Provided by: curl_7.18.2-8ubuntu4_i386 bug

NAME

       curl - transfer a URL

SYNOPSIS

       curl [options] [URL...]

DESCRIPTION

       curl  is  a tool to transfer data from or to a server, using one of the
       supported protocols (HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, FTPS,  SCP,  SFTP,  TFTP,  DICT,
       TELNET,  LDAP  or  FILE).  The command is designed to work without user
       interaction.

       curl offers a  busload  of  useful  tricks  like  proxy  support,  user
       authentication,  ftp  upload, HTTP post, SSL connections, cookies, file
       transfer resume and more. As you will see below, the number of features
       will make your head spin!

       curl  is  powered  by  libcurl  for  all transfer-related features. See
       libcurl(3) for details.

URL

       The  URL  syntax  is  protocol  dependent.  You’ll  find   a   detailed
       description in RFC 3986.

       You  can  specify  multiple  URLs or parts of URLs by writing part sets
       within braces as in:

        http://site.{one,two,three}.com

       or you can get sequences of alphanumeric series by using [] as in:

        ftp://ftp.numericals.com/file[1-100].txt
        ftp://ftp.numericals.com/file[001-100].txt    (with leading zeros)
        ftp://ftp.letters.com/file[a-z].txt

       No nesting of the sequences is supported at the moment, but you can use
       several ones next to each other:

        http://any.org/archive[1996-1999]/vol[1-4]/part{a,b,c}.html

       You  can  specify  any amount of URLs on the command line. They will be
       fetched in a sequential manner in the specified order.

       Since curl 7.15.1 you can also specify step counter for the ranges,  so
       that you can get every Nth number or letter:

        http://www.numericals.com/file[1-100:10].txt
        http://www.letters.com/file[a-z:2].txt

       If  you  specify  URL  without protocol:// prefix, curl will attempt to
       guess what protocol you might want. It will then default  to  HTTP  but
       try  other  protocols  based  on  often-used  host  name  prefixes. For
       example, for host names starting with "ftp." curl will assume you  want
       to speak FTP.

       Curl will attempt to re-use connections for multiple file transfers, so
       that getting many files from the  same  server  will  not  do  multiple
       connects / handshakes. This improves speed. Of course this is only done
       on files specified on a single command line and cannot be used  between
       separate curl invokes.

PROGRESS METER

       curl  normally  displays a progress meter during operations, indicating
       amount of transferred data, transfer speeds  and  estimated  time  left
       etc.

       However,  since  curl  displays data to the terminal by default, if you
       invoke curl to do an operation and it is about to  write  data  to  the
       terminal,  it disables the progress meter as otherwise it would mess up
       the output mixing progress meter and response data.

       If you want a progress meter for HTTP POST or PUT requests, you need to
       redirect  the  response  output to a file, using shell redirect (>), -o
       [file] or similar.

       It is not the same case  for  FTP  upload  as  that  operation  is  not
       spitting out any response data to the terminal.

       If you prefer a progress "bar" instead of the regular meter, -# is your
       friend.

OPTIONS

       -a/--append
              (FTP) When used in an FTP upload, this will tell curl to  append
              to  the  target  file  instead  of  overwriting  it. If the file
              doesn’t exist, it will be created.

              If this option is used twice, the second one will disable append
              mode again.

       -A/--user-agent <agent string>
              (HTTP) Specify the User-Agent string to send to the HTTP server.
              Some  badly  done  CGIs  fail  if  this  field  isn’t   set   to
              "Mozilla/4.0".  To  encode  blanks  in  the string, surround the
              string with single quote marks. This can also be  set  with  the
              -H/--header option of course.

              If  this  option is set more than once, the last one will be the
              one that’s used.

       --anyauth
              (HTTP) Tells curl to figure out authentication method by itself,
              and  use the most secure one the remote site claims it supports.
              This is done by first doing a request and checking the response-
              headers,  thus  possibly  inducing  an extra network round-trip.
              This is  used  instead  of  setting  a  specific  authentication
              method,  which  you  can  do with --basic, --digest, --ntlm, and
              --negotiate.

              Note that using --anyauth is not recommended if you  do  uploads
              from  stdin, since it may require data to be sent twice and then
              the client must be able to rewind. If the need should arise when
              uploading from stdin, the upload operation will fail.

              If  this option is used several times, the following occurrences
              make no difference.

       -b/--cookie <name=data>
              (HTTP) Pass the data to the HTTP  server  as  a  cookie.  It  is
              supposedly  the  data  previously  received from the server in a
              "Set-Cookie:"  line.   The  data  should  be   in   the   format
              "NAME1=VALUE1; NAME2=VALUE2".

              If  no  ’=’  letter  is  used  in  the  line, it is treated as a
              filename to use to read previously  stored  cookie  lines  from,
              which  should  be used in this session if they match. Using this
              method also activates the "cookie parser" which will  make  curl
              record  incoming cookies too, which may be handy if you’re using
              this in combination with  the  -L/--location  option.  The  file
              format  of  the  file  to read cookies from should be plain HTTP
              headers or the Netscape/Mozilla cookie file format.

              NOTE that the file specified with -b/--cookie is  only  used  as
              input.  No cookies will be stored in the file. To store cookies,
              use the -c/--cookie-jar option or you could even save  the  HTTP
              headers to a file using -D/--dump-header!

              If  this  option is set more than once, the last one will be the
              one that’s used.

       -B/--use-ascii
              Enable ASCII transfer when using FTP or LDAP. For FTP, this  can
              also  be enforced by using an URL that ends with ";type=A". This
              option causes data sent to stdout to be in text mode  for  win32
              systems.

              If  this option is used twice, the second one will disable ASCII
              usage.

       --basic
              (HTTP) Tells curl to use HTTP Basic authentication. This is  the
              default  and this option is usually pointless, unless you use it
              to override a  previously  set  option  that  sets  a  different
              authentication    method   (such   as   --ntlm,   --digest   and
              --negotiate).

              If this option is used several times, the following  occurrences
              make no difference.

       --ciphers <list of ciphers>
              (SSL) Specifies which ciphers to use in the connection. The list
              of ciphers must be using valid ciphers. Read up  on  SSL  cipher
              list           details           on           this          URL:
              http://www.openssl.org/docs/apps/ciphers.html

              NSS ciphers are done differently than OpenSSL  and  GnuTLS.  The
              full  list of NSS ciphers is in the NSSCipherSuite entry at this
              URL:
              http://directory.fedora.redhat.com/docs/mod_nss.html#Directives

              If this option is used several times, the last one will override
              the others.

       --compressed
              (HTTP) Request a compressed response using one of the algorithms
              libcurl supports, and return the uncompressed document.  If this
              option is used and the server  sends  an  unsupported  encoding,
              Curl will report an error.

