image scene numbers to read

              Each image in the range is read with the filename followed by  a
              period  (.)  and  the decimal scene number.  You can change this
              behavior by embedding a %d, %0Nd, %o, %0No, %x, or  %0Nx  printf
              format specification in the file name. For example,

                  gm montage -scenes 5-7 image.miff

              makes   a  montage  of  files  image.miff.5,  image.miff.6,  and
              image.miff.7, and

                  gm animate -scenes 0-12 image%02d.miff

              animates files image00.miff, image01.miff, through image12.miff.

       -screen
              specify the screen to capture

              This  option  indicates that the GetImage request used to obtain
              the image should  be  done  on  the  root  window,  rather  than
              directly  on  the specified window.  In this way, you can obtain
              pieces of other windows that overlap the specified  window,  and
              more importantly, you can capture menus or other popups that are
              independent windows but appear over the specified window.

       -segment <cluster threshold>x<smoothing threshold>
              segment an image

              Segment an image  by  analyzing  the  histograms  of  the  color
              components  and  identifying units that are homogeneous with the
              fuzzy c-means technique.

              Specify cluster threshold  as  the  number  of  pixels  in  each
              cluster  must  exceed the the cluster threshold to be considered
              valid.  Smoothing  threshold  eliminates  noise  in  the  second
              derivative of the histogram.  As the value is increased, you can
              expect a smoother second derivative.  The default  is  1.5.  See
              "Image Segmentation", below, for details.

       -shade <azimuth>x<elevation>
              shade the image using a distant light source

              Specify  azimuth  and  elevation  as  the  position of the light
              source. Use +shade to return the shading results as a  grayscale
              image.

       -shadow <radius>{x<sigma>}
              shadow the montage

       -shared-memory
              use shared memory

              This  option specifies whether the utility should attempt to use
              shared memory for pixmaps.  GraphicsMagick must be compiled with
              shared  memory support, and the display must support the MIT-SHM
              extension.  Otherwise, this option is ignored.  The  default  is
              True.

       -sharpen <radius>{x<sigma>}
              sharpen the image

              Use  a  Gaussian  operator  of  the  given  radius  and standard
              deviation (sigma).

       -shave <width>x<height>{%}
              shave pixels from the image edges

              Specify the width of the region to be removed from both sides of
              the  image  and the height of the regions to be removed from top
              and bottom.

       -shear <x degrees>x<y degrees>
              shear the image along the X or Y axis

              Use the specified positive or negative shear angle.

              Shearing slides one edge of an image along  the  X  or  Y  axis,
              creating  a  parallelogram.  An X direction shear slides an edge
              along the X axis, while a Y direction shear slides an edge along
              the  Y  axis.  The  amount of the shear is controlled by a shear
              angle. For X direction shears, x degrees is measured relative to
              the  Y  axis, and similarly, for Y direction shears y degrees is
              measured relative to the X axis.

              Empty triangles left over from shearing  the  image  are  filled
              with  the  color  defined as background (class backgroundColor).
              The color is specified using  the  format  described  under  the
              -fill option.

       -silent
              operate silently

       -size <width>x<height>{+offset}
              width and height of the image

              Use  this  option  to specify the width and height of raw images
              whose dimensions are unknown such as  GRAY,  RGB,  or  CMYK.  In
              addition  to  width and height, use -size with an offset to skip
              any header information in the image or tell the number of colors
              in a MAP image file, (e.g. -size 640x512+256).

              For Photo CD images, choose from these sizes:

                   192x128
                   384x256
                   768x512
                   1536x1024
                   3072x2048

              Finally, use this option to choose a particular resolution layer
              of a JBIG or JPEG image (e.g. -size 1024x768).

       -snaps <value>
              number of screen snapshots

              Use this option to grab more than one image from  the  X  server
              screen, to create an animation sequence.

       -solarize <factor>
              negate all pixels above the threshold level

              Specify  factor  as  the percent threshold of the intensity (0 -
              99.9%).

              This option produces a solarization effect seen when exposing  a
              photographic film to light during the development process.

       -spread <amount>
              displace image pixels by a random amount

              Amount defines the size of the neighborhood around each pixel to
              choose a candidate pixel to swap.

       -stegano <offset>
              hide watermark within an image

              Use an offset to start the image hiding some  number  of  pixels
              from the beginning of the image.  Note this offset and the image
              size.   You  will  need  this   information   to   recover   the
              steganographic    image    (e.g.    display   -size   320x256+35
              stegano:image.png).

       -stereo
              composite two images to create a stereo anaglyph

              The left side of the stereo pair is saved as the red channel  of
              the output image.  The right side is saved as the green channel.
              Red-green stereo glasses  are  required  to  properly  view  the
              stereo image.

       -stroke <color>
              color to use when stroking a graphic primitive

              The  color  is  specified  using  the format described under the
              -fill option.

              See -draw for further details.

       -strokewidth <value>
              set the stroke width

              See -draw for further details.

       -swirl <degrees>
              swirl image pixels about the center

              Degrees defines the tightness of the swirl.

       -text-font <name>
              font for writing fixed-width text

              Specifies the name  of  the  preferred  font  to  use  in  fixed
              (typewriter  style)  formatted  text.   The  default is 14 point
              Courier.

              You can tag a font  to  specify  whether  it  is  a  PostScript,
              TrueType,  or  OPTION1  font.   For  example,  Courier.ttf  is a
              TrueType font and x:fixed is OPTION1.

       -texture <filename>
              name of texture to tile onto the image background

       -threshold <value>{<green>,<blue>,<opacity>}{%}
              threshold the image

              Create an image such that any pixel sample that is equal to,  or
              exceeds  the  threshold,  is  reassigned  the  maximum intensity
              otherwise the minimum intensity.

              If the green or blue value is omitted, these  channels  use  the
              same value as the first one provided.  If all three color values
              are the same, the result is a bi-level image.   If  the  opacity
              threshold  is  omitted,  OpaqueOpacity  will  be  used  and  any
              partially transparent pixel will become fully  transparent.   If
              only   a   single  0  is  provided,  auto-thresholding  will  be
              performed.

              To generate an  all-black  or  all-white  image  with  the  same
              dimensions as the input image, you can use

                  gm convert -threshold 65535 in.png black.png
                  gm convert -threshold 0,0 in.png white.png

       -tile <filename>
              tile image when filling a graphic primitive

       -tile <geometry>
              layout of images [montage]

       -title <string>
              assign title to displayed image [animate, display, montage]

              Use this option to assign a specific title to the image. This is
              assigned to the image window and is typically displayed  in  the
              window   title  bar.   Optionally  you  can  include  the  image
              filename,  type,  width,  height,  Exif  data,  or  other  image
              attribute by embedding special format characters described under
              the -format option.

              For example,

                   -title "%m:%f %wx%h"

              produces an image title of MIFF:bird.miff 512x480 for  an  image
              titled bird.miff and whose width is 512 and height is 480.

       -transform
              transform the image

              This  option  applies  the transformation matrix from a previous
              -affine option.

                  gm convert -affine 2,2,-2,2,0,0 -transform bird.ppm bird.jpg

       -transparent <color>
              make this color transparent within the image

              The  color  is  specified  using  the format described under the
              -fill option.

       -treedepth <value>
              tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

              Normally, this integer value is zero or one. A value of zero  or
              one  causes  the  use  of  an  optimal  tree depth for the color
              reduction algorithm

              An optimal depth generally allows the best representation of the
              source  image with the fastest computational speed and the least
              amount of memory.  However, the default depth  is  inappropriate
              for  some  images. To assure the best representation, try values
              between 2 and 8 for this parameter.  Refer to quantize for  more
              details.

              The -colors or -monochrome option, or writing to an image format
              which requires color reduction, is required for this  option  to
              take effect.

       -trim  trim an image

              This option removes any edges that are exactly the same color as
              the corner pixels.  Use -fuzz to make -trim  remove  edges  that
              are nearly the same color as the corner pixels.

       -type <type>
              the image type

              Choose   from:   Bilevel,   Grayscale,   Palette,  PaletteMatte,
              TrueColor,           TrueColorMatte,            ColorSeparation,
              ColorSeparationMatte, or Optimize.

              Normally,  when  a  format supports different subformats such as
              grayscale and truecolor, the  encoder  will  try  to  choose  an
              efficient  subformat.  The -type option can be used to overrride
              this behavior.  For  example,  to  prevent  a  JPEG  from  being
              written  in  grayscale  format  even though only gray pixels are
              present, use

                  gm convert bird.pgm -type TrueColor bird.jpg

              Similarly, using -type TrueColorMatte will force the encoder  to
              write  an  alpha channel even though the image is opaque, if the
              output format supports transparency.

       -update <seconds>
               detect when image file is modified and redisplay.

              Suppose that while you are displaying an image the file that  is
              currently displayed is over-written.  display will automatically
              detect that the input file  has  been  changed  and  update  the
              displayed image accordingly.

       -units <type>
              the units of image resolution

              Choose  from:  Undefined, PixelsPerInch, or PixelsPerCentimeter.
              This option is normally used in conjunction  with  the  -density
              option.

       -unsharp <radius>{x<sigma>}{+<amount>}{+<threshold>}
              sharpen the image with an unsharp mask operator

              The  -unsharp  option  sharpens an image. The image is convolved
              with a Gaussian  operator  of  the  given  radius  and  standard
              deviation  (sigma).  For  reasonable  results,  radius should be
              larger than sigma. Use a radius of 0 to have the method select a
              suitable radius.

              The parameters are:

               radius

                    .in 20

                    The  radius  of  the Gaussian, in pixels, not counting the
                    center pixel (default 0).

               sigma

                    .in 20

                    The standard deviation of the Gaussian, in pixels (default
                    1.0).

               amount

                    .in 20

                    The  percentage of the difference between the original and
                    the blur image  that  is  added  back  into  the  original
                    (default 1.0).

               threshold

                    .in 20

                    The  threshold,  as  a fraction of MaxRGB, needed to apply
                    the difference amount (default 0.05).

       -use-pixmap
              use the pixmap

       -verbose
              print detailed information about the image

              This information is printed: image  scene  number;  image  name;
              image  size;  the  image class (DirectClass or PseudoClass); the
              total number of unique colors; and the number of seconds to read
              and transform the image.  Refer to miff for a description of the
              image class.

              If -colors is also specified, the total  unique  colors  in  the
              image  and  color  reduction  error values are printed. Refer to
              quantize for a description of these values.

       -version
              print GraphicsMagick version string

       -view <string>
              FlashPix viewing parameters

       -virtual-pixel <method>
              specify contents of "virtual pixels"

              This option defines "virtual pixels" for use in operations  that
              can access pixels outside the boundaries of an image.

              Choose from these methods:

               Constant

                    .in 20

                    Use the image background color.

               Edge

                    .in 20

                    Extend the edge pixel toward infinity (default).

               Mirror

                    .in 20

                    Mirror the image.

               Tile

                    .in 20

                    Tile the image.

               This  option affects operations that use virtual pixels such as
               -blur, -sharpen, -wave, etc.

       -visual <type>
              animate images using this X visual type

              Choose from these visual classes:

                   StaticGray
                   GrayScale
                   StaticColor
                   PseudoColor
                   TrueColor
                   DirectColor
                   default
                   visual id

              The X server must support the visual you  choose,  otherwise  an
              error  occurs.   If  a visual is not specified, the visual class
              that can display the most simultaneous  colors  on  the  default
              screen is chosen.

       -watermark <brightness>x<saturation>
              percent brightness and saturation of a watermark

       -wave <amplitude>x<wavelength>
              alter an image along a sine wave

              Specify amplitude and wavelength of the wave.

       -white-point <x>,<y>
              chromaticity white point

       -window <id>
              make image the background of a window

              id  can be a window id or name.  Specify root to select X’s root
              window as the target window.

              By default the image is tiled onto the background of the  target
              window.    If  backdrop or -geometry are specified, the image is
              surrounded by the background color.  Refer to  X  RESOURCES  for
              details.

              The  image  will not display on the root window if the image has
              more unique colors than the target window colormap allows.   Use
              -colors to reduce the number of colors.

       -window-group
              specify the window group

       -write <filename>
              write  an image sequence [convert, composite]

              The  image  sequence  following  the  -write  filenameoption  is
              written out, and then processing continues with the  same  image
              in  its  current  state  if  there  are  additional options.  To
              restore the image to its original state after  writing  it,  use
              the +write filename option.

       -write <filename>
              write the image to a file [display]

              If  filename  already exists, you will be prompted as to whether
              it should be overwritten.

              By default, the image is written in the format that it was  read
              in  as.   To  specify a particular image format, prefix filename
              with the image type and a colon (e.g., ps:image) or specify  the
              image type as the filename suffix (e.g., image.ps). Specify file
              as - for standard output. If file has the extension .Z  or  .gz,
              the file size is compressed using compress or gzip respectively.
              Precede the image file name with | to pipe to a system  command.

              Use -compress to specify the type of image compression.

              The  equivalent  X  resource  for  this  option is writeFilename
              (class WriteFilename).  See "X Resources", below, for details.

GM ANIMATE

       Animate displays a  sequence  of  images  on  any  workstation  display
       running an X server. animate first determines the hardware capabilities
       of the workstation. If the number of unique colors in an image is  less
       than  or  equal to the number the workstation can support, the image is
       displayed in an X window. Otherwise the number of colors in  the  image
       is  first  reduced  to  match  the  color resolution of the workstation
       before it is displayed.

       This means that a continuous-tone 24 bits-per-pixel image  can  display
       on  a 8 bit pseudo-color device or monochrome device. In most instances
       the reduced color image closely resembles the original.  Alternatively,
       a   monochrome   or  pseudo-color  image  sequence  can  display  on  a
       continuous-tone 24 bits-per-pixel device.

       To help prevent color flashing on X server visuals that have colormaps,
       animate  creates a single colormap from the image sequence. This can be
       rather time consuming. You can speed this operation up by reducing  the
       colors  in  the  image  before you "animate" them. Use mogrify to color
       reduce the images to a single colormap.  See  mogrify(1)  for  details.
       Alternatively, you can use a Standard Colormap; or a static, direct, or
       true color visual.  You can define a Standard Colormap  with  xstdcmap.
       See xstdcmap(1) for details. This method is recommended for colormapped
       X server because it eliminates the need to compute a global colormap.

EXAMPLES

       To animate a set of images of a cockatoo, use:

           gm animate cockatoo.*

       To animate a cockatoo image sequence while using the Standard  Colormap
       best, use:

           xstdcmap -best
           gm animate -map best cockatoo.*

       To  animate  an  image  of  a  cockatoo  without a border centered on a
       backdrop, use:

           gm animate +borderwidth -backdrop cockatoo.*

OPTIONS

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.

       -authenticate <string>
              decrypt image with this password

       -backdrop
              display the image centered on a backdrop.

       -background <color>
              the background color

       -bordercolor <color>
              the border color

       -borderwidth <geometry>
              the border width

       -cache <threshold>
              (This option has been replaced by the -limit option)

       -chop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              remove pixels from the interior of an image

       -colormap <type>
              define the colormap type

       -colors <value>
              preferred number of colors in the image

       -colorspace <value>
              the type of colorspace

       -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              preferred size and location of the cropped image

       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

       -define <key>{=<value>},...
              add coder/decoder specific options

       -delay <1/100ths of a second>
              display the next image after pausing

       -density <width>x<height>
              horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth <value>
              depth of the image

       -display <host:display[.screen]>
              specifies the X server to contact

       -dispose <method>
              GIF disposal method

       -dither
              apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

       -font <name>
              use this font when annotating the image with text

       -foreground <color>
              define the foreground color

       -gamma <value>
              level of gamma correction

       -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@} {!}{<}{>}
              preferred size and location of the Image window.