              If  this  option  is  used  several  times, each occurrence will
              toggle it on/off.

       --connect-timeout <seconds>
              Maximum time in seconds that you allow  the  connection  to  the
              server  to  take.   This  only limits the connection phase, once
              curl has connected this option is of no more use. See  also  the
              -m/--max-time option.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -c/--cookie-jar <file name>
              Specify to which file you want curl to write all cookies after a
              completed  operation.  Curl  writes  all cookies previously read
              from a specified file as  well  as  all  cookies  received  from
              remote  server(s).  If  no  cookies  are  known, no file will be
              written. The file will be written using the Netscape cookie file
              format.  If  you  set  the  file name to a single dash, "-", the
              cookies will be written to stdout.

              NOTE If the cookie jar can’t be created or written to, the whole
              curl operation won’t fail or even report an error clearly. Using
              -v will get a warning displayed, but that is  the  only  visible
              feedback you get about this possibly lethal situation.

              If  this  option  is used several times, the last specified file
              name will be used.

       -C/--continue-at <offset>
              Continue/Resume a previous file transfer at  the  given  offset.
              The  given  offset  is  the  exact  number of bytes that will be
              skipped counted from the beginning of the source file before  it
              is  transferred  to  the destination.  If used with uploads, the
              ftp server command SIZE will not be used by curl.

              Use "-C -" to tell curl to automatically find out  where/how  to
              resume  the  transfer. It then uses the given output/input files
              to figure that out.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --create-dirs
              When  used  in  conjunction with the -o option, curl will create
              the necessary local directory hierarchy as needed.  This  option
              creates  the dirs mentioned with the -o option, nothing else. If
              the -o file name uses no dir or if the dirs it mentions  already
              exist, no dir will be created.

              To  create remote directories when using FTP or SFTP, try --ftp-
              create-dirs.

       --crlf (FTP) Convert LF to CRLF in upload. Useful for MVS (OS/390).

              If this option is used several times, the following  occurrences
              make no difference.

       -d/--data <data>
              (HTTP)  Sends  the  specified data in a POST request to the HTTP
              server, in the same way that a browser  does  when  a  user  has
              filled  in an HTML form and presses the submit button. This will
              cause curl to pass the data to the server using the content-type
              application/x-www-form-urlencoded.  Compare to -F/--form.

              -d/--data  is  the  same  as  --data-ascii.  To post data purely
              binary, you should instead use the --data-binary option. To  URL
              encode the value of a form field you may use --data-urlencode.

              If  any  of  these  options  is  used more than once on the same
              command line, the data pieces specified will be merged  together
              with  a  separating  &-letter.  Thus,  using  ’-d name=daniel -d
              skill=lousy’  would  generate  a  post  chunk  that  looks  like
              ’name=daniel&skill=lousy’.

              If  you  start  the data with the letter @, the rest should be a
              file name to read the data from, or - if you want curl  to  read
              the  data  from stdin.  The contents of the file must already be
              url-encoded. Multiple files can also be specified. Posting  data
              from  a  file  named  ’foobar’  would  thus  be done with --data
              @foobar.

       --data-binary <data>
              (HTTP) This posts  data  exactly  as  specified  with  no  extra
              processing whatsoever.

              If  you  start  the data with the letter @, the rest should be a
              filename.  Data is posted in a similar  manner  as  --data-ascii
              does,  except  that  newlines  are preserved and conversions are
              never done.

              If this option is used several times,  the  ones  following  the
              first will append data. As described in -d/--data.

       --data-urlencode <data>
              (HTTP) This posts data, similar to the other --data options with
              the exception that this performs URL encoding. (Added in 7.18.0)

              To  be  CGI  compliant, the <data> part should begin with a name
              followed by a separator and a content specification. The  <data>
              part can be passed to curl using one of the following syntaxes:

              content
                     This  will make curl URL encode the content and pass that
                     on. Just be careful so that the content  doesn’t  contain
                     any  =  or  @  letters, as that will then make the syntax
                     match one of the other cases below!

              =content
                     This will make curl URL encode the content and pass  that
                     on. The preceding = letter is not included in the data.

              name=content
                     This  will make curl URL encode the content part and pass
                     that on. Note that the name part is expected  to  be  URL
                     encoded already.

              @filename
                     This  will  make  curl  load  data  from  the  given file
                     (including any newlines), URL encode that data  and  pass
                     it on in the POST.

              name@filename
                     This  will  make  curl  load  data  from  the  given file
                     (including any newlines), URL encode that data  and  pass
                     it  on  in  the  POST.  The  name part gets an equal sign
                     appended, resulting in name=urlencoded-file-content. Note
                     that the name is expected to be URL encoded already.

       --digest
              (HTTP)   Enables   HTTP   Digest   authentication.   This  is  a
              authentication that prevents the password from being  sent  over
              the  wire in clear text. Use this in combination with the normal
              -u/--user option to set user name and password. See also --ntlm,
              --negotiate and --anyauth for related options.

              If  this option is used several times, the following occurrences
              make no difference.

       --disable-eprt
              (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use of the EPRT and LPRT commands
              when doing active FTP transfers. Curl will normally always first
              attempt to use EPRT, then LPRT before using PORT, but with  this
              option,  it  will  use  PORT  right  away.  EPRT  and  LPRT  are
              extensions to the original FTP protocol, may  not  work  on  all
              servers  but  enable more functionality in a better way than the
              traditional PORT command.

              If this option is  used  several  times,  each  occurrence  will
              toggle this on/off.

       --disable-epsv
              (FTP)  Tell  curl  to  disable  the use of the EPSV command when
              doing passive FTP transfers. Curl  will  normally  always  first
              attempt  to  use EPSV before PASV, but with this option, it will
              not try using EPSV.

              If this option is  used  several  times,  each  occurrence  will
              toggle this on/off.

       -D/--dump-header <file>
              Write the protocol headers to the specified file.

              This  option  is handy to use when you want to store the headers
              that a HTTP site sends to you. Cookies from  the  headers  could
              then  be  read  in a second curl invoke by using the -b/--cookie
              option! The -c/--cookie-jar option is however a  better  way  to
              store cookies.

              When  used  on FTP, the ftp server response lines are considered
              being "headers" and thus are saved there.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -e/--referer <URL>
              (HTTP)  Sends the "Referer Page" information to the HTTP server.
              This can also be set with the -H/--header flag of course.   When
              used  with -L/--location you can append ";auto" to the --referer
              URL to make curl automatically set  the  previous  URL  when  it
              follows  a  Location:  header.  The  ";auto"  string can be used
              alone, even if you don’t set an initial --referer.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --engine <name>
              Select  the  OpenSSL crypto engine to use for cipher operations.
              Use --engine list  to  print  a  list  of  build-time  supported
              engines.  Note  that  not  all  (or  none) of the engines may be
              available at run-time.