       -help  print usage instructions

       -iconGeometry <geometry>
              specify the icon geometry

       -iconic
              iconic animation

       -interlace <type>
              the type of interlacing scheme

       -limit <type> <value>
              Disk, File, Map, or Memory resource limit

       -log <string>
              Specify format for debug log

       -map <type>
              display image using this type.

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

       -mattecolor <color>
              specify the color to be used with the -frame option

       -monochrome
              transform the image to black and white

       -name  name an image

       -noop  NOOP (no option)

       -pause <seconds>
              pause between animation loops [animate]

       -remote
              perform a X11 remote operation

       -rotate <degrees>{<}{>}
              apply Paeth image rotation to the image

       -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
              sampling  factors  used  by  JPEG  or  MPEG-2  encoder  and  YUV
              decoder/encoder.

       -scenes <value-value>
              range of image scene numbers to read

       -shared-memory
              use shared memory

       -size <width>x<height>{+offset}
              width and height of the image

       -text-font <name>
              font for writing fixed-width text

       -title <string>
              assign title to displayed image [animate, display, montage]

       -treedepth <value>
              tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

       -trim  trim an image

       -verbose
              print detailed information about the image

       -version
              print GraphicsMagick version string

       -visual <type>
              animate images using this X visual type

       -window <id>
              make image the background of a window

              For  a  more  detailed  description of each option, see Options,
              above.

              Any option you specify on the command line remains in effect for
              the  group of images following it, until the group is terminated
              by the appearance of any  option  or  -noop.   For  example,  to
              animate  three images, the first with 32 colors, the second with
              an unlimited number of  colors,  and  the  third  with  only  16
              colors, use:

                   gm animate -colors 32 cockatoo.1 -noop cockatoo.2
                           -colors 16 cockatoo.3

              Animate  options  can  appear  on  the command line or in your X
              resources file. See X(1). Options on the command line  supersede
              values  specified in your X resources file.  Image filenames may
              appear in any order on the command line if the image  format  is
              MIFF (refer to miff(5) and the scene keyword is specified in the
              image. Otherwise the images  will  display  in  the  order  they
              appear on the command line.

MOUSE BUTTONS

       Press  any  button  to  map  or  unmap the Command widget. See the next
       section for more information about the Command widget.

COMMAND WIDGET

       The Command widget lists a number of sub-menus and commands. They are

           Animate

               Open
               Play
               Step
               Repeat
               Auto Reverse

           Speed

               Faster
               Slower

           Direction

               Forward
               Reverse

           Image Info
           Help
           Quit

       Menu  items  with  a  indented  triangle  have  a  sub-menu.  They  are
       represented  above  as  the  indented items. To access a sub-menu item,
       move the pointer to the appropriate menu and press a button  and  drag.
       When  you  find  the  desired sub-menu item, release the button and the
       command is executed.  Move the pointer away from the  sub-menu  if  you
       decide not to execute a particular command.

KEYBOARD ACCELERATORS

               Ctl+O

                    .in 20 Press to load an image from a file.
               space

                    .in 20 Press to display the next image in the sequence.
               <

                    .in 20 Press to speed-up the display of the images.  Refer
                    to -delay for more information.
               >

                    .in 20 Press to slow the display of the images.  Refer  to
                    -delay for more information.
               ?

                    .in  20  Press  to  display  information  about the image.
                    Press any key or button to erase the information.
                    This information is printed: image name;  image size;  and
                    the total number of unique colors in the image.
               F1

                    .in   20   Press  to  display  helpful  information  about
                    animate(1).
               Ctl-q

                    .in 20 Press to discard all images and exit program.

X RESOURCES

       Animate options can appear on the command line or in  your  X  resource
       file.  Options on the command line supersede values specified in your X
       resource file. See X(1) for more information on X resources.

       All animate options have a corresponding X resource. In  addition,  the
       animate program uses the following X resources:

               background (class Background)

                    .in 20

                    Specifies  the preferred color to use for the Image window
                    background. The default is #ccc.
               borderColor (class BorderColor)

                    .in 20

                    Specifies the preferred color to use for the Image  window
                    border. The default is #ccc.
               borderWidth (class BorderWidth)

                    .in 20

                    Specifies  the width in pixels of the Image window border.
                    The default is 2.
               font (class Font or FontList)

                    .in 20

                    Specifies the name of the preferred font to use in  normal
                    formatted text.  The default is 14 point Helvetica.
               foreground (class Foreground)

                    .in 20

                    Specifies  the  preferred color to use for text within the
                    Image window.  The default is black.
               geometry (class geometry)

                    .in 20

                    Specifies the preferred size and  position  of  the  image
                    window.  It  is  not  necessarily  obeyed  by  all  window
                    managers.  Offsets, if present, are handled in X(1) style.
                    A negative x offset is measured from the right edge of the
                    screen to the right edge of the icon,  and  a  negative  y
                    offset  is  measured from the bottom edge of the screen to
                    the bottom edge of the icon.
               iconGeometry (class IconGeometry)

                    .in 20

                    Specifies  the  preferred  size  and   position   of   the
                    application  when iconified.  It is not necessarily obeyed
                    by all window managers.  Offsets, if present, are  handled
                    in the same manner as in class Geometry.
               iconic (class Iconic)

                    .in 20

                    This  resource  indicates  that  you would prefer that the
                    application’s windows initially not be visible as  if  the
                    windows  had  be  immediately  iconified  by  you.  Window
                    managers  may  choose  not  to  honor  the   application’s
                    request.
               matteColor (class MatteColor)

                    .in 20

                    Specify   the  color  of  windows.  It  is  used  for  the
                    backgrounds of windows, menus, and notices. A 3D effect is
                    achieved by using highlight and shadow colors derived from
                    this color. Default value: #ddd.
               name (class Name)

                    .in 20

                    This resource specifies the name under which resources for
                    the  application  should be found. This resource is useful
                    in shell aliases to distinguish between invocations of  an
                    application,  without resorting to creating links to alter
                    the executable file name. The default is  the  application
                    name.
               sharedMemory (class SharedMemory)

                    .in 20

                    This resource specifies whether animate should attempt use
                    shared memory for pixmaps. ImageMagick  must  be  compiled
                    with  shared  memory support, and the display must support
                    the  MIT-SHM  extension.  Otherwise,  this   resource   is
                    ignored. The default is True.
               text_font (class textFont)

                    .in 20

                    Specifies  the  name of the preferred font to use in fixed
                    (typewriter style) formatted text. The default is 14 point
                    Courier.
               title (class Title)

                    .in 20

                    This resource specifies the title to be used for the Image
                    window. This information is sometimes  used  by  a  window
                    manager  to  provide  some  sort of header identifying the
                    window. The default is the image file name.

GM COMPOSITE

       composite composites (combines) images to  create  new  images.   base-
       image  is the base image and change-image contains the changes.  ouput-
       image is the result, and normally has  the  same  dimensions  as  base-
       image.

       The  optional mask-image can be used to provide opacity information for
       change-image when it has none or if you want a different mask.  A  mask
       image  is typically grayscale and the same size as base-image. If mask-
       image is not grayscale, it is converted to grayscale and the  resulting
       intensities are used as opacity information.

EXAMPLES

       To composite an image of a cockatoo with a perch, use:

           gm composite cockatoo.miff perch.ras composite.miff

       To compute the difference between images in a series, use:

           gm composite -compose difference series.2 series.1
                     difference.miff

       To  composite  an image of a cockatoo with a perch starting at location
       (100,150), use:

           gm composite -geometry +100+150 cockatoo.miff
                     perch.ras composite.miff

       To tile a logo across your image of a cockatoo, use

           gm convert +shade 30x60 cockatoo.miff mask.miff
           gm composite -compose bumpmap -tile logo.png
                     cockatoo.miff mask.miff composite.miff

       To composite a red, green, and blue color plane into a single composite
       image, try

           gm composite -compose CopyGreen green.png red.png
                     red-green.png
           gm composite -compose CopyBlue blue.png red-green.png
                     gm composite.png

OPTIONS

       Options  are processed in command line order. Any option you specify on
       the command line remains in effect only for  the  image  that  follows.
       All options are reset to their default values after each image is read.

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.

       -authenticate <string>
              decrypt image with this password

       -background <color>
              the background color

       -blue-primary <x>,<y>
              blue chromaticity primary point

       -cache <threshold>
              (This option has been replaced by the -limit option)

       -colors <value>
              preferred number of colors in the image

       -colorspace <value>
              the type of colorspace

       -comment <string>
              annotate an image with a comment

       -compose <operator>
              the type of image composition

       -compress <type>
              the type of image compression

       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

       -define <key>{=<value>},...
              add coder/decoder specific options

       -density <width>x<height>
              horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth <value>
              depth of the image

       -displace <horizontal scale>x<vertical scale>
              shift image pixels as defined by a displacement map

       -display <host:display[.screen]>
              specifies the X server to contact

       -dispose <method>
              GIF disposal method

       -dissolve <percent>
              dissolve an image into another by the given percent

       -dither
              apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

       -encoding <type>
              specify the text encoding

       -endian <type>
              specify endianness (MSB or LSB) of output image

       -filter <type>
              use this type of filter when resizing an image

       -font <name>
              use this font when annotating the image with text

       -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@} {!}{<}{>}
              preferred size and location of the Image window.

       -gravity <type>
              direction primitive  gravitates to when annotating the image.

       -green-primary <x>,<y>
              green chromaticity primary point

       -help  print usage instructions

       -interlace <type>
              the type of interlacing scheme

       -label <name>
              assign a label to an image

       -limit <type> <value>
              Disk, File, Map, or Memory resource limit

       -log <string>
              Specify format for debug log

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

       -monochrome
              transform the image to black and white

       -negate
              replace every pixel with its complementary color

       -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{!}{<}{>}
              size and location of an image canvas

       -profile <filename>
              add ICM, IPTC, or generic profile  to image

       -quality <value>
              JPEG/MIFF/PNG compression level

       -red-primary <x>,<y>
              red chromaticity primary point

       -render
              render vector operations

       -resize <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
              resize an image

       -rotate <degrees>{<}{>}
              apply Paeth image rotation to the image

       -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
              sampling  factors  used  by  JPEG  or  MPEG-2  encoder  and  YUV
              decoder/encoder.

       -scene <value>
              set scene number

       -sharpen <radius>{x<sigma>}
              sharpen the image

       -size <width>x<height>{+offset}
              width and height of the image

       -stegano <offset>
              hide watermark within an image

       -stereo
              composite two images to create a stereo anaglyph

       -treedepth <value>
              tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

       -trim  trim an image

       -type <type>
              the image type

       -units <type>
              the units of image resolution

       -unsharp <radius>{x<sigma>}{+<amount>}{+<threshold>}
              sharpen the image with an unsharp mask operator

       -verbose
              print detailed information about the image

       -version
              print GraphicsMagick version string

       -watermark <brightness>x<saturation>
              percent brightness and saturation of a watermark

       -white-point <x>,<y>
              chromaticity white point

       -write <filename>
              write  an image sequence [convert, composite]

              For  a  more  detailed  description of each option, see Options,
              above.

GM CONJURE

       The Magick scripting language (MSL) will primarily benefit  those  that
       want  to  accomplish  custom  image processing tasks but do not wish to
       program, or those that do not have access to a Perl  interpreter  or  a
       compiler.   The  interpreter  is  called conjure and here is an example
       script:

           <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
           <image size="400x400" >
             <read filename="image.gif" />
             <get width="base-width" height="base-height" />
             <resize geometry="%[dimensions]" />
             <get width="width" height="height" />
             <print output=
               "Image sized from %[base-width]x%[base-height]
                to %[width]x%[height].\n" />
             <write filename="image.png" />
           </image>

       invoked with

           gm conjure -dimensions 400x400 incantation.msl

       All operations will closely  follow  the  key/value  pairs  defined  in
       PerlMagick, unless otherwise noted.

       Conjure is in the early stages of development as of April 2002.

       This  early announcement is to allow GraphicsMagick users to contribute
       ideas early in the process so when the scripting language  is  released
       it  will  be  useful/stable  from the get-go! If you want to contribute
       suggestions about the Magick scripting language (MSL), post them to the
       GraphicsMagick     tools     list     at     graphicsmagick-tools     @
       lists.sourceforge.net.

OPTIONS

       Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify  on
       the  command  line  remains in effect until it is explicitly changed by
       specifying the option again with  a  different  effect,  or  if  it  is
       changed by a statement in the scripting language.

       You  can  define your own keyword/value pairs on the command line.  The
       script can then use this information when setting values  by  including
       %[keyword]  in  the  string.  For example, if you included "-dimensions
       400x400" on the command line, as illustrated  above,  then  any  string
       containing   "%[dimensions]"   would  have  400x400  substituted.   The
       "%[string]"  can  be  used   either   an   entire   string,   such   as
       geometry="%[dimensions]"   or   as   a   part   of  a  string  such  as
       filename="%[basename].png".

       The keyword can be any string except for the following reserved strings
       (in any upper, lower, or mixed case variant): debug, help, and verbose,
       whose usage is described below.

       The value can be any string.   If  either  the  keyword  or  the  value
       contains  white space or any symbols that have special meanings to your
       shell such as "#", "|", or "%", enclose the string in  quotation  marks
       or use "\" to escape the white space and special symbols.

       Keywords  and values are case dependent.  "Key", "key", and "KEY" would
       be three different keywords.

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.

       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

       -define <key>{=<value>},...
              add coder/decoder specific options

       -help  print usage instructions

       -log <string>
              Specify format for debug log

       -verbose
              print detailed information about the image

       -version
              print GraphicsMagick version string

MAGICK SCRIPTING LANGUAGE

       The Magick Scripting Language (MSL)  presently  defines  the  following
       elements and their attributes:

               <image>

                    .in 20

                    Define  a new image object.  </image> destroys it. Because
                    of this, if you wish  to  reference  multiple  "subimages"
                    (aka  pages  or  layers),  you can embed one image element
                    inside of another. For example:

                        <image>
                        <read filename="input.png" />
                        <get width="base-width" height="base-height" />
                        <image height="base-height" width="base-width">
                        <image />
                        <write filename="output.mng" />
                        </image>

                        <image size="400x400" />

               <group>

                    .in 20

                    Define a new group of image objects.  By  default,  images
                    are only valid for the life of their <image>element.

                        <image>   -- creates the image
                        .....     -- do stuff with it
                        </image>  -- dispose of the image

                    However,  in  a  group, all images in that group will stay
                    around for the life of the group:

                        <group>                           -- start a group
                            <image>                       -- create an image
                            ....                          -- do stuff
                            </image>                      -- NOOP
                            <image>                        --  create  another
                    image
                            ....                          -- do more stuff
                            </image>                      -- NOOP
                            <write filename="image.mng" />  -- output
                        </group>                           --  dispose of both
                    images

               <read>

                    .in 20

                    Read a new image from a disk file.

                        <read filename="image.gif" />

                    To read two images use

                        <read filename="image.gif" />
                        <read filename="image.png />

               <write>

                    .in 20 Write the image(s) to  disk,  either  as  a  single
                    multiple-image file or multiple ones if necessary.

                         <write filename=image.tiff" />
               <get>

                    .in  20  Get  any  attribute  recognized  by  PerlMagick’s
                    GetAttribute() and stores it as  an  image  attribute  for
                    later  use. Currently only width and height are supported.

                        <get width="base-width" height="base-height" />
                        <print  output="Image  size  is  %[base-width]x%[base-
                    height].\n" />

               <set>

                    .in  20  background,  bordercolor,  clip-mask, colorspace,
                    density, magick, mattecolor, opacity.   Set  an  attribute
                    recognized by PerlMagick’s GetAttribute().
               <border>

                    .in 20
                        fill, geometry, height, width
               <blur>

                    .in 20
                        radius, sigma
               <charcoal>

                    .in 20
                        radius, sigma
               <chop>

                    .in 20
                        geometry, height, width, x, y
               <crop>

                    .in 20
                        geometry, height, width, x, y
               <despeckle>

                    .in 15 <emboss>

                    .in 20
                        radius, sigma
               <enhance>

                    .in 15 <equalize>

                    .in 15 <flip>

                    .in 15 <flop>

                    .in 15 <frame>

                    .in 20
                        fill, geometry, height, width, x, y, inner, outer
               <get>

                    .in 20
                        height, width
               <image>

                    .in 20
                        background, color, id, size
               <magnify>

                    .in 15 <minify>

                    .in 15 <normalize>

                    .in 15 <print>

                    .in 20
                        output
               <read>

                    .in 15 <resize>

                    .in 20
                        blur, filter, geometry, height, width
               <roll>

                    .in 20
                        geometry, x, y
               <rotate>

                    .in 20
                        degrees
               <sample>

                    .in 20
                        geometry, height, width
               <scale>

                    .in 20
                        geometry, height, width
               <sharpen>

                    .in 20
                        radius, sigma
               <shave>

                    .in 20
                        geometry, height, width
               <shear>

                    .in 20
                        x, y
               <solarize>

                    .in 20
                        threshold
               <spread>

                    .in 20
                        radius
               <stegano>

                    .in 20
                        image
               <stereo>

                    .in 20
                        image
               <swirl>

                    .in 20
                        degrees
               <texture>

                    .in 20
                        image
               <threshold>

                    .in 20
                        threshold
               <transparent>

                    .in 20
                        color
               <trim>

       GM CONVERT

              Convert  converts  an  input  file  using one image format to an
              output file with a differing image format. In addition,  various
              types  of  image  processing  can  be performed on the converted
              image during the  conversion  process.  Convert  recognizes  the
              image formats listed in GraphicsMagick(1).

EXAMPLES

       To make a thumbnail of a JPEG image, use:

           gm convert -size 120x120 cockatoo.jpg -resize 120x120
                   +profile "*" thumbnail.jpg

       In  this example, ’-size 120x120’ gives a hint to the JPEG decoder that
       the image is going to be downscaled to  120x120,  allowing  it  to  run
       faster  by  avoiding returning full-resolution images to GraphicsMagick
       for the subsequent resizing operation.  The ´-resize 120x120’ specifies
       the  desired  dimensions of the output image.  It will be scaled so its
       largest dimension is 120 pixels.  The ´+profile "*"’ removes  any  ICM,
       EXIF,  IPTC,  or  other profiles that might be present in the input and
       aren’t needed in the thumbnail.

       To convert a MIFF image of a cockatoo to a SUN raster image, use:

           gm convert cockatoo.miff sun:cockatoo.ras

       To convert a multi-page PostScript document to  individual  FAX  pages,
       use:

           gm convert -monochrome document.ps fax:page

       To  convert  a TIFF image to a PostScript A4 page with the image in the
       lower left-hand corner, use:

           gm convert -page A4+0+0 image.tiff document.ps

       To convert a raw Gray image with  a  128  byte  header  to  a  portable
       graymap, use:

           gm convert -depth 8 -size 768x512+128 gray:raw
                   image.pgm

       In  this example, "raw" is the input file.  Its format is "gray" and it
       has the dimensions and number of header bytes specified  by  the  -size
       option and the sample depth specified by the -depth option.  The output
       file is "image.pgm".  The suffix ".pgm" specifies its format.

       To convert a Photo CD image to a TIFF image, use:

           gm convert -size 1536x1024 img0009.pcd image.tiff
           gm convert img0009.pcd[4] image.tiff

       To create a visual image directory of all your JPEG images, use:

           gm convert ’vid:*.jpg’ directory.miff

       To annotate an image with  blue  text  using  font  12x24  at  position
       (100,100), use:

           gm convert -font helvetica -fill blue
                   -draw "text 100,100 Cockatoo"
                   bird.jpg bird.miff

       To tile a 640x480 image with a JPEG texture with bumps use:

           gm convert -size 640x480 tile:bumps.jpg tiled.png

       To  surround  an  icon with an ornamental border to use with Mosaic(1),
       use:

           gm convert -mattecolor "#697B8F" -frame 6x6 bird.jpg
                   icon.png

       To create a MNG animation from a DNA molecule sequence, use:

           gm convert -delay 20 dna.* dna.mng

OPTIONS

       Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify  on
       the  command line remains in effect for the set of images that follows,
       until the set is terminated by the appearance of any option  or  -noop.
       Some  options  only  affect  the decoding of images and others only the
       encoding.  The latter can appear after the final group of input images.

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.

       -adjoin
              join images into a single multi-image file

       -affine <matrix>
              drawing transform matrix

       -antialias
              remove pixel aliasing

       -append
              append a set of images

       -authenticate <string>
              decrypt image with this password

       -average
              average a set of images

       -background <color>
              the background color

       -blue-primary <x>,<y>
              blue chromaticity primary point

       -blur <radius>{x<sigma>}
              blur the image with a Gaussian operator

       -border <width>x<height>
              surround the image with a border of color

       -bordercolor <color>
              the border color

       -box <color>
              set the color of the annotation bounding box

       -cache <threshold>
              (This option has been replaced by the -limit option)

       -channel <type>
              the type of channel

       -charcoal <factor>
              simulate a charcoal drawing

       -chop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              remove pixels from the interior of an image

       -clip  apply the clipping path, if one is present

       -coalesce
              merge a sequence of images

       -colorize <value>
              colorize the image with the pen color

       -colors <value>
              preferred number of colors in the image

       -colorspace <value>
              the type of colorspace

       -comment <string>
              annotate an image with a comment

       -compose <operator>
              the type of image composition

       -compress <type>
              the type of image compression

       -contrast
              enhance or reduce the image contrast

       -convolve <kernel>
              convolve image with the specified convolution kernel

       -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              preferred size and location of the cropped image

       -cycle <amount>
              displace image colormap by amount

       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

       -deconstruct
              break down an image sequence into constituent parts

       -define <key>{=<value>},...
              add coder/decoder specific options

       -delay <1/100ths of a second>
              display the next image after pausing

       -density <width>x<height>
              horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth <value>
              depth of the image

       -despeckle
              reduce the speckles within an image

       -display <host:display[.screen]>
              specifies the X server to contact

       -dispose <method>
              GIF disposal method

       -dither
              apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

       -draw <string>
              annotate an image with one or more graphic primitives

       -edge <radius>
              detect edges within an image

       -emboss <radius>
              emboss an image

       -encoding <type>
              specify the text encoding

       -endian <type>
              specify endianness (MSB or LSB) of output image

       -enhance
              apply a digital filter to enhance a noisy image

       -equalize
              perform histogram equalization to the image

       -fill <color>
              color to use when filling a graphic primitive

       -filter <type>
              use this type of filter when resizing an image

       -flatten
              flatten a sequence of images

       -flip  create a "mirror image"

       -flop  create a "mirror image"

       -font <name>
              use this font when annotating the image with text

       -frame <width>x<height>+<outer bevel width>+<inner bevel width>
              surround the image with an ornamental border

       -fuzz <distance>{%}
              colors within this distance are considered equal

       -gamma <value>
              level of gamma correction

       -Gaussian <radius>{x<sigma>}
              blur the image with a Gaussian operator

       -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@} {!}{<}{>}
              preferred size and location of the Image window.

       -gravity <type>
              direction primitive  gravitates to when annotating the image.

       -green-primary <x>,<y>
              green chromaticity primary point

       -help  print usage instructions

       -implode <factor>
              implode image pixels about the center

       -intent <type>
              use this type of rendering intent when managing the image color

       -interlace <type>
              the type of interlacing scheme

       -label <name>
              assign a label to an image

       -lat <width>x<height>{+-}<offset>{%}
              perform local adaptive thresholding

       -level <black_point>{,<gamma>}{,<white_point>}{%}
              adjust the level of image contrast

       -limit <type> <value>
              Disk, File, Map, or Memory resource limit

       -list <type>
              the type of list

       -log <string>
              Specify format for debug log

       -loop <iterations>
              add Netscape loop extension to your GIF animation

       -map <filename>
              choose a particular set of colors from this image

       -mask <filename>
              Specify a clipping mask

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

       -mattecolor <color>
              specify the color to be used with the -frame option

       -median <radius>
              apply a median filter to the image

       -modulate brightness[,saturation[,hue]]
              vary the brightness, saturation, and hue of an image

       -monochrome
              transform the image to black and white

       -morph <frames>
              morphs an image sequence

       -mosaic
              create a mosaic from an image or an image sequence

       -negate
              replace every pixel with its complementary color

       -noise <radius|type>
              add or reduce noise in an image

       -noop  NOOP (no option)

       -normalize
              transform image to span the full range of color values

       -opaque <color>
              change this color to the pen color within the image

       -operator channel operator rvalue[%]
              apply a mathematical or bitwise operator to an image channel

       -ordered-dither <channeltype> <NxN>
              ordered dither the image

       -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{!}{<}{>}
              size and location of an image canvas

       -paint <radius>
              simulate an oil painting

       -pen <color>
              (This option has been replaced by the -fill option)

       -ping  efficiently determine image characteristics

       -pointsize <value>
              pointsize of the PostScript, OPTION1, or TrueType font

       -preview <type>
              image preview type

       -process <command>
              process a sequence of images using a process module

       -profile <filename>
              add ICM, IPTC, or generic profile  to image

       -quality <value>
              JPEG/MIFF/PNG compression level

       -raise <width>x<height>
              lighten or darken image edges

       -random-threshold <channeltype> <LOWxHIGH>
              random threshold the image

       -red-primary <x>,<y>
              red chromaticity primary point

       -region <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>
              apply options to a portion of the image

       -render
              render vector operations

       -resample <horizontal>x<vertical>
              Resample image to specified horizontal and vertical resolution

       -resize <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
              resize an image

       -roll {+-}<x>{+-}<y>
              roll an image vertically or horizontally

       -rotate <degrees>{<}{>}
              apply Paeth image rotation to the image

       -sample <geometry>
              scale image using pixel sampling

       -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
              sampling  factors  used  by  JPEG  or  MPEG-2  encoder  and  YUV
              decoder/encoder.

       -scale <geometry>
              scale the image.

       -scene <value>
              set scene number

       -segment <cluster threshold>x<smoothing threshold>
              segment an image

       -shade <azimuth>x<elevation>
              shade the image using a distant light source

       -sharpen <radius>{x<sigma>}
              sharpen the image

       -shave <width>x<height>{%}
              shave pixels from the image edges

       -shear <x degrees>x<y degrees>
              shear the image along the X or Y axis

       -size <width>x<height>{+offset}
              width and height of the image

       -solarize <factor>
              negate all pixels above the threshold level

       -spread <amount>
              displace image pixels by a random amount

       -stroke <color>
              color to use when stroking a graphic primitive

       -strokewidth <value>
              set the stroke width

       -swirl <degrees>
              swirl image pixels about the center

       -texture <filename>
              name of texture to tile onto the image background

       -threshold <value>{<green>,<blue>,<opacity>}{%}
              threshold the image

       -tile <filename>
              tile image when filling a graphic primitive

       -transform
              transform the image

       -transparent <color>
              make this color transparent within the image

       -treedepth <value>
              tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

       -trim  trim an image

       -type <type>
              the image type

       -units <type>
              the units of image resolution

       -unsharp <radius>{x<sigma>}{+<amount>}{+<threshold>}
              sharpen the image with an unsharp mask operator

       -use-pixmap
              use the pixmap

       -verbose
              print detailed information about the image

       -version
              print GraphicsMagick version string

       -view <string>
              FlashPix viewing parameters

       -virtual-pixel <method>
              specify contents of "virtual pixels"

       -wave <amplitude>x<wavelength>
              alter an image along a sine wave

       -white-point <x>,<y>
              chromaticity white point

       -write <filename>
              write  an image sequence [convert, composite]

              For a more detailed description of  each  option,  see  Options,
              above.

GM DISPLAY

       Display  is  a  machine  architecture  independent image processing and
       display program. It can display an  image  on  any  workstation  screen
       running  an  X  server.  Display  can  read  and write many of the more
       popular image formats (e.g. JPEG, TIFF, PNM, Photo CD, etc.).

       With display, you can perform these functions on an image:

                o  load an image from a file
                o  display the next image
                o  display the former image
                o  display a sequence of images as a slide show
                o  write the image to a file
                o  print the image to a PostScript printer
                o  delete the image file
                o  create a Visual Image Directory
                o  select the image to display by its  thumbnail  rather  than
               name
                o  undo last image transformation
                o  copy a region of the image
                o  paste a region to the image
                o  restore the image to its original size
                o  refresh the image
                o  half the image size
                o  double the image size
                o  resize the image
                o  crop the image
                o  cut the image
                o  flop image in the horizontal direction
                o  flip image in the vertical direction
                o  rotate the image 90 degrees clockwise
                o  rotate the image 90 degrees counter-clockwise
                o  rotate the image
                o  shear the image
                o  roll the image
                o  trim the image edges
                o  invert the colors of the image
                o  vary the color brightness
                o  vary the color saturation
                o  vary the image hue
                o  gamma correct the image
                o  sharpen the image contrast
                o  dull the image contrast
                o  perform histogram equalization on the image
                o  perform histogram normalization on the image
                o  negate the image colors
                o  convert the image to grayscale
                o  set the maximum number of unique colors in the image
                o  reduce the speckles within an image
                o  eliminate peak noise from an image
                o  detect edges within the image
                o  emboss an image
                o  segment the image by color
                o  simulate an oil painting
                o  simulate a charcoal drawing
                o  annotate the image with text
                o  draw on the image
                o  edit an image pixel color
                o  edit the image matte information
                o  composite an image with another
                o  add a border to the image
                o  surround image with an ornamental border
                o  apply image processing techniques to a region of interest
                o  display information about the image
                o  zoom a portion of the image
                o  show a histogram of the image
                o  display image to background of a window
                o  set user preferences
                o  display information about this program
                o  discard all images and exit program
                o  change the level of magnification
                o   display images specified by a World Wide Web (WWW) uniform
               resource locator (URL)

EXAMPLES

       To scale an image of a cockatoo to exactly 640 pixels in width and  480
       pixels in height and position the window at location (200,200), use:

           gm display -geometry 640x480+200+200! cockatoo.miff

       To  display  an  image  of  a  cockatoo  without a border centered on a
       backdrop, use:

           gm display +borderwidth -backdrop cockatoo.miff

       To tile a slate texture onto the root window, use:

           gm display -size 1280x1024 -window root slate.png

       To display a visual image directory of all your JPEG images, use:

           gm display ’vid:*.jpg’

       To display a MAP image that is 640 pixels in width and  480  pixels  in
       height with 256 colors, use:

           gm display -size 640x480+256 cockatoo.map

       To display an image of a cockatoo specified with a World Wide Web (WWW)
       uniform resource locator (URL), use:

           gm display ftp://wizards.dupont.com/images/cockatoo.jpg

       To display histogram of an image, use:

           gm convert file.jpg HISTOGRAM:- | display -

OPTIONS

       Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify  on
       the  command  line  remains in effect until it is explicitly changed by
       specifying the option again with a different  effect.  For  example  to
       display  three  images,  the  first  with 32 colors, the second with an
       unlimited number of colors, and the third with only 16 colors, use:

             gm display -colors 32 cockatoo.miff -noop duck.miff
                     -colors 16 macaw.miff

       Display options can appear on the command line or in your  X  resources
       file.  See X(1). Options on the command line supersede values specified
       in your X resources file.