       --environment
              (RISC OS ONLY) Sets a range of environment variables, using  the
              names  the  -w  option  supports,  to easier allow extraction of
              useful information after having run curl.

              If this option is  used  several  times,  each  occurrence  will
              toggle this on/off.

       --egd-file <file>
              (SSL)  Specify  the  path  name  to the Entropy Gathering Daemon
              socket. The socket is used to seed the  random  engine  for  SSL
              connections. See also the --random-file option.

       -E/--cert <certificate[:password]>
              (SSL)  Tells  curl  to  use  the specified certificate file when
              getting a file with HTTPS or FTPS. The certificate  must  be  in
              PEM  format.   If the optional password isn’t specified, it will
              be queried for on the terminal. Note that this option assumes  a
              "certificate"  file  that  is  the  private  key and the private
              certificate concatenated! See --cert and --key to  specify  them
              independently.

              If  curl  is  built against the NSS SSL library then this option
              tells curl the nickname of the certificate to use within the NSS
              database  defined  by  the  environment  variable SSL_DIR (or by
              default  /etc/pki/nssdb).  If  the  NSS   PEM   PKCS#11   module
              (libnsspem.so) is available then PEM files may be loaded.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --cert-type <type>
              (SSL) Tells curl what certificate type the provided  certificate
              is in. PEM, DER and ENG are recognized types.  If not specified,
              PEM is assumed.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --cacert <CA certificate>
              (SSL) Tells curl to use the specified certificate file to verify
              the peer. The file may contain  multiple  CA  certificates.  The
              certificate(s)  must be in PEM format. Normally curl is built to
              use a default file for this, so this option is typically used to
              alter that default file.

              curl  recognizes the environment variable named ’CURL_CA_BUNDLE’
              if that is set, and uses the given path as a path to a  CA  cert
              bundle. This option overrides that variable.

              The  windows  version  of  curl will automatically look for a CA
              certs  file  named  ´curl-ca-bundle.crt´,  either  in  the  same
              directory  as  curl.exe, or in the Current Working Directory, or
              in any folder along your PATH.

              If curl is built against the NSS SSL library  then  this  option
              tells  curl the nickname of the CA certificate to use within the
              NSS database defined by the environment variable SSL_DIR (or  by
              default   /etc/pki/nssdb).    If  the  NSS  PEM  PKCS#11  module
              (libnsspem.so) is available then PEM files may be loaded.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --capath <CA certificate directory>
              (SSL)  Tells  curl to use the specified certificate directory to
              verify the peer. The certificates must be in PEM format, and the
              directory  must  have  been processed using the c_rehash utility
              supplied with openssl. Using --capath can  allow  curl  to  make
              SSL-connections much more efficiently than using --cacert if the
              --cacert file contains many CA certificates.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -f/--fail
              (HTTP)  Fail  silently (no output at all) on server errors. This
              is mostly done like this to better enable scripts etc to  better
              deal  with  failed  attempts. In normal cases when a HTTP server
              fails to deliver a document, it returns an HTML document stating
              so  (which  often  also  describes why and more). This flag will
              prevent curl from outputting that and return error 22.

              This method is not fail-safe and there are occasions where  non-
              successful  response  codes  will  slip through, especially when
              authentication is involved (response codes 401 and 407).

              If this option is used twice,  the  second  will  again  disable
              silent failure.

       --ftp-account [data]
              (FTP) When an FTP server asks for "account data" after user name
              and password has been provided, this data is sent off using  the
              ACCT command. (Added in 7.13.0)

              If  this  option  is  used  twice,  the second will override the
              previous use.

       --ftp-create-dirs
              (FTP/SFTP) When an FTP or SFTP URL/operation uses  a  path  that
              doesn’t  currently exist on the server, the standard behavior of
              curl is to fail. Using this option, curl will instead attempt to
              create missing directories.

              If  this  option  is  used  twice, the second will again disable
              directory creation.

       --ftp-method [method]
              (FTP) Control what method curl should use to reach a file  on  a
              FTP(S)  server.  The  method  argument  should  be  one  of  the
              following alternatives:

              multicwd
                     curl does a single CWD operation for each  path  part  in
                     the  given URL. For deep hierarchies this means very many
                     commands. This is how RFC1738 says  it  should  be  done.
                     This is the default but the slowest behavior.

              nocwd  curl  does  no  CWD at all. curl will do SIZE, RETR, STOR
                     etc and give a full path to  the  server  for  all  these
                     commands. This is the fastest behavior.

              singlecwd
                     curl does one CWD with the full target directory and then
                     operates on the file "normally"  (like  in  the  multicwd
                     case).  This  is  somewhat  more standards compliant than
                     ’nocwd’ but without the full penalty of ’multicwd’.

       --ftp-pasv
              (FTP) Use PASV when transferring. PASV is the  internal  default
              behavior,  but  using  this  option  can  be  used to override a
              previous --ftp-port option. (Added in 7.11.0)

              If this option is used several times, the following  occurrences
              make no difference.

       --ftp-alternative-to-user <command>
              (FTP)  If  authenticating with the USER and PASS commands fails,
              send this  command.   When  connecting  to  Tumbleweed’s  Secure
              Transport  server  over  FTPS  using a client certificate, using
              "SITE AUTH" will tell the server to retrieve the  username  from
              the certificate. (Added in 7.15.5)

       --ftp-skip-pasv-ip
              (FTP) Tell curl to not use the IP address the server suggests in
              its response to curl’s PASV command when curl connects the  data
              connection.  Instead  curl  will  re-use  the same IP address it
              already uses for the control connection. (Added in 7.14.2)

              This option has no effect if PORT, EPRT or EPSV is used  instead
              of PASV.

              If  this  option  is  used  twice, the second will again use the
              server’s suggested address.

       --ftp-ssl
              (FTP) Try to use SSL/TLS for the FTP connection.  Reverts  to  a
              non-secure  connection  if  the  server doesn’t support SSL/TLS.
              See also  --ftp-ssl-control  and  --ftp-ssl-reqd  for  different
              levels of encryption required. (Added in 7.11.0)

              If  this  option  is  used  twice, the second will again disable
              this.

       --ftp-ssl-control
              (FTP) Require SSL/TLS for the ftp  login,  clear  for  transfer.
              Allows  secure  authentication, but non-encrypted data transfers
              for efficiency.   Fails  the  transfer  if  the  server  doesn’t
              support SSL/TLS.  (Added in 7.16.0)

              If  this  option  is  used  twice, the second will again disable
              this.