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.

       -authenticate <string>
              decrypt image with this password

       -backdrop
              display the image centered on a backdrop.

       -background <color>
              the background color

       -border <width>x<height>
              surround the image with a border of color

       -bordercolor <color>
              the border color

       -borderwidth <geometry>
              the border width

       -cache <threshold>
              (This option has been replaced by the -limit option)

       -colormap <type>
              define the colormap type

       -colors <value>
              preferred number of colors in the image

       -colorspace <value>
              the type of colorspace

       -comment <string>
              annotate an image with a comment

       -compress <type>
              the type of image compression

       -contrast
              enhance or reduce the image contrast

       -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              preferred size and location of the cropped image

       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

       -define <key>{=<value>},...
              add coder/decoder specific options

       -delay <1/100ths of a second>
              display the next image after pausing

       -density <width>x<height>
              horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth <value>
              depth of the image

       -despeckle
              reduce the speckles within an image

       -display <host:display[.screen]>
              specifies the X server to contact

       -dispose <method>
              GIF disposal method

       -dither
              apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

       -edge <radius>
              detect edges within an image

       -endian <type>
              specify endianness (MSB or LSB) of output image

       -enhance
              apply a digital filter to enhance a noisy image

       -filter <type>
              use this type of filter when resizing an image

       -flip  create a "mirror image"

       -flop  create a "mirror image"

       -font <name>
              use this font when annotating the image with text

       -foreground <color>
              define the foreground color

       -frame <width>x<height>+<outer bevel width>+<inner bevel width>
              surround the image with an ornamental border

       -gamma <value>
              level of gamma correction

       -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@} {!}{<}{>}
              preferred size and location of the Image window.

       -help  print usage instructions

       -iconGeometry <geometry>
              specify the icon geometry

       -iconic
              iconic animation

       -immutable
              make image immutable

       -interlace <type>
              the type of interlacing scheme

       -label <name>
              assign a label to an image

       -limit <type> <value>
              Disk, File, Map, or Memory resource limit

       -log <string>
              Specify format for debug log

       -magnify <factor>
              magnify the image

       -map <type>
              display image using this type.

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

       -mattecolor <color>
              specify the color to be used with the -frame option

       -monochrome
              transform the image to black and white

       -name  name an image

       -negate
              replace every pixel with its complementary color

       -noop  NOOP (no option)

       -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{!}{<}{>}
              size and location of an image canvas

       +progress
              disable progress monitor and busy cursor

       -quality <value>
              JPEG/MIFF/PNG compression level

       -raise <width>x<height>
              lighten or darken image edges

       -remote
              perform a X11 remote operation

       -roll {+-}<x>{+-}<y>
              roll an image vertically or horizontally

       -rotate <degrees>{<}{>}
              apply Paeth image rotation to the image

       -sample <geometry>
              scale image using pixel sampling

       -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
              sampling  factors  used  by  JPEG  or  MPEG-2  encoder  and  YUV
              decoder/encoder.

       -scenes <value-value>
              range of image scene numbers to read

       -segment <cluster threshold>x<smoothing threshold>
              segment an image

       -shared-memory
              use shared memory

       -sharpen <radius>{x<sigma>}
              sharpen the image

       -size <width>x<height>{+offset}
              width and height of the image

       -text-font <name>
              font for writing fixed-width text

       -texture <filename>
              name of texture to tile onto the image background

       -title <string>
              assign title to displayed image [animate, display, montage]

       -treedepth <value>
              tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

       -trim  trim an image

       -update <seconds>
               detect when image file is modified and redisplay.

       -use-pixmap
              use the pixmap

       -verbose
              print detailed information about the image

       -version
              print GraphicsMagick version string

       -visual <type>
              animate images using this X visual type

       -window <id>
              make image the background of a window

       -window-group
              specify the window group

       -write <filename>
              write the image to a file [display]

              For  a  more  detailed  description of each option, see Options,
              above.

MOUSE BUTTONS

       The effects of each button press is described below. Three buttons  are
       required.  If you have a two button mouse, button 1 and 3 are returned.
       Press ALT and button 3 to simulate button 2.

       1       Press this button to map or unmap the Command widget . See  the
              next section for more information about the Command widget.

       2       Press and drag to define a region of the image to magnify.

       3        Press  and  drag  to  choose  from  a select set of display(1)
              commands. This button behaves differently  if  the  image  being
              displayed  is a visual image directory. Choose a particular tile
              of the directory and press this button  and  drag  to  select  a
              command from a pop-up menu.  Choose from these menu items:

                  Open
                  Next
                  Former
                  Delete
                  Update

              If  you  choose  Open,  the  image  represented  by  the tile is
              displayed.  To return to the visual image directory, choose Next
              from  the  Command  widget  (refer to Command Widget).  Next and
              Former moves to the next or former  image  respectively.  Choose
              Delete to delete a particular image tile. Finally, choose Update
              to synchronize all the image tiles with their respective images.
              See montage and miff for more details.

COMMAND WIDGET

       The Command widget lists a number of sub-menus and commands. They are

           File

           Open...
           Next
           Former
           Select...
           Save...
           Print...
           Delete...
           Canvas...
           Visual Directory...
           Quit

           Edit

           Undo
           Redo
           Cut
           Copy
           Paste

           View

           Half Size
           Original Size
           Double Size
           Resize...
           Apply
           Refresh
           Restore

           Transform

           Crop
           Chop
           Flop
           Flip
           Rotate Right
           Rotate Left
           Rotate...
           Shear...
           Roll...
           Trim Edges

           Enhance

           Hue...
           Saturation...
           Brightness...
           Gamma...
           Spiff...
           Dull
           Equalize
           Normalize
           Negate
           GRAYscale
           Quantize...

           Effects

           Despeckle
           Emboss
           Reduce Noise
           Add Noise
           Sharpen...
           Blur...
           Threshold...
           Edge Detect...
           Spread...
           Shade...
           Raise...
           Segment...

           F/X

           Solarize...
           Swirl...
           Implode...
           Wave...
           Oil Paint...
           Charcoal Draw...

           Image Edit

           Annotate...
           Draw...
           Color...
           Matte...
           Composite...
           Add Border...
           Add Frame...
           Comment...
           Launch...
           Region of Interest...

           Miscellany

           Image Info
           Zoom Image
           Show Preview...
           Show Histogram
           Show Matte
           Background...
           Slide Show
           Preferences...

           Help

           Overview
           Browse Documentation
           About Display

       Menu  items  with  a  indented  triangle  have  a  sub-menu.  They  are
       represented above as the indented items. To  access  a  sub-menu  item,
       move  the  pointer to the appropriate menu and press button 1 and drag.
       When you find the desired sub-menu item, release  the  button  and  the
       command  is  executed.   Move the pointer away from the sub-menu if you
       decide not to execute a particular command.

KEYBOARD ACCELERATORS

       Accelerators are one or  two  key  presses  that  effect  a  particular
       command.  The keyboard accelerators that display understands is:

           Ctl+O     Press to load an image from a file.
           space     Press to display the next image.

       If  the  image is a multi-paged document such as a PostScript document,
       you can skip ahead several pages  by  preceding  this  command  with  a
       number.   For  example  to  display  the fourth page beyond the current
       page, press 4space.

           backspace Press to display the former image.

       If the image is a multi-paged document such as a  PostScript  document,
       you  can  skip  behind  several  pages by preceding this command with a
       number.  For example to display the fourth page preceding  the  current
       page, press 4n.

           Ctl-S    Press to save the image to a file.
           Ctl-P    Press to print the image to a
                    PostScript printer.
           Ctl-D    Press to delete an image file.
           Ctl-N    Press to create a blank canvas.
           Ctl-Q    Press to discard all images and exit program.
           Ctl+Z    Press to undo last image transformation.
           Ctl+R    Press to redo last image transformation.
           Ctl-X    Press to cut a region of
                    the image.
           Ctl-C    Press to copy a region of
                    the image.
           Ctl-V    Press to paste a region to
                    the image.
           <        Press to halve the image size.
           .        Press to return to the original image size.
           >        Press to double the image size.
           %        Press to resize the image to a width and height
                    you specify.
           Cmd-A    Press to make any image transformations
                    permanent.
                    By default, any image size transformations are
                    applied to the original image to create the
                    image displayed on the X server.  However, the
                    transformations are not permanent (i.e. the
                    original image does not change size only the
                    X image does). For example, if you press ">"
                    the X image will appear to double in size, but
                    the original image will in fact remain the same
                    size.  To force the original image to double in
                    size, press ">" followed by "Cmd-A".
           @        Press to refresh the image window.
           C        Press to crop the image.
           [        Press to chop the image.
           H        Press to flop image in the horizontal direction.
           V        Press to flip image in the vertical direction.
           /        Press to rotate the image 90 degrees clockwise.
           \        Press to rotate the image 90 degrees
                    counter-clockwise.
           *        Press to rotate the image
                    the number of degrees you specify.
           S        Press to shear the image the number of degrees
                    you specify.
           R        Press to roll the image.
           T        Press to trim the image edges.
           Shft-H   Press to vary the color hue.
           Shft-S   Press to vary the color saturation.
           Shft-L   Press to vary the image brightness.
           Shft-G   Press to gamma correct the image.
           Shft-C   Press to spiff up the image contrast.
           Shft-Z   Press to dull the image contrast.
           =        Press to perform histogram equalization on
                    the image.
           Shft-N   Press to perform histogram normalization on
                    the image.
           Shft-~   Press to negate the colors of the image.
           .        Press to convert the image colors to gray.
           Shft-#   Press to set the maximum number of unique
                    colors in the image.
           F2       Press to reduce the speckles in an image.
           F2       Press to emboss an image.
           F4       Press to eliminate peak noise from an image.
           F5       Press to add noise to an image.
           F6       Press to sharpen an image.
           F7       Press to blur image an image.
           F8       Press to threshold the image.
           F9       Press to detect edges within an image.
           F10      Press to displace pixels by a random amount.
           F11      Press to shade the image using a distant light
                    source.
           F12      Press to lighten or darken image edges to
                    create a 3-D effect.
           F13      Press to segment the image by color.
           Meta-S   Press to swirl image pixels about the center.
           Meta-I   Press to implode image pixels about the center.
           Meta-W   Press to alter an image along a sine wave.
           Meta-P   Press to simulate an oil painting.
           Meta-C   Press to simulate a charcoal drawing.
           Alt-X    Press to composite the image
                    with another.
           Alt-A    Press to annotate the image with text.
           Alt-D    Press to draw a line on the image.
           Alt-P    Press to edit an image pixel color.
           Alt-M    Press to edit the image matte information.
           Alt-X    Press to composite the image with another.
           Alt-A    Press to add a border to the image.
           Alt-F    Press to add a ornamental frame to the image.
           Alt-Shft-!   Press to add an image comment.
           Ctl-A    Press to apply image processing techniques to a
                    region of interest.
           Shft-?   Press to display information about the image.
           Shft-+   Press to map the zoom image window.
           Shft-P   Press to preview an image enhancement, effect,
                    or f/x.
           F1       Press to display helpful information about
                    the "display" utility.
           Find     Press to browse documentation about
                    GraphicsMagick.
           1-9      Press to change the level of magnification.

       Use the arrow keys to move the image one pixel up, down, left, or right
       within the magnify window. Be sure to first map the magnify  window  by
       pressing button 2.

       Press ALT and one of the arrow keys to trim off one pixel from any side
       of the image.

X RESOURCES

       Display options can appear on the command line or in  your  X  resource
       file.  Options on the command line supersede values specified in your X
       resource file. See X(1) for more information on X resources.

       Most display options have a  corresponding  X  resource.  In  addition,
       display uses the following X resources:

       background (class Background)
                Specifies  the  preferred  color  to  use for the Image window
              background. The default is #ccc.

       borderColor (class BorderColor)
               Specifies the preferred color  to  use  for  the  Image  window
              border. The default is #ccc.

       borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
                Specifies  the width in pixels of the image window border. The
              default is 2.

       browseCommand (class browseCommand)
               Specifies the name of the  preferred  browser  when  displaying
              GraphicsMagick documentation. The default is netscape %s.

       confirmExit (class ConfirmExit)
                Display  pops  up  a dialog box to confirm exiting the program
              when exiting the program. Set this resource  to  False  to  exit
              without a confirmation.

       displayGamma (class DisplayGamma)
                Specifies  the  gamma of the X server.  You can apply separate
              gamma values to the red, green, and blue channels of  the  image
              with   a   gamma   value  list  delineated  with  slashes  (i.e.
              1.7/2.3/1.2).  The default is 2.2.

       displayWarnings (class DisplayWarnings)
               Display pops up a dialog box whenever a warning message occurs.
              Set this resource to False to ignore warning messages.

       font (class FontList)
                Specifies  the  name  of  the  preferred font to use in normal
              formatted text.  The default is 14 point Helvetica.

       font[1-9] (class Font[1-9])
               Specifies the name of the preferred font to use when annotating
              the  image  window  with  text.  The  default  fonts  are fixed,
              variable, 5x8, 6x10, 7x13bold, 8x13bold,  9x15bold,  10x20,  and
              12x24.

       foreground (class Foreground)
                Specifies the preferred color to use for text within the image
              window.  The default is black.

       gammaCorrect (class gammaCorrect)
               This resource, if true, will lighten  or  darken  an  image  of
              known  gamma  to  match  the  gamma of the display (see resource
              displayGamma). The default is True.

       geometry (class Geometry)
               Specifies the preferred size and position of the image  window.
              It is not necessarily obeyed by all window managers.

              Offsets,  if  present,  are handled in X(1) style.  A negative x
              offset is measured from the right edge  of  the  screen  to  the
              right edge of the icon, and a negative y offset is measured from
              the bottom edge of the screen to the bottom edge of the icon.

       iconGeometry (class IconGeometry)
               Specifies the preferred size and position  of  the  application
              when  iconified.   It  is  not  necessarily obeyed by all window
              managers.

              Offsets, if present, are handled in the same manner as in  class
              Geometry.

       iconic (class Iconic)
                This  resource  indicates  that  you  would  prefer  that  the
              application’s windows initially not be visible as if the windows
              had  be immediately iconified by you. Window managers may choose
              not to honor the application’s request.

       magnify (class Magnify)
               specifies an integral factor  by  which  the  image  should  be
              enlarged.  The  default  is  3.   This  value  only  affects the
              magnification window which is invoked with button number 3 after
              the image is displayed.

       matteColor (class MatteColor)
               Specify the color of windows. It is used for the backgrounds of
              windows, menus, and notices. A 3D effect is  achieved  by  using
              highlight  and  shadow  colors  derived from this color. Default
              value: #697B8F.

       name (class Name)
               This resource specifies the name under which resources for  the
              application  should  be  found. This resource is useful in shell
              aliases to distinguish between invocations  of  an  application,
              without resorting to creating links to alter the executable file
              name. The default is the application name.

       pen[1-9] (class Pen[1-9])
                Specifies  the  color  of  the  preferred  font  to  use  when
              annotating  the  image  window with text. The default colors are
              black, blue, green, cyan, gray, red, magenta, yellow, and white.

       printCommand (class PrintCommand)
               This command is executed whenever Print is issued.  In general,
              it is the command to print PostScript to your  printer.  Default
              value: lp -c -s %i.

       sharedMemory (class SharedMemory)
                This  resource  specifies  whether  display should attempt use
              shared memory for pixmaps. GraphicsMagick must be compiled  with
              shared  memory support, and the display must support the MIT-SHM
              extension. Otherwise, this resource is ignored. The  default  is
              True.

       textFont (class textFont)
                Specifies  the  name  of  the  preferred  font to use in fixed
              (typewriter style) formatted  text.  The  default  is  14  point
              Courier.

       title (class Title)
                This  resource  specifies  the  title to be used for the image
              window. This information is sometimes used by a  window  manager
              to  provide  a header identifying the window. The default is the
              image file name.

       undoCache (class UndoCache)
               Specifies, in mega-bytes, the amount of memory in the undo edit
              cache.   Each  time you modify the image it is saved in the undo
              edit cache as long as memory is available. You can  subsequently
              undo  one  or  more  of these transformations. The default is 16
              Megabytes.

       usePixmap (class UsePixmap)
               Images are maintained as a XImage by default. Set this resource
              to  True  to  utilize  a  server  Pixmap instead. This option is
              useful if your image  exceeds  the  dimensions  of  your  server
              screen  and  you intend to pan the image. Panning is much faster
              with Pixmaps than  with  a  XImage.  Pixmaps  are  considered  a
              precious resource, use them with discretion.

              To  set  the  geometry  of the Magnify or Pan or window, use the
              geometry resource.  For example, to set the Pan window  geometry
              to 256x256, use:

                  gm display.pan.geometry: 256x256

IMAGE LOADING

       To  select  an  image to display, choose Open of the File sub-menu from
       the  Command  widget.  A  file  browser  is  displayed.   To  choose  a
       particular  image  file, move the pointer to the filename and press any
       button. The filename is copied to the text window. Next, press Open  or
       press  the  RETURN key. Alternatively, you can type the image file name
       directly into  the  text  window.  To  descend  directories,  choose  a
       directory name and press the button twice quickly. A scrollbar allows a
       large list of filenames to be moved through  the  viewing  area  if  it
       exceeds the size of the list area.

       You can trim the list of file names by using shell globbing characters.
       For example, type *.jpg to list only files that end with .jpg.

       To select your image from the X server screen instead of from  a  file,
       Choose Grab of the Open widget.

VISUAL IMAGE DIRECTORY

       To create a Visual Image Directory, choose Visual Directory of the File
       sub-menu from the Command widget . A  file  browser  is  displayed.  To
       create  a  Visual  Image  Directory  from all the images in the current
       directory, press Directory or press the RETURN key.  Alternatively, you
       can select a set of image names by using shell globbing characters. For
       example, type *.jpg to include  only  files  that  end  with  .jpg.  To
       descend directories, choose a directory name and press the button twice
       quickly. A scrollbar allows a large  list  of  filenames  to  be  moved
       through the viewing area if it exceeds the size of the list area.

       After  you  select  a set of files, they are turned into thumbnails and
       tiled onto a single  image.  Now  move  the  pointer  to  a  particular
       thumbnail  and press button 3 and drag. Finally, select Open. The image
       represented by the thumbnail is displayed at its full size. Choose Next
       from  the  File  sub-menu of the Command widget to return to the Visual
       Image Directory.

IMAGE CUTTING

       Note that  cut  information  for  image  window  is  not  retained  for
       colormapped X server visuals (e.g. StaticColor, StaticColor, GRAYScale,
       PseudoColor).  Correct cutting behavior  may  require  a  TrueColor  or
       DirectColor visual or a Standard Colormap.

       To  begin,  press  choose  Cut  of  the  Edit sub-menu from the Command
       widget. Alternatively, press F3 in the image window.

       A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the  image
       window.  You  are  now in cut mode. In cut mode, the Command widget has
       these options:

           Help
           Dismiss

       To define a cut region, press button 1 and  drag.  The  cut  region  is
       defined  by  a  highlighted  rectangle  that expands or contracts as it
       follows the pointer. Once  you  are  satisfied  with  the  cut  region,
       release  the button.  You are now in rectify mode. In rectify mode, the
       Command widget has these options:

           Cut
           Help
           Dismiss

       You can make adjustments by moving  the  pointer  to  one  of  the  cut
       rectangle  corners, pressing a button, and dragging. Finally, press Cut
       to commit your copy region. To exit without cutting  the  image,  press
       Dismiss.

IMAGE COPYING

       To  begin,  press  choose  Copy  of  the Edit sub-menu from the Command
       widget. Alternatively, press F4 in the image window.

       A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the  image
       window.  You are now in copy mode. In copy mode, the Command widget has
       these options:

           Help
           Dismiss

       To define a copy region, press button 1 and drag. The  copy  region  is
       defined  by  a  highlighted  rectangle  that expands or contracts as it
       follows the pointer. Once you  are  satisfied  with  the  copy  region,
       release  the button.  You are now in rectify mode. In rectify mode, the
       Command widget has these options:

           Copy
           Help
           Dismiss

       You can make adjustments by moving the  pointer  to  one  of  the  copy
       rectangle corners, pressing a button, and dragging. Finally, press Copy
       to commit your copy region. To exit without copying  the  image,  press
       Dismiss.

IMAGE PASTING

       To  begin,  press  choose  Paste  of the Edit sub-menu from the Command
       widget. Alternatively, press F5 in the image window.

       A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the  image
       window.  You are now in Paste mode. To exit immediately, press Dismiss.
       In Paste mode, the Command widget has these options:

           Operators

           over
           in
           out
           atop
           xor
           plus
           minus
           add
           subtract
           difference
           multiply
           bumpmap
           replace

           Help
           Dismiss

       Choose a composite operation from the Operators sub-menu of the Command
       widget.  How  each operator behaves is described below. image window is
       the image currently displayed on your X server and image is  the  image
       obtained with the File Browser widget.

       over     The  result  is  the union of the two image shapes, with image
              obscuring image window in the region of overlap.

       in      The result is simply image cut by the shape  of  image  window.
              None of the image data of image window is in the result.

       out     The resulting image is image with the shape of image window cut
              out.

       atop    The result is the  same  shape  as  image  window,  with  image
              obscuring image window where the image shapes overlap. Note this
              differs from over because the portion  of  image  outside  image
              window’s shape does not appear in the result.

       xor      The  result is the image data from both image and image window
              that is outside the overlap region. The overlap region is blank.

       plus    The result is just the sum of the image data. Output values are
              cropped to the maximum value (no overflow).  This  operation  is
              independent of the matte channels.

       minus    The  result of image - image window, with underflow cropped to
              zero.  The  matte  channel  is  ignored  (set  to  opaque,  full
              coverage).

       add      The  result  of  image  + image window, with overflow wrapping
              around (mod MaxRGB+1).

       subtract
               The result of image - image  window,  with  underflow  wrapping
              around  (mod  MaxRGB+1).  The  add and subtract operators can be
              used to perform reversible transformations.

       difference
               The result of abs(image - image window).  This  is  useful  for
              comparing two very similar images.

       multiply
                The  result  of  image  * image window. This is useful for the
              creation of drop-shadows.

       bumpmap
               The result of image window shaded by window.

       replace
              The resulting image is image window replaced with  image.   Here
              the matte information is ignored.

              The  image  compositor requires a matte, or alpha channel in the
              image for some operations. This extra channel usually defines  a
              mask  which  represents a sort of a cookie-cutter for the image.
              This is the case when matte is 255 (full  coverage)  for  pixels
              inside  the shape, zero outside, and between zero and 255 on the
              boundary. If  image  does  not  have  a  matte  channel,  it  is
              initialized  with  0  for  any  pixel matching in color to pixel
              location (0,0), otherwise 255. See Matte Editing for a method of
              defining a matte channel.

              Note that matte information for image window is not retained for
              colormapped X server  visuals  (e.g.  StaticColor,  StaticColor,
              GrayScale,   PseudoColor).   Correct  compositing  behavior  may
              require  a  TrueColor  or  DirectColor  visual  or  a   Standard
              Colormap.

              Choosing  a composite operator is optional. The default operator
              is replace.  However, you must choose a  location  to  composite
              your  image and press button 1. Press and hold the button before
              releasing and an outline of the image will appear  to  help  you
              identify your location.

              The  actual  colors  of  the pasted image is saved. However, the
              color that  appears  in  image  window  may  be  different.  For
              example,  on  a monochrome screen image window will appear black
              or white even though your pasted image may have many colors.  If
              the  image  is  saved  to  a file it is written with the correct
              colors. To assure the correct colors  are  saved  in  the  final
              image,  any  PseudoClass  image  is promoted to DirectClass.  To
              force a PseudoClass image to remain PseudoClass, use -colors.

IMAGE CROPPING

       To begin, press choose Crop of the Transform submenu from  the  Command
       widget. Alternatively, press [ in the image window.

       A  small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
       window. You are now in crop mode. In crop mode, the Command widget  has
       these options:

           Help
           Dismiss

       To  define  a  cropping  region,  press button 1 and drag. The cropping
       region is defined by a highlighted rectangle that expands or  contracts
       as  it  follows  the  pointer. Once you are satisfied with the cropping
       region, release the button. You are now in  rectify  mode.  In  rectify
       mode, the Command widget has these options:

           Crop
           Help
           Dismiss

       You  can  make adjustments by moving the pointer to one of the cropping
       rectangle corners, pressing a button, and dragging. Finally, press Crop
       to  commit  your  cropping  region. To exit without cropping the image,
       press Dismiss.

IMAGE CHOPPING

       An image is chopped interactively. There is no command line argument to
       chop an image. To begin, choose Chop of the Transform sub-menu from the
       Command widget. Alternatively, press ] in the Image window.

       You are now in Chop mode. To exit immediately, press Dismiss.  In  Chop
       mode, the Command widget has these options:

           Direction

           horizontal
           vertical

           Help
           Dismiss

       If  the  you choose the horizontal direction (this is the default), the
       area of the image between the two horizontal endpoints of the chop line
       is  removed.  Otherwise, the area of the image between the two vertical
       endpoints of the chop line is removed.

       Select a location within the image window to begin your chop, press and
       hold  any  button.  Next,  move  the pointer to another location in the
       image.  As you move a line will connect the initial  location  and  the
       pointer. When you release the button, the area within the image to chop
       is determined by which direction you choose from the Command widget.

       To cancel the image chopping, move the pointer  back  to  the  starting
       point of the line and release the button.

IMAGE ROTATION

       Press  the  /  key  to  rotate  the image 90 degrees or \ to rotate -90
       degrees.  To  interactively  choose  the  degree  of  rotation,  choose
       Rotate...    of   the   Transform  submenu  from  the  Command  Widget.
       Alternatively, press * in the image window.

       A small horizontal line is drawn next to the pointer. You  are  now  in
       rotate  mode.  To  exit immediately, press Dismiss. In rotate mode, the
       Command widget has these options:

           Pixel Color

           black
           blue
           cyan
           green
           gray
           red
           magenta
           yellow
           white
           Browser...

           Direction

           horizontal
           vertical

           Help
           Dismiss

       Choose a background color from the  Pixel  Color  sub-menu.  Additional
       background  colors  can  be  specified  with the color browser. You can
       change the menu colors by setting the X resources pen1 through pen9.

       If you choose the color browser and press  Grab,  you  can  select  the
       background  color  by  moving  the  pointer to the desired color on the
       screen and press any button.

       Choose a point in the image window and  press  this  button  and  hold.
       Next,  move the pointer to another location in the image. As you move a
       line connects the initial location and the pointer.  When  you  release
       the  button, the degree of image rotation is determined by the slope of
       the line you just drew. The slope is  relative  to  the  direction  you
       choose from the Direction sub-menu of the Command widget.

       To  cancel  the  image  rotation, move the pointer back to the starting
       point of the line and release the button.

IMAGE ANNOTATION

       An image is annotated interactively. There is no command line  argument
       to  annotate an image. To begin, choose Annotate of the Image Edit sub-
       menu from the Command widget.  Alternatively,  press  a  in  the  image
       window.

       A  small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
       window. You are now  in  annotate  mode.  To  exit  immediately,  press
       Dismiss.  In annotate mode, the Command widget has these options:

       Font Name

       fixed

       variable

       5x8

       6x10

       7x13bold

       8x13bold

       9x15bold

       10x20

       12x24

       Browser...

       Font Color

       black

       blue

       cyan

       green

       gray

       red

       magenta

       yellow

       white

       transparent

       Browser...

       Box Color

       black

       blue

       cyan

       green

       gray

       red

       magenta

       yellow

       white

       transparent

       Browser...

       Rotate Text

       -90

       -45

       -30

       0

       30

       45

       90

       180

       Dialog...

       Help

       Dismiss

       Choose  a  font name from the Font Name sub-menu. Additional font names
       can be specified with the font browser. You can change the  menu  names
       by setting the X resources font1 through font9.

       Choose  a  font  color  from  the  Font Color sub-menu. Additional font
       colors can be specified with the color browser. You can change the menu
       colors by setting the X resources pen1 through pen9.

       If you select the color browser and press Grab, you can choose the font
       color by moving the pointer to the desired  color  on  the  screen  and
       press any button.

       If  you choose to rotate the text, choose Rotate Text from the menu and
       select an angle. Typically you will only want to  rotate  one  line  of
       text at a time. Depending on the angle you choose, subsequent lines may
       end up overwriting each other.

       Choosing a font and its color is optional. The default  font  is  fixed
       and  the default color is black. However, you must choose a location to
       begin entering text and press a button. An  underscore  character  will
       appear  at  the location of the pointer. The cursor changes to a pencil
       to indicate you are in text mode. To exit immediately, press Dismiss.

       In text mode, any  key  presses  will  display  the  character  at  the
       location  of  the  underscore  and advance the underscore cursor. Enter
       your  text  and  once  completed  press  Apply  to  finish  your  image
       annotation.  To  correct  errors  press BACK SPACE. To delete an entire
       line of text, press DELETE.  Any text that exceeds  the  boundaries  of
       the image window is automatically continued onto the next line.

       The  actual  color  you  request  for  the  font is saved in the image.
       However, the color that appears in your Image window may be  different.
       For example, on a monochrome screen the text will appear black or white
       even if you choose the color red as the font color. However, the  image
       saved  to  a  file with -write is written with red lettering. To assure
       the correct color text in the final image,  any  PseudoClass  image  is
       promoted  to DirectClass (see miff(5)). To force a PseudoClass image to
       remain PseudoClass, use -colors.

IMAGE COMPOSITING

       An image composite is created interactively. There is no  command  line
       argument to composite an image. To begin, choose Composite of the Image
       Edit from the Command widget.  Alternatively,  press  x  in  the  Image
       window.