       --ftp-ssl-reqd
              (FTP) Require SSL/TLS for the FTP  connection.   Terminates  the
              connection  if  the  server  doesn’t support SSL/TLS.  (Added in
              7.15.5)

              If this option is used twice,  the  second  will  again  disable
              this.

       --ftp-ssl-ccc
              (FTP)  Use  CCC  (Clear  Command Channel) Shuts down the SSL/TLS
              layer after authenticating. The  rest  of  the  control  channel
              communication  will  be  unencrypted. This allows NAT routers to
              follow the FTP transaction. The default  mode  is  passive.  See
              --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode for other modes.  (Added in 7.16.1)

              If  this  option  is  used  twice, the second will again disable
              this.

       --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode [active/passive]
              (FTP) Use CCC (Clear Command Channel) Sets  the  CCC  mode.  The
              passive  mode  will  not initiate the shutdown, but instead wait
              for the server to do it, and will not reply to the shutdown from
              the server. The active mode initiates the shutdown and waits for
              a reply from the server.  (Added in 7.16.2)

       -F/--form <name=content>
              (HTTP) This lets curl emulate a filled in form in which  a  user
              has  pressed  the  submit  button. This causes curl to POST data
              using the Content-Type multipart/form-data according to RFC1867.
              This  enables  uploading  of  binary  files  etc.  To  force the
              ’content’ part to be a file, prefix the  file  name  with  an  @
              sign.  To just get the content part from a file, prefix the file
              name with the letter <. The difference between @ and <  is  then
              that  @  makes a file get attached in the post as a file upload,
              while the < makes a text field and just  get  the  contents  for
              that text field from a file.

              Example,  to  send  your  password  file  to  the  server, where
              ’password’ is the name of the form-field  to  which  /etc/passwd
              will be the input:

              curl -F password=@/etc/passwd www.mypasswords.com

              To  read  the file’s content from stdin instead of a file, use -
              where the file name should’ve been. This goes for both @  and  <
              constructs.

              You  can  also  tell  curl  what  Content-Type  to  use by using
              ’type=’, in a manner similar to:

              curl -F "web=@index.html;type=text/html" url.com

              or

              curl -F "name=daniel;type=text/foo" url.com

              You can also explicitly change the name field of an file  upload
              part by setting filename=, like this:

              curl -F "file=@localfile;filename=nameinpost" url.com

              See further examples and details in the MANUAL.

              This option can be used multiple times.

       --form-string <name=string>
              (HTTP)  Similar  to  --form except that the value string for the
              named  parameter  is  used  literally.  Leading  ’@’   and   ’<’
              characters, and the ’;type=’ string in the value have no special
              meaning. Use  this  in  preference  to  --form  if  there’s  any
              possibility  that  the string value may accidentally trigger the
              ’@’ or ’<’ features of --form.

       -g/--globoff
              This option switches off the "URL globbing parser". When you set
              this  option, you can specify URLs that contain the letters {}[]
              without having them being interpreted by curl itself. Note  that
              these  letters are not normal legal URL contents but they should
              be encoded according to the URI standard.

       -G/--get
              When used,  this  option  will  make  all  data  specified  with
              -d/--data  or  --data-binary  to  be  used in a HTTP GET request
              instead of the POST request that otherwise would  be  used.  The
              data will be appended to the URL with a ’?’  separator.

              If  used  in  combination with -I, the POST data will instead be
              appended to the URL with a HEAD request.

              If this option is used several times, the following  occurrences
              make no difference.

       -h/--help
              Usage help.

       -H/--header <header>
              (HTTP)  Extra  header  to  use  when getting a web page. You may
              specify any number of extra headers. Note that if you should add
              a  custom  header  that has the same name as one of the internal
              ones curl would use, your externally set  header  will  be  used
              instead  of  the  internal  one.  This  allows  you to make even
              trickier stuff than curl  would  normally  do.  You  should  not
              replace  internally  set  headers without knowing perfectly well
              what you’re  doing.  Remove  an  internal  header  by  giving  a
              replacement  without  content on the right side of the colon, as
              in: -H "Host:".

              curl will make sure that each header you  add/replace  get  sent
              with the proper end of line marker, you should thus not add that
              as a part of the header content: do not add newlines or carriage
              returns they will only mess things up for you.

              See also the -A/--user-agent and -e/--referer options.

              This  option  can  be  used multiple times to add/replace/remove
              multiple headers.

       --hostpubmd5
              Pass a string  containing  32  hexadecimal  digits.  The  string
              should  be  the 128 bit MD5 checksum of the remote host’s public
              key, curl will refuse the connection with the  host  unless  the
              md5sums  match.  This option is only for SCP and SFTP transfers.
              (Added in 7.17.1)

       --ignore-content-length
              (HTTP) Ignore the Content-Length header.  This  is  particularly
              useful  for  servers  running  Apache  1.x,  which  will  report
              incorrect Content-Length for files larger than 2 gigabytes.

       -i/--include
              (HTTP) Include the HTTP-header in the  output.  The  HTTP-header
              includes  things  like  server-name, date of the document, HTTP-
              version and more...

              If this option is used twice,  the  second  will  again  disable
              header include.

       --interface <name>
              Perform  an operation using a specified interface. You can enter
              interface name, IP address or host name. An example  could  look
              like:

               curl --interface eth0:1 http://www.netscape.com/

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -I/--head
              (HTTP/FTP/FILE) Fetch the HTTP-header only! HTTP-servers feature
              the  command  HEAD which this uses to get nothing but the header
              of a document. When used on a FTP or FILE  file,  curl  displays
              the file size and last modification time only.

              If  this  option  is  used  twice, the second will again disable
              header only.

       -j/--junk-session-cookies
              (HTTP) When curl is told to read cookies from a given file, this
              option  will  make  it  discard all "session cookies". This will
              basically have the same effect as if a new session  is  started.
              Typical  browsers  always  discard  session cookies when they’re
              closed down.

              If this option is  used  several  times,  each  occurrence  will
              toggle this on/off.

       -k/--insecure
              (SSL)  This  option explicitly allows curl to perform "insecure"
              SSL connections and transfers. All SSL connections are attempted
              to  be  made secure by using the CA certificate bundle installed
              by default. This makes all connections considered "insecure"  to
              fail unless -k/--insecure is used.

              See     this    online    resource    for    further    details:
              http://curl.haxx.se/docs/sslcerts.html

              If this option is used twice, the second time will again disable
              it.

       --keepalive-time <seconds>
              This  option  sets  the  time  a connection needs to remain idle
              before sending keepalive probes and the time between  individual
              keepalive probes. It is currently effective on operating systems
              offering  the  TCP_KEEPIDLE  and  TCP_KEEPINTVL  socket  options
              (meaning  Linux, recent AIX, HP-UX and more). This option has no
              effect if --no-keepalive is used. (Added in 7.18.0)

              If this option is used multiple times, the last occurrence  sets
              the amount.