       First  a  popup  window  is  displayed requesting you to enter an image
       name.  Press Composite, Grab or type a file name. Press Cancel  if  you
       choose  not to create a composite image. When you choose Grab, move the
       pointer to the desired window and press any button.

       If the Composite image does not have any  matte  information,  you  are
       informed  and  the file browser is displayed again. Enter the name of a
       mask image. The image is typically grayscale and the same size  as  the
       composite  image.  If  the  image  is not grayscale, it is converted to
       grayscale and the resulting intensities are used as matte  information.

       A  small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
       window. You are now in  composite  mode.  To  exit  immediately,  press
       Dismiss.  In composite mode, the Command widget has these options:

       Operators

       over

       in

       out

       atop

       xor

       plus

       minus

       add

       subtract

       difference

       bumpmap

       replace

       Blend

       Displace

       Help

       Dismiss

       Choose a composite operation from the Operators sub-menu of the Command
       widget. How each operator behaves is described below. image  window  is
       the  image  currently displayed on your X server and image is the image
       obtained

       over    The result is the union of the two  image  shapes,  with  image
              obscuring image window in the region of overlap.

       in       The  result  is simply image cut by the shape of image window.
              None of the image data of image window is in the result.

       out     The resulting image is image with the shape of image window cut
              out.

       atop     The  result  is  the  same  shape  as image window, with image
              obscuring image window where the image shapes overlap. Note this
              differs  from  over  because  the portion of image outside image
              window’s shape does not appear in the result.

       xor     The result is the image data from both image and  image  window
              that is outside the overlap region. The overlap region is blank.

       plus    The result is just the sum of the image data. Output values are
              cropped  to  255 (no overflow). This operation is independent of
              the matte channels.

       minus   The result of image - image window, with underflow  cropped  to
              zero.  The matte channel is ignored (set to 255, full coverage).

       add     The result of image +  image  window,  with  overflow  wrapping
              around (mod 256).

       subtract
                The  result  of  image - image window, with underflow wrapping
              around (mod 256). The add and subtract operators can be used  to
              perform reversible transformations.

       difference
                The  result  of  abs(image - image window). This is useful for
              comparing two very similar images.

       bumpmap
               The result of image window shaded by window.

       replace
               The resulting image is image window replaced with image.   Here
              the matte information is ignored.

              The  image  compositor requires a matte, or alpha channel in the
              image for some operations. This extra channel usually defines  a
              mask  which  represents a sort of a cookie-cutter for the image.
              This is the case when matte is 255 (full  coverage)  for  pixels
              inside  the shape, zero outside, and between zero and 255 on the
              boundary. If  image  does  not  have  a  matte  channel,  it  is
              initialized  with  0  for  any  pixel matching in color to pixel
              location (0,0), otherwise 255. See Matte Editing for a method of
              defining a matte channel.

              If  you  choose blend, the composite operator becomes over.  The
              image matte  channel  percent  transparency  is  initialized  to
              factor.   The image window is initialized to (100-factor). Where
              factor is the value you specify in the Dialog widget.

              Displace shifts the image pixels as defined  by  a  displacement
              map.   With  this  option,  image is used as a displacement map.
              Black, within  the  displacement  map,  is  a  maximum  positive
              displacement.  White  is  a  maximum  negative  displacement and
              middle gray is neutral. The displacement is scaled to  determine
              the  pixel  shift.  By default, the displacement applies in both
              the horizontal and vertical directions. However, if you  specify
              mask,  image  is  the  horizontal  X  displacement  and mask the
              vertical Y displacement.

              Note that matte information for image window is not retained for
              colormapped  X  server  visuals (e.g.  StaticColor, StaticColor,
              GrayScale,  PseudoColor).   Correct  compositing  behavior   may
              require   a  TrueColor  or  DirectColor  visual  or  a  Standard
              Colormap.

              Choosing a composite operator is optional. The default  operator
              is  replace.   However,  you must choose a location to composite
              your image and press button 1. Press and hold the button  before
              releasing  and  an  outline of the image will appear to help you
              identify your location.

              The actual colors of the composite image is saved. However,  the
              color  that  appears  in  image  window  may  be  different. For
              example, on a monochrome screen Image window will  appear  black
              or white even though your composited image may have many colors.
              If the image is saved to a file it is written with  the  correct
              colors.  To  assure  the  correct  colors are saved in the final
              image, any PseudoClass image is  promoted  to  DirectClass  (see
              miff).   To force a PseudoClass image to remain PseudoClass, use
              -colors.

COLOR EDITING

       Changing the the color of a set of pixels is  performed  interactively.
       There  is  no  command  line argument to edit a pixel. To begin, choose
       Color  from  the  Image   Edit   submenu   of   the   Command   widget.
       Alternatively, press c in the image window.

       A  small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
       window. You are now in color edit  mode.  To  exit  immediately,  press
       Dismiss.  In color edit mode, the Command widget has these options:

       Method

       point

       replace

       floodfill

       reset

       Pixel Color

       black

       blue

       cyan

       green

       gray

       red

       magenta

       yellow

       white

       Browser...

       Border Color

       black

       blue

       cyan

       green

       gray

       red

       magenta

       yellow

       white

       Browser...

       Fuzz

       0

       2

       4

       8

       16
           Dialog...

       Undo

       Help

       Dismiss

       Choose  a  color editing method from the Method sub-menu of the Command
       widget. The point method recolors any pixel selected with  the  pointer
       unless  the  button  is released. The replace method recolors any pixel
       that matches the color of the pixel you select  with  a  button  press.
       Floodfill  recolors  any  pixel that matches the color of the pixel you
       select with a button press and is  a  neighbor.   Whereas  filltoborder
       changes  the  matte  value of any neighbor pixel that is not the border
       color.  Finally reset changes the entire image to the designated color.

       Next,  choose  a  pixel color from the Pixel Color sub-menu. Additional
       pixel colors can be specified with the color browser.  You  can  change
       the menu colors by setting the X resources pen1 through pen9.

       Now  press button 1 to select a pixel within the Image window to change
       its color. Additional pixels may be  recolored  as  prescribed  by  the
       method you choose. additional pixels by increasing the Delta value.

       If  the Magnify widget is mapped, it can be helpful in positioning your
       pointer within the image (refer to button  2).  Alternatively  you  can
       select  a  pixel  to  recolor  from within the Magnify widget. Move the
       pointer to the Magnify widget and position the pixel  with  the  cursor
       control keys. Finally, press a button to recolor the selected pixel (or
       pixels).

       The actual color you request for the pixels  is  saved  in  the  image.
       However,  the color that appears in your Image window may be different.
       For example, on a monochrome screen the  pixel  will  appear  black  or
       white even if you choose the color red as the pixel color. However, the
       image saved to a file with -write is written with red pixels. To assure
       the  correct  color  text  in the final image, any PseudoClass image is
       promoted  to  DirectClass  To  force  a  PseudoClass  image  to  remain
       PseudoClass, use -colors.

MATTE EDITING

       Matte information within an image is useful for some operations such as
       image compositing. This extra channel  usually  defines  a  mask  which
       represents  a  sort  of a cookie-cutter for the image. This is the case
       when matte is 255 (full coverage) for pixels  inside  the  shape,  zero
       outside, and between zero and 255 on the boundary.

       Setting  the matte information in an image is done interactively. There
       is no command line argument to edit a pixel. To begin, and choose Matte
       of the Image Edit sub-menu from the Command widget.

       Alternatively, press m in the image window.

       A  small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
       window. You are now in matte edit  mode.  To  exit  immediately,  press
       Dismiss.  In matte edit mode, the Command widget has these options:

       Method

       point

       replace

       floodfill

       reset

       Border Color

       black

       blue

       cyan

       green

       gray

       red

       magenta

       yellow

       white

       Browser...

       Fuzz

       0

       2

       4

       8

       16
           Dialog...

       Matte

       Undo

       Help

       Dismiss

       Choose  a  matte editing method from the Method sub-menu of the Command
       widget. The point method changes the  matte  value  of  the  any  pixel
       selected  with  the  pointer  until the button is released. The replace
       method changes the matte value of any pixel that matches the  color  of
       the  pixel  you select with a button press. Floodfill changes the matte
       value of any pixel that matches the color of the pixel you select  with
       a  button  press  and  is a neighbor. Whereas filltoborder recolors any
       neighbor pixel that is not the border color. Finally reset changes  the
       entire  image  to the designated matte value.  Choose Matte Value and a
       dialog appears requesting a matte value.  Enter a value between  0  and
       255. This value is assigned as the matte value of the selected pixel or
       pixels.  Now, press any button to  select  a  pixel  within  the  Image
       window  to  change  its  matte value. You can change the matte value of
       additional pixels by increasing the Delta value.  The  Delta  value  is
       first added then subtracted from the red, green, and blue of the target
       color. Any pixels within the range also have their matte value updated.
       If  the Magnify widget is mapped, it can be helpful in positioning your
       pointer within the image (refer to button  2).  Alternatively  you  can
       select  a  pixel  to  change  the  matte  value from within the Magnify
       widget.  Move the pointer to the Magnify widget and position the  pixel
       with  the  cursor  control  keys. Finally, press a button to change the
       matte value of the selected pixel (or pixels).   Matte  information  is
       only  valid in a DirectClass image. Therefore, any PseudoClass image is
       promoted to DirectClass. Note that matte information for PseudoClass is
       not  retained  for  colormapped  X  server  visuals  (e.g. StaticColor,
       StaticColor, GrayScale, PseudoColor) unless you immediately  save  your
       image  to  a  file (refer to Write). Correct matte editing behavior may
       require a TrueColor or DirectColor visual or a Standard Colormap.

IMAGE DRAWING

       An image is drawn upon interactively. There is no command line argument
       to  draw  on an image. To begin, choose Draw of the Image Edit sub-menu
       from the Command widget.  Alternatively, press d in the image window.

       The cursor changes to a crosshair to indicate you are in draw mode.  To
       exit  immediately,  press Dismiss. In draw mode, the Command widget has
       these options:

       Primitive

       point

       line

       rectangle

       fill rectangle

       circle

       fill circle

       ellipse

       fill ellipse

       polygon

       fill polygon

       Color

       black

       blue

       cyan

       green

       gray

       red

       magenta

       yellow

       white

       transparent

       Browser...

       Stipple

       Brick

       Diagonal

       Scales

       Vertical

       Wavy

       Translucent

       Opaque

       Open...

       Width

       1

       2

       4

       8

       16
           Dialog...

       Undo

       Help

       Dismiss

       Choose a drawing primitive from the Primitive sub-menu.

       Next, choose a color from the Color sub-menu. Additional colors can  be
       specified  with  the  color  browser. You can change the menu colors by
       setting the X  resources  pen1  through  pen9.  The  transparent  color
       updates the image matte channel and is useful for image compositing.

       If  you  choose  the  color  browser and press Grab, you can select the
       primitive color by moving the pointer  to  the  desired  color  on  the
       screen  and  press  any button. The transparent color updates the image
       matte channel and is useful for image compositing.

       Choose a stipple, if appropriate, from the Stipple sub-menu. Additional
       stipples can be specified with the file browser. Stipples obtained from
       the file browser must be on disk in the X11 bitmap format.

       Choose a line width, if appropriate, from the Width sub-menu. To choose
       a specific width select the Dialog widget.

       Choose  a  point in the image window and press button 1 and hold. Next,
       move the pointer to another location in the image. As you move, a  line
       connects  the  initial  location  and the pointer. When you release the
       button, the image is updated with the  primitive  you  just  drew.  For
       polygons,  the  image  is updated when you press and release the button
       without moving the pointer.

       To cancel image drawing, move the pointer back to the starting point of
       the line and release the button.

REGION OF INTEREST

       To  begin,  press choose Region of Interest of the Pixel Transform sub-
       menu from the Command widget.  Alternatively,  press  R  in  the  image
       window.

       A  small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
       window. You are now in region of interest mode. In region  of  interest
       mode, the Command widget has these options:

       Help

       Dismiss

       To  define a region of interest, press button 1 and drag. The region of
       interest  is  defined  by  a  highlighted  rectangle  that  expands  or
       contracts  as  it  follows the pointer. Once you are satisfied with the
       region of interest, release the button. You are now in apply  mode.  In
       apply mode the Command widget has these options:

       File

       Save...

       Print...

       Edit

       Undo

       Redo

       Transform

       Flip

       Flop

       Rotate Right

       Rotate Left

       Enhance

       Hue...

       Saturation...

       Brightness...

       Gamma...

       Spiff

       Dull

       Equalize

       Normalize

       Negate

       GRAYscale

       Quantize...

       Effects

       Despeckle

       Emboss

       Reduce Noise

       Add Noise

       Sharpen...

       Blur...

       Threshold...

       Edge Detect...

       Spread...

       Shade...

       Raise...

       Segment...

       F/X

       Solarize...

       Swirl...

       Implode...

       Wave...

       Oil Paint

       Charcoal Draw...

       Miscellany

       Image Info

       Zoom Image

       Show Preview...

       Show Histogram

       Show Matte

       Help

       Dismiss

       You  can  make  adjustments  to  the  region  of interest by moving the
       pointer to one  of  the  rectangle  corners,  pressing  a  button,  and
       dragging.  Finally,  choose  an  image  processing  technique  from the
       Command widget. You can choose more than one image processing technique
       to apply to an area. Alternatively, you can move the region of interest
       before applying another image  processing  technique.  To  exit,  press
       Dismiss.

IMAGE PANNING

       When  an  image  exceeds  the  width  or height of the X server screen,
       display maps a small panning icon. The  rectangle  within  the  panning
       icon  shows  the  area  that  is  currently  displayed in the the image
       window. To pan about the image, press any button and drag  the  pointer
       within  the panning icon.  The pan rectangle moves with the pointer and
       the image window is updated to reflect the location  of  the  rectangle
       within  the  panning icon. When you have selected the area of the image
       you wish to view, release the button.

       Use the arrow keys to pan the image one pixel up, down, left, or  right
       within the image window.

       The  panning  icon  is  withdrawn if the image becomes smaller than the
       dimensions of the X server screen.

USER PREFERENCES

       Preferences affect the default behavior of display(1). The  preferences
       are  either  true  or  false  and  are stored in your home directory as
       .displayrc:

                display image centered on a backdrop"

                    .in 20

                    This backdrop covers the entire workstation screen and  is
                    useful  for  hiding  other X window activity while viewing
                    the image. The color of the backdrop is specified  as  the
                    background color. Refer to X Resources for details.
                confirm on program exit"

                    .in 20

                    Ask  for  a  confirmation  before  exiting  the display(1)
                    program.
                correct image for display gamma"

                    .in 20

                    If the image has a known gamma, the gamma is corrected  to
                    match   that   of   the  X  server  (see  the  X  Resource
                    displayGamma).
                display warning messages"

                    .in 20

                    Display any warning messages.
                apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to image"

                    .in 20

                    The basic strategy of  dithering  is  to  trade  intensity
                    resolution   for   spatial  resolution  by  averaging  the
                    intensities of several neighboring pixels.   Images  which
                    suffer  from severe contouring when reducing colors can be
                    improved with this preference.
                use a shared colormap for colormapped X visuals"

                    .in 20

                    This option only applies when the default X server  visual
                    is  PseudoColor  or  GRAYScale.  Refer to -visual for more
                    details. By default, a shared colormap is  allocated.  The
                    image  shares  colors  with  other  X clients.  Some image
                    colors could be approximated,  therefore  your  image  may
                    look  very  different  than  intended. Otherwise the image
                    colors appear exactly as they are defined. However,  other
                    clients  may  go  technicolor  when  the image colormap is
                    installed.
                display images as an X server pixmap"

                    .in 20

                    Images are maintained as a XImage  by  default.  Set  this
                    resource  to True to utilize a server Pixmap instead. This
                    option is useful if your image exceeds the  dimensions  of
                    your  server  screen  and  you  intend  to  pan the image.
                    Panning is much faster with Pixmaps than  with  a  XImage.
                    Pixmaps  are considered a precious resource, use them with
                    discretion.