       --key <key>
              (SSL/SSH)  Private  key  file  name.  Allows you to provide your
              private key in this separate file.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --key-type <type>
              (SSL)  Private  key  file  type.  Specify  which type your --key
              provided private key is. DER, PEM and ENG are supported. If  not
              specified, PEM is assumed.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --krb <level>
              (FTP) Enable Kerberos authentication and use. The level must  be
              entered  and should be one of ’clear’, ’safe’, ’confidential’ or
              ’private’. Should you use a level that  is  not  one  of  these,
              ’private’ will instead be used.

              This  option  requires that the library was built with kerberos4
              or GSSAPI (GSS-Negotiate) support. This is not very common.  Use
              -V/--version to see if your curl supports it.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -K/--config <config file>
              Specify which config file  to  read  curl  arguments  from.  The
              config  file  is a text file in which command line arguments can
              be written which then will be used as if they  were  written  on
              the  actual  command  line. Options and their parameters must be
              specified on the same  config  file  line,  separated  by  white
              space,  colon,  the  equals  sign  or  any  combination  thereof
              (however, the preferred separator is the equals  sign).  If  the
              parameter  is  to  contain  white  spaces, the parameter must be
              enclosed within quotes.  Within  double  quotes,  the  following
              escape  sequences  are  available:  \\, \", \t, \n, \r and \v. A
              backlash preceding any other letter is  ignored.  If  the  first
              column of a config line is a ’#’ character, the rest of the line
              will be treated as a comment. Only write one option per physical
              line in the config file.

              Specify the filename to -K/--config as ’-’ to make curl read the
              file from stdin.

              Note that to be able to specify a URL in the  config  file,  you
              need  to  specify  it  using the --url option, and not by simply
              writing the URL on its own line. So, it could  look  similar  to
              this:

              url = "http://curl.haxx.se/docs/"

              Long  option  names  can  optionally be given in the config file
              without the initial double dashes.

              When curl is invoked, it always (unless -q is used) checks for a
              default  config  file  and  uses it if found. The default config
              file is checked for in the following places in this order:

              1) curl tries to find the "home dir": It first  checks  for  the
              CURL_HOME and then the HOME environment variables. Failing that,
              it uses getpwuid() on unix-like systems (which returns the  home
              dir  given the current user in your system). On Windows, it then
              checks for the  APPDATA  variable,  or  as  a  last  resort  the
              ’%USERPROFILE%0lication Data’.

              2)  On  windows, if there is no _curlrc file in the home dir, it
              checks for one in the same dir the executable curl is placed. On
              unix-like  systems,  it will simply try to load .curlrc from the
              determined home dir.

              # --- Example file ---
              # this is a comment
              url = "curl.haxx.se"
              output = "curlhere.html"
              user-agent = "superagent/1.0"

              # and fetch another URL too
              url = "curl.haxx.se/docs/manpage.html"
              -O
              referer = "http://nowhereatall.com/"
              # --- End of example file ---

              This option can be used multiple times to load  multiple  config
              files.

       --libcurl <file>
              Append  this  option  to any ordinary curl command line, and you
              will get a libcurl-using source code written to  the  file  that
              does   the  equivalent  operation  of  what  your  command  line
              operation does!

              NOTE: this does not properly  support  -F  and  the  sending  of
              multipart  formposts,  so in those cases the output program will
              be missing necessary  calls  to  curl_formadd(3),  and  possibly
              more.

              If  this  option is used several times, the last given file name
              will be used. (Added in 7.16.1)

       --limit-rate <speed>
              Specify the maximum transfer rate you want  curl  to  use.  This
              feature is useful if you have a limited pipe and you’d like your
              transfer not use your entire bandwidth.

              The given speed is measured in bytes/second, unless a suffix  is
              appended.   Appending  ’k’  or  ’K’  will  count  the  number as
              kilobytes, ’m’ or M’ makes it megabytes while ’g’ or  ’G’  makes
              it gigabytes. Examples: 200K, 3m and 1G.

              The  given  rate is the average speed, counted during the entire
              transfer. It means that curl might use higher transfer speeds in
              short bursts, but over time it uses no more than the given rate.

              If you are also using the -Y/--speed-limit option,  that  option
              will   take  precedence  and  might  cripple  the  rate-limiting
              slightly, to help keeping the speed-limit logic working.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -l/--list-only
              (FTP)  When listing an FTP directory, this switch forces a name-
              only view.  Especially useful if you want to  machine-parse  the
              contents  of  an  FTP  directory since the normal directory view
              doesn’t use a standard look or format.

              This option causes an FTP NLST command to  be  sent.   Some  FTP
              servers  list  only files in their response to NLST; they do not
              include subdirectories and symbolic links.

              If this option is used twice, the second will again disable list
              only.

       --local-port <num>[-num]
              Set a preferred number or range of local port numbers to use for
              the connection(s).  Note that port numbers by nature is a scarce
              resource  that  will  be  busy at times so setting this range to
              something too narrow might cause  unnecessary  connection  setup
              failures. (Added in 7.15.2)

       -L/--location
              (HTTP/HTTPS)  If  the server reports that the requested page has
              moved to a different location (indicated with a Location: header
              and  a  3XX  response  code) this option will make curl redo the
              request on the new place. If used together with -i/--include  or
              -I/--head,  headers from all requested pages will be shown. When
              authentication is used, curl only sends its credentials  to  the
              initial  host.  If a redirect takes curl to a different host, it
              won’t  be  able  to  intercept  the  user+password.   See   also
              --location-trusted  on  how  to  change  this. You can limit the
              amount of redirects to follow by using the --max-redirs  option.

              When  curl follows a redirect and the request is not a plain GET
              (for example POST or PUT), it will do the following request with
              a GET if the HTTP response was 301, 302, or 303. If the response
              code was any other 3xx code, curl  will  re-send  the  following
              request using the same unmodified method.

              If  this  option  is  used  twice, the second will again disable
              location following.

       --location-trusted
              (HTTP/HTTPS) Like -L/--location, but will allow sending the name
              +  password to all hosts that the site may redirect to. This may
              or may not introduce a security breach if the site redirects you
              do  a  site to which you’ll send your authentication info (which
              is plaintext in the case of HTTP Basic authentication).

              If this option is used twice,  the  second  will  again  disable
              location following.

       --max-filesize <bytes>
              Specify  the  maximum  size (in bytes) of a file to download. If
              the file requested is larger than this value, the transfer  will
              not start and curl will return with exit code 63.

              NOTE:  The  file size is not always known prior to download, and
              for such files this option  has  no  effect  even  if  the  file
              transfer  ends  up  being  larger  than  this  given limit. This
              concerns both FTP and HTTP transfers.

       -m/--max-time <seconds>
              Maximum time in seconds that you allow the  whole  operation  to
              take.   This  is  useful  for  preventing  your  batch jobs from
              hanging for hours due to slow networks or links going down.  See
              also the --connect-timeout option.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -M/--manual
              Manual. Display the huge help text.

       -n/--netrc
              Makes curl scan the .netrc file in the user’s home directory for
              login name and password. This is typically used for ftp on unix.
              If used with http, curl will  enable  user  authentication.  See
              netrc(4) or ftp(1) for details on the file format. Curl will not
              complain if that file hasn’t the right  permissions  (it  should
              not  be  world  nor  group  readable).  The environment variable
              "HOME" is used to find the home directory.

              A quick and very simple example of how  to  setup  a  .netrc  to
              allow  curl to ftp to the machine host.domain.com with user name
              ’myself’ and password ’secret’ should look similar to:

              machine host.domain.com login myself password secret

              If this option is used twice,  the  second  will  again  disable
              netrc usage.

       --netrc-optional
              Very  similar to --netrc, but this option makes the .netrc usage
              optional and not mandatory as the --netrc does.

       --negotiate
              (HTTP) Enables GSS-Negotiate authentication.  The  GSS-Negotiate
              method  was  designed  by  Microsoft  and  is  used in their web
              applications. It is primarily meant as a support  for  Kerberos5
              authentication   but   may  be  also  used  along  with  another
              authentication methods. For  more  information  see  IETF  draft
              draft-brezak-spnego-http-04.txt.

              If  you  want to enable Negotiate for your proxy authentication,
              then use --proxy-negotiate.

              This option requires that the  library  was  built  with  GSSAPI
              support.  This  is  not  very common. Use -V/--version to see if
              your version supports GSS-Negotiate.

              When using this option, you must also provide a  fake  -u/--user
              option  to  activate the authentication code properly. Sending a
              ’-u :’ is enough as the user  name  and  password  from  the  -u
              option aren’t actually used.

              If  this option is used several times, the following occurrences
              make no difference.

       -N/--no-buffer
              Disables the buffering of the  output  stream.  In  normal  work
              situations, curl will use a standard buffered output stream that
              will have the effect that it will output the data in chunks, not
              necessarily  exactly  when  the data arrives.  Using this option
              will disable that buffering.

              If this option is used twice, the second will  again  switch  on
              buffering.

       --no-keepalive
              Disables the use of keepalive messages on the TCP connection, as
              by default curl enables them.

              If this option is used  twice,  the  second  will  again  enable
              keepalive.

       --no-sessionid
              (SSL)  Disable curl’s use of SSL session-ID caching.  By default
              all transfers are done using the cache. Note that while  nothing
              ever  should  get  hurt  by attempting to reuse SSL session-IDs,
              there seem to be broken SSL implementations in the wild that may
              require  you to disable this in order for you to succeed. (Added
              in 7.16.0)

              If this option is used twice, the second will  again  switch  on
              use of the session cache.

       --ntlm (HTTP)  Enables  NTLM  authentication.  The  NTLM authentication
              method was designed by Microsoft and is used by IIS web servers.
              It  is  a  proprietary  protocol,  reversed engineered by clever
              people and implemented in curl based on their efforts. This kind
              of  behavior  should  not  be  endorsed,  you  should  encourage
              everyone who uses NTLM to switch  to  a  public  and  documented
              authentication method instead. Such as Digest.

              If  you  want to enable NTLM for your proxy authentication, then
              use --proxy-ntlm.

              This option  requires  that  the  library  was  built  with  SSL
              support. Use -V/--version to see if your curl supports NTLM.

              If  this option is used several times, the following occurrences
              make no difference.

       -o/--output <file>
              Write output to <file> instead of stdout. If you are using {} or
              []  to  fetch  multiple documents, you can use ’#’ followed by a
              number in the <file> specifier. That variable will  be  replaced
              with the current string for the URL being fetched. Like in:

                curl http://{one,two}.site.com -o "file_#1.txt"

              or use several variables like:

                curl http://{site,host}.host[1-5].com -o "#1_#2"

              You  may  use  this  option  as many times as you have number of
              URLs.

              See  also  the  --create-dirs  option  to   create   the   local
              directories dynamically.

       -O/--remote-name
              Write  output to a local file named like the remote file we get.
              (Only the file part of the remote file is used, the path is  cut
              off.)

              The  remote  file  name  to use for saving is extracted from the
              given URL, nothing else.

              You may use this option as many times  as  you  have  number  of
              URLs.

       --pass <phrase>
              (SSL/SSH) Pass phrase for the private key

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --post301
              Tells curl to respect  RFC  2616/10.3.2  and  not  convert  POST
              requests into GET requests when following a 301 redirection. The
              non-RFC behaviour is ubiquitous in web browsers,  so  curl  does
              the  conversion  by  default to maintain consistency. However, a
              server may requires a  POST  to  remain  a  POST  after  such  a
              redirection.   This   option   is  meaningful  only  when  using
              -L/--location (Added in 7.17.1)

       --proxy-anyauth
              Tells  curl  to  pick  a  suitable  authentication  method  when
              communicating  with  the  given proxy. This might cause an extra
              request/response round-trip. (Added in 7.13.2)

              If this option is used twice, the second will again disable  the
              proxy use-any authentication.

       --proxy-basic
              Tells  curl  to use HTTP Basic authentication when communicating
              with the given proxy. Use --basic for enabling HTTP Basic with a
              remote  host.  Basic  is  the default authentication method curl
              uses with proxies.

              If this option is used twice,  the  second  will  again  disable
              proxy HTTP Basic authentication.

       --proxy-digest
              Tells  curl to use HTTP Digest authentication when communicating
              with the given proxy. Use --digest for enabling HTTP Digest with
              a remote host.

              If  this  option  is  used  twice, the second will again disable
              proxy HTTP Digest.

       --proxy-negotiate
              Tells  curl  to   use   HTTP   Negotiate   authentication   when
              communicating with the given proxy. Use --negotiate for enabling
              HTTP Negotiate with a remote host.

              If this option is used twice,  the  second  will  again  disable
              proxy HTTP Negotiate. (Added in 7.17.1)

       --proxy-ntlm
              Tells  curl  to  use HTTP NTLM authentication when communicating
              with the given proxy. Use --ntlm for enabling NTLM with a remote
              host.

              If  this  option  is  used  twice, the second will again disable
              proxy HTTP NTLM.