GM IDENTIFY

       Identify describes the format and characteristics of one or more  image
       files.  It  will also report if an image is incomplete or corrupt.  The
       information displayed includes the scene number,  the  file  name,  the
       width and height of the image, whether the image is colormapped or not,
       the number of colors in the image, the number of bytes  in  the  image,
       the  format  of  the image (JPEG, PNM, etc.), and finally the number of
       seconds it took to read and process the image. An example  line  output
       from identify follows:

           images/aquarium.miff 640x480 PseudoClass 256c
                  308135b MIFF 1s

       If  -verbose  is  set,  expect  additional  output  including any image
       comment:

           Image: images/aquarium.miff
           class: PseudoClass
           colors: 256
           signature: eb5dca81dd93ae7e6ffae99a527eb5dca8...
           matte: False
           geometry: 640x480
              depth: 8
           bytes: 308135
           format: MIFF
           comments:
           Imported from MTV raster image: aquarium.mtv

       For some formats, additional format-specific information about the file
       will be written if the -debug coder or -debug all option is used.

IDENTIFY OPTIONS

       Options  are processed in command line order. Any option you specify on
       the command line remains in effect for the set  of  images  immediately
       following,  until the set is terminated by the appearance of any option
       or -noop.

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.

       -authenticate <string>
              decrypt image with this password

       -cache <threshold>
              (This option has been replaced by the -limit option)

       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

       -define <key>{=<value>},...
              add coder/decoder specific options

       -density <width>x<height>
              horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth <value>
              depth of the image

       -format <string>
              output formatted image characteristics

       -help  print usage instructions

       -interlace <type>
              the type of interlacing scheme

       -limit <type> <value>
              Disk, File, Map, or Memory resource limit

       -log <string>
              Specify format for debug log

       -ping  efficiently determine image characteristics

       -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
              sampling  factors  used  by  JPEG  or  MPEG-2  encoder  and  YUV
              decoder/encoder.

       -size <width>x<height>{+offset}
              width and height of the image

       -verbose
              print detailed information about the image

       -version
              print GraphicsMagick version string

              For  a  more  detailed  description of each option, see Options,
              above.

GM IMPORT

       Import reads an image from any  visible  window  on  an  X  server  and
       outputs  it  as  an  image  file.  You can capture a single window, the
       entire screen, or any rectangular portion of the screen.   Use  display
       for   redisplay,   printing,   editing,  formatting,  archiving,  image
       processing, etc. of the captured image.

       The target window can be specified by id, name, or may be  selected  by
       clicking  the  mouse  in  the desired window. If you press a button and
       then drag, a rectangle will form which expands  and  contracts  as  the
       mouse  moves.  To  save  the  portion  of  the  screen  defined  by the
       rectangle, just release the button. The keyboard bell is rung  once  at
       the beginning of the screen capture and twice when it completes.

EXAMPLES

       To  select an X window or an area of the screen with the mouse and save
       it in the MIFF image format to a file entitled window.miff, use:

           gm import window.miff

       To select an X window or an area of the screen with the mouse and  save
       it  in  the  Encapsulated  PostScript  format  to  include  in  another
       document, use:

           gm import figure.eps

       To capture the entire X server screen in the JPEG  image  format  in  a
       file entitled root.jpeg, without using the mouse, use:

           gm import -window root root.jpeg

       To  capture  the 512x256 area at the upper right corner of the X server
       screen in the PNG image  format  in  a  well-compressed  file  entitled
       corner.png, without using the mouse,  use:

           gm import -window root -crop 512x256-0+0 -quality 90
                  corner.png

OPTIONS

       Options  are processed in command line order. Any option you specify on
       the command line remains in effect until it is  explicitly  changed  by
       specifying the option again with a different effect.

       Import  options  can  appear on the command line or in your X resources
       file. See X(1). Options on the command line supersede values  specified
       in your X resources file.

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.

       -bordercolor <color>
              the border color

       -cache <threshold>
              (This option has been replaced by the -limit option)

       -colors <value>
              preferred number of colors in the image

       -colorspace <value>
              the type of colorspace

       -comment <string>
              annotate an image with a comment

       -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              preferred size and location of the cropped image

       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

       -define <key>{=<value>},...
              add coder/decoder specific options

       -delay <1/100ths of a second>
              display the next image after pausing

       -density <width>x<height>
              horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth <value>
              depth of the image

       -descend
              obtain image by descending window hierarchy

       -display <host:display[.screen]>
              specifies the X server to contact

       -dispose <method>
              GIF disposal method

       -dither
              apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

       -encoding <type>
              specify the text encoding

       -endian <type>
              specify endianness (MSB or LSB) of output image

       -frame include the X window frame in the imported image

       -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@} {!}{<}{>}
              preferred size and location of the Image window.

       -help  print usage instructions

       -interlace <type>
              the type of interlacing scheme

       -label <name>
              assign a label to an image

       -limit <type> <value>
              Disk, File, Map, or Memory resource limit

       -log <string>
              Specify format for debug log

       -monochrome
              transform the image to black and white

       -negate
              replace every pixel with its complementary color

       -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{!}{<}{>}
              size and location of an image canvas

       -pause <seconds>
              pause between snapshots [import]

       -ping  efficiently determine image characteristics

       -pointsize <value>
              pointsize of the PostScript, OPTION1, or TrueType font

       -quality <value>
              JPEG/MIFF/PNG compression level

       -resize <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
              resize an image

       -rotate <degrees>{<}{>}
              apply Paeth image rotation to the image

       -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
              sampling  factors  used  by  JPEG  or  MPEG-2  encoder  and  YUV
              decoder/encoder.

       -scene <value>
              set scene number

       -screen
              specify the screen to capture

       -silent
              operate silently

       -snaps <value>
              number of screen snapshots

       -transparent <color>
              make this color transparent within the image

       -trim  trim an image

       -verbose
              print detailed information about the image

       -version
              print GraphicsMagick version string

              For a more detailed description of  each  option,  see  Options,
              above.

GM MOGRIFY

       Mogrify  transforms  an image or a sequence of images. These transforms
       include image scaling, image rotation,  color  reduction,  and  others.
       Each  transmogrified image overwrites the corresponding original image,
       unless an option such as -format  causes  the  output  filename  to  be
       different from the input filename.

       The   graphics   formats   supported   by   mogrify   are   listed   in
       GraphicsMagick(1).

EXAMPLES

       To convert all the TIFF files in a particular directory to JPEG, use:

           gm mogrify -format jpeg *.tiff

       To convert a directory full of JPEG images to thumbnails, use:

           gm mogrify -size 120x120 *.jpg -resize 120x120 +profile "*"

       In this example, ’-size 120x120’ gives a hint to the JPEG decoder  that
       the  images  are  going to be downscaled to 120x120, allowing it to run
       faster by avoiding returning full-resolution images  to  GraphicsMagick
       for the subsequent resizing operation.  The ´-resize 120x120’ specifies
       the desired dimensions of the output images.  It will be scaled so  its
       largest  dimension  is 120 pixels.  The ´+profile "*"’ removes any ICM,
       EXIF, IPTC, or other profiles that might be present in  the  input  and
       aren’t needed in the thumbnails.

       To  scale an image of a cockatoo to exactly 640 pixels in width and 480
       pixels in height, use:

           gm mogrify -resize 640x480! cockatoo.miff

OPTIONS

       Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify  on
       the  command line remains in effect for the set of images that follows,
       until the set is terminated by the appearance of any option or -noop.

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.

       -affine <matrix>
              drawing transform matrix

       -antialias
              remove pixel aliasing

       -authenticate <string>
              decrypt image with this password

       -background <color>
              the background color

       -blue-primary <x>,<y>
              blue chromaticity primary point

       -blur <radius>{x<sigma>}
              blur the image with a Gaussian operator

       -border <width>x<height>
              surround the image with a border of color

       -bordercolor <color>
              the border color

       -cache <threshold>
              (This option has been replaced by the -limit option)

       -channel <type>
              the type of channel

       -charcoal <factor>
              simulate a charcoal drawing

       -colorize <value>
              colorize the image with the pen color

       -colors <value>
              preferred number of colors in the image

       -colorspace <value>
              the type of colorspace

       -comment <string>
              annotate an image with a comment

       -compose <operator>
              the type of image composition

       -compress <type>
              the type of image compression

       -contrast
              enhance or reduce the image contrast

       -convolve <kernel>
              convolve image with the specified convolution kernel

       -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              preferred size and location of the cropped image

       -cycle <amount>
              displace image colormap by amount

       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

       -define <key>{=<value>},...
              add coder/decoder specific options

       -delay <1/100ths of a second>
              display the next image after pausing

       -density <width>x<height>
              horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth <value>
              depth of the image

       -despeckle
              reduce the speckles within an image

       -display <host:display[.screen]>
              specifies the X server to contact

       -dispose <method>
              GIF disposal method

       -dither
              apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

       -draw <string>
              annotate an image with one or more graphic primitives

       -edge <radius>
              detect edges within an image

       -emboss <radius>
              emboss an image

       -encoding <type>
              specify the text encoding

       -endian <type>
              specify endianness (MSB or LSB) of output image

       -enhance
              apply a digital filter to enhance a noisy image

       -equalize
              perform histogram equalization to the image

       -fill <color>
              color to use when filling a graphic primitive

       -filter <type>
              use this type of filter when resizing an image

       -flip  create a "mirror image"

       -flop  create a "mirror image"

       -font <name>
              use this font when annotating the image with text

       -format <type>
              the image format type

       -frame <width>x<height>+<outer bevel width>+<inner bevel width>
              surround the image with an ornamental border

       -fuzz <distance>{%}
              colors within this distance are considered equal

       -gamma <value>
              level of gamma correction

       -Gaussian <radius>{x<sigma>}
              blur the image with a Gaussian operator

       -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@} {!}{<}{>}
              preferred size and location of the Image window.

       -gravity <type>
              direction primitive  gravitates to when annotating the image.

       -green-primary <x>,<y>
              green chromaticity primary point

       -help  print usage instructions

       -implode <factor>
              implode image pixels about the center

       -interlace <type>
              the type of interlacing scheme

       -label <name>
              assign a label to an image

       -lat <width>x<height>{+-}<offset>{%}
              perform local adaptive thresholding

       -level <black_point>{,<gamma>}{,<white_point>}{%}
              adjust the level of image contrast

       -limit <type> <value>
              Disk, File, Map, or Memory resource limit

       -linewidth
              the line width for subsequent draw operations

       -list <type>
              the type of list

       -log <string>
              Specify format for debug log

       -loop <iterations>
              add Netscape loop extension to your GIF animation

       -map <filename>
              choose a particular set of colors from this image

       -mask <filename>
              Specify a clipping mask

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

       -mattecolor <color>
              specify the color to be used with the -frame option

       -median <radius>
              apply a median filter to the image

       -modulate brightness[,saturation[,hue]]
              vary the brightness, saturation, and hue of an image

       -monochrome
              transform the image to black and white

       -negate
              replace every pixel with its complementary color

       -noise <radius|type>
              add or reduce noise in an image

       -noop  NOOP (no option)

       -normalize
              transform image to span the full range of color values

       -opaque <color>
              change this color to the pen color within the image

       -operator channel operator rvalue[%]
              apply a mathematical or bitwise operator to an image channel

       -ordered-dither <channeltype> <NxN>
              ordered dither the image

       -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{!}{<}{>}
              size and location of an image canvas

       -paint <radius>
              simulate an oil painting

       -pen <color>
              (This option has been replaced by the -fill option)

       -pointsize <value>
              pointsize of the PostScript, OPTION1, or TrueType font

       -profile <filename>
              add ICM, IPTC, or generic profile  to image

       -quality <value>
              JPEG/MIFF/PNG compression level

       -raise <width>x<height>
              lighten or darken image edges

       -random-threshold <channeltype> <LOWxHIGH>
              random threshold the image

       -red-primary <x>,<y>
              red chromaticity primary point

       -region <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>
              apply options to a portion of the image

       -render
              render vector operations

       -resample <horizontal>x<vertical>
              Resample image to specified horizontal and vertical resolution

       -resize <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
              resize an image

       -roll {+-}<x>{+-}<y>
              roll an image vertically or horizontally

       -rotate <degrees>{<}{>}
              apply Paeth image rotation to the image

       -sample <geometry>
              scale image using pixel sampling

       -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
              sampling  factors  used  by  JPEG  or  MPEG-2  encoder  and  YUV
              decoder/encoder.

       -scale <geometry>
              scale the image.

       -scene <value>
              set scene number

       -segment <cluster threshold>x<smoothing threshold>
              segment an image

       -shade <azimuth>x<elevation>
              shade the image using a distant light source

       -sharpen <radius>{x<sigma>}
              sharpen the image

       -shave <width>x<height>{%}
              shave pixels from the image edges

       -shear <x degrees>x<y degrees>
              shear the image along the X or Y axis

       -size <width>x<height>{+offset}
              width and height of the image

       -solarize <factor>
              negate all pixels above the threshold level

       -spread <amount>
              displace image pixels by a random amount

       -stroke <color>
              color to use when stroking a graphic primitive

       -strokewidth <value>
              set the stroke width

       -swirl <degrees>
              swirl image pixels about the center

       -texture <filename>
              name of texture to tile onto the image background

       -threshold <value>{<green>,<blue>,<opacity>}{%}
              threshold the image

       -tile <filename>
              tile image when filling a graphic primitive

       -transform
              transform the image

       -transparent <color>
              make this color transparent within the image

       -treedepth <value>
              tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

       -trim  trim an image

       -type <type>
              the image type

       -units <type>
              the units of image resolution

       -unsharp <radius>{x<sigma>}{+<amount>}{+<threshold>}
              sharpen the image with an unsharp mask operator

       -verbose
              print detailed information about the image

       -version
              print GraphicsMagick version string

       -view <string>
              FlashPix viewing parameters

       -virtual-pixel <method>
              specify contents of "virtual pixels"

       -wave <amplitude>x<wavelength>
              alter an image along a sine wave

       -white-point <x>,<y>
              chromaticity white point

              For  a  more  detailed  description of each option, see Options,
              above.

GM MONTAGE

       montage creates a composite image by combining several separate images.
       The  images are tiled on the composite image with the name of the image
       optionally appearing just below the individual tile.

       The composite image is constructed in the following manner. First, each
       image  specified on the command line, except for the last, is scaled to
       fit the maximum tile size. The maximum tile size by default is 120x120.
       It  can  be  modified  with  the  -geometry  command line argument or X
       resource. See Options for more information on command  line  arguments.
       See  X(1)  for  more information on X resources.  Note that the maximum
       tile size need not be a square.