       -p/--proxytunnel
              When an HTTP proxy is used (-x/--proxy), this option will  cause
              non-HTTP  protocols  to  attempt  to  tunnel  through  the proxy
              instead of merely using  it  to  do  HTTP-like  operations.  The
              tunnel  approach is made with the HTTP proxy CONNECT request and
              requires that the proxy allows direct connect to the remote port
              number curl wants to tunnel through to.

              If  this  option  is  used  twice, the second will again disable
              proxy tunnel.

       --pubkey <key>
              (SSH) Public key file name. Allows you to  provide  your  public
              key in this separate file.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -P/--ftp-port <address>
              (FTP) Reverses the initiator/listener roles when connecting with
              ftp.  This  switch  makes  Curl  use the PORT command instead of
              PASV. In practise, PORT tells  the  server  to  connect  to  the
              client’s  specified address and port, while PASV asks the server
              for an ip address and port to connect to.  <address>  should  be
              one of:

              interface
                     i.e  "eth0"  to  specify which interface’s IP address you
                     want to use  (Unix only)

              IP address
                     i.e "192.168.10.1" to specify exact IP number

              host name
                     i.e "my.host.domain" to specify machine

              -      make curl pick the same IP address that is  already  used
                     for the control connection

       If  this  option  is  used  several  times,  the last one will be used.
       Disable the use of PORT with --ftp-pasv. Disable the attempt to use the
       EPRT  command  instead  of PORT by using --disable-eprt. EPRT is really
       PORT++.

       -q     If used as the first parameter on the command line,  the  curlrc
              config  file  will not be read and used. See the -K/--config for
              details on the default config file search path.

       -Q/--quote <command>
              (FTP/SFTP) Send an arbitrary command to the remote FTP  or  SFTP
              server.  Quote  commands  are sent BEFORE the transfer is taking
              place (just after the initial PWD command in an FTP transfer, to
              be  exact).  To  make  commands  take  place  after a successful
              transfer, prefix them with a dash ’-’.   To  make  commands  get
              sent  after  libcurl  has changed working directory, just before
              the transfer command(s), prefix the command with  ’+’  (this  is
              only supported for FTP). You may specify any number of commands.
              If the server returns failure  for  one  of  the  commands,  the
              entire  operation  will  be aborted. You must send syntactically
              correct FTP commands as RFC959 defines to FTP servers, or one of
              the  following  commands  (with  appropriate  arguments) to SFTP
              servers: chgrp, chmod, chown, ln, mkdir, pwd, rename, rm, rmdir,
              symlink.

              This option can be used multiple times.

       --random-file <file>
              (SSL)  Specify  the  path  name  to file containing what will be
              considered as random data. The data is used to seed  the  random
              engine for SSL connections.  See also the --egd-file option.

       -r/--range <range>
              (HTTP/FTP/FILE)  Retrieve  a byte range (i.e a partial document)
              from a HTTP/1.1, FTP server or  a  local  FILE.  Ranges  can  be
              specified in a number of ways.

              0-499     specifies the first 500 bytes

              500-999   specifies the second 500 bytes

              -500      specifies the last 500 bytes

              9500-     specifies the bytes from offset 9500 and forward

              0-0,-1    specifies the first and last byte only(*)(H)

              500-700,600-799
                        specifies 300 bytes from offset 500(H)

              100-199,500-599
                        specifies two separate 100 bytes ranges(*)(H)

       (*)  =  NOTE  that this will cause the server to reply with a multipart
       response!

       Only digit characters (0-9) are valid in ’start’ and  ’stop’  of  range
       syntax  ’start-stop’.  If  a non-digit character is given in the range,
       the server’s response will be indeterminable,  depending  on  different
       server’s configuration.

       You  should  also  be aware that many HTTP/1.1 servers do not have this
       feature enabled, so that when  you  attempt  to  get  a  range,  you’ll
       instead get the whole document.

       FTP  range  downloads  only  support  the  simple  syntax  ’start-stop’
       (optionally with one of the numbers omitted). It depends on the non-RFC
       command SIZE.

       If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --raw  When  used, it disables all internal HTTP decoding of content or
              transfer encodings and instead makes them passed  on  unaltered,
              raw. (Added in 7.16.2)

              If  this  option  is used several times, each occurrence toggles
              this on/off.

       -R/--remote-time
              When used, this will make libcurl  attempt  to  figure  out  the
              timestamp  of the remote file, and if that is available make the
              local file get that same timestamp.

              If this option is used twice,  the  second  time  disables  this
              again.

       --retry <num>
              If  a  transient  error is returned when curl tries to perform a
              transfer, it will retry this number of times before  giving  up.
              Setting  the  number to 0 makes curl do no retries (which is the
              default). Transient error means either: a timeout,  an  FTP  5xx
              response code or an HTTP 5xx response code.

              When  curl  is about to retry a transfer, it will first wait one
              second and then for all forthcoming retries it will  double  the
              waiting  time until it reaches 10 minutes which then will be the
              delay between the rest of the retries.  By  using  --retry-delay
              you   disable  this  exponential  backoff  algorithm.  See  also
              --retry-max-time to limit the total time  allowed  for  retries.
              (Added in 7.12.3)

              If  this  option  is  used  multiple  times, the last occurrence
              decide the amount.

       --retry-delay <seconds>
              Make curl sleep this amount of time between each  retry  when  a
              transfer  has  failed  with  a  transient  error (it changes the
              default backoff time algorithm between retries). This option  is
              only  interesting if --retry is also used. Setting this delay to
              zero will make curl use the default  backoff  time.   (Added  in
              7.12.3)

              If  this  option  is  used  multiple  times, the last occurrence
              decide the amount.

       --retry-max-time <seconds>
              The retry timer is reset  before  the  first  transfer  attempt.
              Retries will be done as usual (see --retry) as long as the timer
              hasn’t reached this given limit. Notice that if the timer hasn’t
              reached   the   limit,  the  request  will  be  made  and  while
              performing, it may take longer than this given time  period.  To
              limit  a  single request´s maximum time, use -m/--max-time.  Set
              this option to zero to not timeout retries. (Added in 7.12.3)

              If this option is  used  multiple  times,  the  last  occurrence
              decide the amount.

       -s/--silent
              Silent mode. Don’t show progress meter or error messages.  Makes
              Curl mute.

              If this option is used twice,  the  second  will  again  disable
              silent mode.

       -S/--show-error
              When  used with -s it makes curl show error message if it fails.

              If this option is used twice, the second will again disable show
              error.