       Next the composite image is initialized with the color specified by the
       -background  command  line argument or X resource. The width and height
       of the composite image  is  determined  by  the  title  specified,  the
       maximum  tile  size, the number of tiles per row, the tile border width
       and height, the image border width, and the label height. The number of
       tiles  per  row  specifies how many images are to appear in each row of
       the composite image. The default is to have 5 tiles in each row  and  4
       tiles  in  each column of the composite.  A specific value is specified
       with -tile. The tile border width and  height,  and  the  image  border
       width  defaults  to the value of the X resource -borderwidth. It can be
       changed with the -borderwidth or -geometry command line argument  or  X
       resource.  The  label height is determined by the font you specify with
       the -font command line argument or X resource. If you do not specify  a
       font,  a  font  is  chosen that allows the name of the image to fit the
       maximum width of a tiled area.  The label colors is determined  by  the
       -background  and  -fill command line argument or X resource. Note, that
       if the background and pen colors are the same, labels will not  appear.

       Initially,  the  composite  image  title is placed at the top if one is
       specified (refer to -fill). Next, each image is set onto the  composite
       image,  surrounded  by  its  border  color, with its name centered just
       below it. The individual images are left-justified within the width  of
       the  tiled area.  The order of the images is the same as they appear on
       the command line unless the images have a scene  keyword.  If  a  scene
       number  is  specified in each image, then the images are tiled onto the
       composite in the  order  of  their  scene  number.  Finally,  the  last
       argument  on  the  command  line  is the name assigned to the composite
       image. By default, the image is written in the MIFF format and  can  be
       viewed or printed with display(1).

       Note,  that  if the number of tiles exceeds the default number of 20 (5
       per row, 4 per column), more than one composite image  is  created.  To
       ensure  a single image is produced, use -tile to increase the number of
       tiles to meet or exceed the number of input images.

       Finally, to create one or more empty spaces in the sequence  of  tiles,
       use the "NULL:" image format.

       Note,  a  composite  MIFF  image  displayed to an X server with display
       behaves differently than other images. You can think of  the  composite
       as  a visual image directory. Choose a particular tile of the composite
       and press a button to display it. See display(1) and miff(5)

EXAMPLES

       To create a montage of a cockatoo, a  parrot,  and  a  hummingbird  and
       write it to a file called birds, use:

           gm montage cockatoo.miff parrot.miff hummingbird.miff
                   birds.miff

       To  tile  several  bird  images  so that they are at most 256 pixels in
       width and 192 pixels  in  height,  surrounded  by  a  red  border,  and
       separated by 10 pixels of background color, use:

           gm montage -geometry 256x192+10+10 -bordercolor red
                   birds.* montage.miff

       To  create an unlabeled parrot image, 640 by 480 pixels, and surrounded
       by a border of black, use:

           gm montage -geometry 640x480 -bordercolor black
                   -label "" parrot.miff bird.miff

       To create an image of an eagle with a textured background, use:

           gm montage -texture bumps.jpg eagle.jpg eagle.png

       To join several GIF images together  without  any  extraneous  graphics
       (e.g.  no label, no shadowing, no surrounding tile frame), use:

           gm montage +frame +shadow +label -tile 5x1
                   -geometry 50x50+0+0 *.png joined.png

OPTIONS

       Any  option  you  specify on the command line remains in effect for the
       group of images following it, until the  group  is  terminated  by  the
       appearance  of  any option or -noop.  For example, to make a montage of
       three images, the first with 32 colors, the second  with  an  unlimited
       number of colors, and the third with only 16 colors, use:

            gm montage -colors 32 cockatoo.1 -noop cockatoo.2
                    -colors 16 cockatoo.3 cockatoos.miff

       For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.

       -adjoin
              join images into a single multi-image file

       -authenticate <string>
              decrypt image with this password

       -background <color>
              the background color

       -blue-primary <x>,<y>
              blue chromaticity primary point

       -blur <radius>{x<sigma>}
              blur the image with a Gaussian operator

       -bordercolor <color>
              the border color

       -borderwidth <geometry>
              the border width

       -cache <threshold>
              (This option has been replaced by the -limit option)

       -chop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              remove pixels from the interior of an image

       -colors <value>
              preferred number of colors in the image

       -colorspace <value>
              the type of colorspace

       -comment <string>
              annotate an image with a comment

       -compose <operator>
              the type of image composition

       -compress <type>
              the type of image compression

       -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              preferred size and location of the cropped image

       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

       -define <key>{=<value>},...
              add coder/decoder specific options

       -density <width>x<height>
              horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth <value>
              depth of the image

       -display <host:display[.screen]>
              specifies the X server to contact

       -dispose <method>
              GIF disposal method

       -dither
              apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

       -draw <string>
              annotate an image with one or more graphic primitives

       -encoding <type>
              specify the text encoding

       -endian <type>
              specify endianness (MSB or LSB) of output image

       -fill <color>
              color to use when filling a graphic primitive

       -filter <type>
              use this type of filter when resizing an image

       -font <name>
              use this font when annotating the image with text

       -frame <width>x<height>+<outer bevel width>+<inner bevel width>
              surround the image with an ornamental border

       -gamma <value>
              level of gamma correction

       -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@} {!}{<}{>}
              preferred size and location of the Image window.

       -gravity <type>
              direction primitive  gravitates to when annotating the image.

       -green-primary <x>,<y>
              green chromaticity primary point

       -help  print usage instructions

       -interlace <type>
              the type of interlacing scheme

       -label <name>
              assign a label to an image

       -limit <type> <value>
              Disk, File, Map, or Memory resource limit

       -log <string>
              Specify format for debug log

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

       -mattecolor <color>
              specify the color to be used with the -frame option

       -mode <value>
              mode of operation

       -monochrome
              transform the image to black and white

       -noop  NOOP (no option)

       -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{!}{<}{>}
              size and location of an image canvas

       -pen <color>
              (This option has been replaced by the -fill option)

       -pointsize <value>
              pointsize of the PostScript, OPTION1, or TrueType font

       -quality <value>
              JPEG/MIFF/PNG compression level

       -red-primary <x>,<y>
              red chromaticity primary point

       -render
              render vector operations

       -resize <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
              resize an image

       -rotate <degrees>{<}{>}
              apply Paeth image rotation to the image

       -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
              sampling  factors  used  by  JPEG  or  MPEG-2  encoder  and  YUV
              decoder/encoder.

       -scenes <value-value>
              range of image scene numbers to read

       -shadow <radius>{x<sigma>}
              shadow the montage

       -sharpen <radius>{x<sigma>}
              sharpen the image

       -size <width>x<height>{+offset}
              width and height of the image

       -stroke <color>
              color to use when stroking a graphic primitive

       -strokewidth <value>
              set the stroke width

       -texture <filename>
              name of texture to tile onto the image background

       -tile <geometry>
              layout of images [montage]

       -title <string>
              assign title to displayed image [animate, display, montage]

       -transparent <color>
              make this color transparent within the image

       -treedepth <value>
              tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

       -trim  trim an image

       -type <type>
              the image type

       -verbose
              print detailed information about the image

       -version
              print GraphicsMagick version string

       -white-point <x>,<y>
              chromaticity white point

              For a more detailed description of  each  option,  see  Options,
              above.

X RESOURCES

       Montage  options  can  appear on the command line or in your X resource
       file. Options on the command line supersede values specified in your  X
       resource file. See X(1) for more information on X resources.

       All  montage  options  have  a  corresponding  X resource. In addition,
       montage uses the following X resources:

       background (class Background)
              background color

              Specifies the preferred color to use  for  the  composite  image
              background.  The default is #ccc.

       borderColor (class BorderColor)
              border color

              Specifies  the  preferred  color  to use for the composite image
              border. The default is #ccc.

       borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
              border width

              Specifies the width in pixels of the composite image border. The
              default is 2.

       font (class Font)
              font to use

              Specifies  the name of the preferred font to use when displaying
              text within the composite image. The default is 9x15, fixed,  or
              5x8 determined by the composite image size.

       matteColor (class MatteColor)
              color of the frame

              Specify  the color of an image frame. A 3D effect is achieved by
              using highlight and shadow colors derived from this  color.  The
              default value is #697B8F.

       pen (class Pen)
              text color

              Specifies  the  preferred  color  to  use  for  text  within the
              composite image.  The default is black.

       title (class Title)
              composite image title

              This resource specifies the title to be placed at the top of the
              composite  image. The default is not to place a title at the top
              of the composite image.

ENVIRONMENT

       COLUMNS
              Output screen width. Used when formatting text for  the  screen.
              Many  Unix  systems  keep this shell variable up to date, but it
              may need to be explicitly exported in order  for  GraphicsMagick
              to see it.

       DISPLAY
              X11  display  ID  (host,  display number, and screen in the form
              hostname:display.screen).

       HOME   Location of user’s home directory. GraphicsMagick  searches  for
              configuration  files  in  $HOME/.magick if the directory exists.
              See   MAGICK_CODER_MODULE_PATH,    MAGICK_CONFIGURE_PATH,    and
              MAGICK_FILTER_MODULE_PATH if more flexibility is needed.

       MAGICK_CODER_MODULE_PATH
              Search  path  to  use  when  searching  for  image  format coder
              modules.  This path allows the user to  arbitrarily  extend  the
              image  formats  supported  by  GraphicsMagick by adding loadable
              modules to an arbitrary location rather than copying  them  into
              the GraphicsMagick installation directory. The formatting of the
              search path is similar to operating system  search  paths  (i.e.
              colon delimited for Unix, and semi-colon delimited for Microsoft
              Windows). This user specified search path is used before  trying
              the default search path.

       MAGICK_CONFIGURE_PATH
              Search  path  to  use  when  searching  for configuration (.mgk)
              files.   The  formatting  of  the  search  path  is  similar  to
              operating  system  search  paths (i.e. colon delimited for Unix,
              and semi-colon  delimited  for  Microsoft  Windows).  This  user
              specified  search  path is used before trying the default search
              path.

       MAGICK_DEBUG
              Debug options (see -debug for details)

       MAGICK_FILTER_MODULE_PATH
              Search path to use when searching  for  filter  process  modules
              (invoked via -process). This path allows the user to arbitrarily
              extend GraphicsMagick’s image processing functionality by adding
              loadable  modules  to  an arbitrary location rather than copying
              them  into  the  GraphicsMagick  installation   directory.   The
              formatting  of  the  search  path is similar to operating system
              search paths (i.e. colon  delimited  for  Unix,  and  semi-colon
              delimited  for  Microsoft  Windows).  This user specified search
              path is used before trying the default search path.

       MAGICK_HOME
              Path to  top  of  GraphicsMagick  installation  directory.  Only
              observed  by "uninstalled" builds of GraphicsMagick which do not
              have their location hard-coded or set by an installer.

       MAGICK_LIMIT_DISK
              Maximum amount of disk space allowed for use by the pixel cache.

       MAGICK_LIMIT_FILES
              Maximum number of open files.

       MAGICK_LIMIT_MAP
              Maximum size of a memory map.

       MAGICK_LIMIT_MEMORY
              Maximum amount of memory to allocate from the heap.

       MAGICK_TMPDIR
              Path  to  directory  where GraphicsMagick should write temporary
              files. The default is to use the system default, or the location
              set by TMPDIR.

       TMPDIR For  POSIX-compatible systems (Unix-compatible), the path to the
              directory where all applications should write  temporary  files.
              Overridden by MAGICK_TMPDIR if it is set.

       TMP or TEMP
              For   Microsoft   Windows,  the  path  to  the  directory  where
              applications  should  write  temporary  files.   Overridden   by
              MAGICK_TMPDIR if it is set.

CONFIGURATION FILES

       GraphicsMagick uses a number of XML format configuration files:

       colors.mgk
              colors configuration file

                <?xml version="1.0"?>
                <colormap>
                  <color name="AliceBlue" red="240" green="248" blue="255"
                         compliance="SVG, X11, XPM" />
                </colormap>

       delegates.mgk
              delegates configuration file

       log.mgk
              logging configuration file

                <?xml version="1.0"?>
                <magicklog>
                  <log events="None" />
                  <log output="stdout" />
                  <log filename="Magick-%d.log" />
                  <log generations="3" />
                  <log limit="2000" />
                  <log format="%t %r %u %p %m/%f/%l/%d:\n  %e"  />
                </magicklog>

       magic.mgk
              file header magic test configuration file

                <?xml version="1.0"?>
                <magicmap>
                  <magic name="AVI" offset="0" target="RIFF" />
                </magicmap>

       modules.mgk
              loadable modules configuration file

                <?xml version="1.0"?>
                <modulemap>
                  <module magick="8BIM" name="META" />
                </modulemap>

       type.mgk
              master type (fonts) configuration file

                <?xml version="1.0"?>
                <typemap>
                  <include file="type-windows.mgk" />
                  <type
                    name="AvantGarde-Book"
                    fullname="AvantGarde Book"
                    family="AvantGarde"
                    foundry="URW"
                    weight="400"
                    style="normal"
                    stretch="normal"
                    format="type1"
                    metrics="/usr/local/share/ghostscript/fonts/a010013l.afm"
                    glyphs="/usr/local/share/ghostscript/fonts/a010013l.pfb"
                  />
                </typemap>

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

       The MIT X Consortium for making network transparent graphics a reality.

       Michael  Halle,  Spatial  Imaging  Group  at  MIT,  for   the   initial
       implementation of Alan Paeth’s image rotation algorithm.

       David  Pensak,  E.  I.  du Pont de Nemours and Company, for providing a
       computing environment that made this program possible.

       Peder Langlo, Hewlett Packard, Norway, made hundreds of suggestions and
       bug reports. Without Peder, this software would not be nearly as useful
       as it is today.

       Rod Bogart and John W. Peterson, University of Utah.  Image compositing
       is loosely based on rlecomp of the Utah Raster Toolkit.

       Paul  Heckbert,  Carnegie Mellon University. Image resizing is based on
       his Zoom program.

       Paul  Raveling,  USC  Information  Sciences  Institute.   The   spatial
       subdivision color reduction algorithm is based on his Img software.

COPYRIGHT

       Copyright   (C)   2002,  2003  GraphicsMagick  Group,  an  organization
       dedicated to making software imaging solutions freely available.

       Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a
       copy    of   this   software   and   associated   documentation   files
       ("GraphicsMagick"), to  deal  in  GraphicsMagick  without  restriction,
       including  without  limitation  the rights to use, copy, modify, merge,
       publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of  GraphicsMagick,
       and  to  permit  persons  to whom GraphicsMagick is furnished to do so,
       subject to the following conditions:

       The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included
       in all copies or substantial portions of GraphicsMagick.

       The software is provided "as is", without warranty of any kind, express
       or  implied,  including  but  not  limited   to   the   warranties   of
       merchantability,  fitness for a particular purpose and noninfringement.
       In no event shall GraphicsMagick Group be liable for any claim, damages
       or  other  liability,  whether  in  an  action  of  contract,  tort  or
       otherwise, arising from, out of or in connection with GraphicsMagick or
       the use or other dealings in GraphicsMagick.

       Except  as  contained  in  this  notice, the name of the GraphicsMagick
       Group shall not be used in advertising  or  otherwise  to  promote  the
       sale,  use  or  other  dealings in GraphicsMagick without prior written
       authorization from the GraphicsMagick Group.

       Additional copyrights and licenses apply to this software.  You  should
       have  received  a  copy  of  Copyright.txt  with  this  package,  which
       describes additional  copyrights  and  licenses  which  apply  to  this
       software;                         otherwise                         see
       http://www.graphicsmagick.org/www/Copyright.html.