       --socks4 <host[:port]>
              Use  the  specified  SOCKS4  proxy.  If  the  port number is not
              specified, it is assumed at port 1080. (Added in 7.15.2)

              This option overrides any previous use of  -x/--proxy,  as  they
              are mutually exclusive.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --socks4a <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS4a proxy.  If  the  port  number  is  not
              specified, it is assumed at port 1080. (Added in 7.18.0)

              This  option  overrides  any previous use of -x/--proxy, as they
              are mutually exclusive.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --socks5-hostname <host[:port]>
              Use  the  specified  SOCKS5 proxy (and let the proxy resolve the
              host name). If the port number is not specified, it  is  assumed
              at port 1080. (Added in 7.18.0)

              This  option  overrides  any previous use of -x/--proxy, as they
              are mutually exclusive.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.
              (This  option  was  previously  wrongly  documented  and used as
              --socks without the number appended.)

       --socks5 <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS5 proxy  -  but  resolve  the  host  name
              locally.  If  the port number is not specified, it is assumed at
              port 1080.

              This option overrides any previous use of  -x/--proxy,  as  they
              are mutually exclusive.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.
              (This option was  previously  wrongly  documented  and  used  as
              --socks without the number appended.)

       --stderr <file>
              Redirect  all writes to stderr to the specified file instead. If
              the file name is a plain ’-’, it is instead written  to  stdout.
              This  option  has no point when you’re using a shell with decent
              redirecting capabilities.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --tcp-nodelay
              Turn  on the TCP_NODELAY option. See the curl_easy_setopt(3) man
              page for details about this option. (Added in 7.11.2)

              If this option is used several times,  each  occurrence  toggles
              this on/off.

       -t/--telnet-option <OPT=val>
              Pass options to the telnet protocol. Supported options are:

              TTYPE=<term> Sets the terminal type.

              XDISPLOC=<X display> Sets the X display location.

              NEW_ENV=<var,val> Sets an environment variable.

       -T/--upload-file <file>
              This  transfers  the  specified local file to the remote URL. If
              there is no file part in the specified URL, Curl will append the
              local file name. NOTE that you must use a trailing / on the last
              directory to really prove to Curl that there is no file name  or
              curl will think that your last directory name is the remote file
              name to use. That will most likely cause the upload operation to
              fail.  If this is used on a http(s) server, the PUT command will
              be used.

              Use the file name "-" (a single dash) to use stdin instead of  a
              given file.

              You can specify one -T for each URL on the command line. Each -T
              + URL pair specifies what to upload  and  to  where.  curl  also
              supports  "globbing"  of  the  -T argument, meaning that you can
              upload multiple files to a single URL  by  using  the  same  URL
              globbing style supported in the URL, like this:

              curl -T "{file1,file2}" http://www.uploadtothissite.com

              or even

              curl -T "img[1-1000].png" ftp://ftp.picturemania.com/upload/

       --trace <file>
              Enables  a  full  trace  dump of all incoming and outgoing data,
              including descriptive information, to the given output file. Use
              "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.

              This  option overrides previous uses of -v/--verbose or --trace-
              ascii.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --trace-ascii <file>
              Enables  a  full  trace  dump of all incoming and outgoing data,
              including descriptive information, to the given output file. Use
              "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.

              This is very similar to --trace, but leaves out the hex part and
              only shows the ASCII part of the dump. It makes  smaller  output
              that might be easier to read for untrained humans.

              This  option overrides previous uses of -v/--verbose or --trace.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --trace-time
              Prepends  a  time  stamp to each trace or verbose line that curl
              displays.  (Added in 7.14.0)

              If this option is  used  several  times,  each  occurrence  will
              toggle it on/off.

       -u/--user <user:password>
              Specify  user  and  password  to  use for server authentication.
              Overrides -n/--netrc and --netrc-optional.

              If you just give the user name (without entering a  colon)  curl
              will prompt for a password.

              If   you   use   an   SSPI-enabled   curl  binary  and  do  NTLM
              authentication, you can force curl to pick up the user name  and
              password  from  your  environment  by simply specifying a single
              colon with this option: "-u :".

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -U/--proxy-user <user:password>
              Specify user and password to use for proxy authentication.

              If   you   use   an   SSPI-enabled   curl  binary  and  do  NTLM
              authentication, you can force curl to pick up the user name  and
              password  from  your  environment  by simply specifying a single
              colon with this option: "-U :".

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --url <URL>
              Specify  a  URL  to  fetch. This option is mostly handy when you
              want to specify URL(s) in a config file.

              This option may be used any number of times.  To  control  where
              this URL is written, use the -o/--output or the -O/--remote-name
              options.

       -v/--verbose
              Makes the fetching more  verbose/talkative.  Mostly  usable  for
              debugging.  Lines  starting with ’>’ means "header data" sent by
              curl, ’<’ means "header data" received by curl that is hidden in
              normal  cases  and lines starting with ’*’ means additional info
              provided by curl.

              Note  that  if  you  only  want  HTTP  headers  in  the  output,
              -i/--include might be option you’re looking for.

              If  you think this option still doesn’t give you enough details,
              consider using --trace or --trace-ascii instead.

              This option overrides previous uses of --trace-ascii or --trace.

              If  this option is used twice, the second will do nothing extra.

       -V/--version
              Displays information about curl and the libcurl version it uses.

              The  first  line  includes the full version of curl, libcurl and
              other 3rd party libraries linked with the executable.

              The second line (starts with "Protocols:") shows  all  protocols
              that libcurl reports to support.

              The third line (starts with "Features:") shows specific features
              libcurl reports to offer. Available features include:

              IPv6   You can use IPv6 with this.

              krb4   Krb4 for ftp is supported.

              SSL    HTTPS and FTPS are supported.

              libz   Automatic decompression of compressed files over HTTP  is
                     supported.

              NTLM   NTLM authentication is supported.

              GSS-Negotiate
                     Negotiate authentication and krb5 for ftp is supported.

              Debug  This  curl  uses a libcurl built with Debug. This enables
                     more error-tracking and memory debugging etc.  For  curl-
                     developers only!

              AsynchDNS
                     This curl uses asynchronous name resolves.

              SPNEGO SPNEGO Negotiate authentication is supported.

              Largefile
                     This curl supports transfers of large files, files larger
                     than 2GB.

              IDN    This curl supports IDN - international domain names.

              SSPI   SSPI is supported. If you use NTLM and set a  blank  user
                     name,  curl  will authenticate with your current user and
                     password.

       -w/--write-out <format>
              Defines  what  to  display  on  stdout  after  a  completed  and
              successful  operation.  The  format is a string that may contain
              plain text mixed with any number of variables. The string can be
              specified  as  "string",  to get read from a particular file you
              specify it "@filename" and to tell curl to read the format  from
              stdin you write "@-".

              The  variables  present in the output format will be substituted
              by the value or text that curl thinks fit, as  described  below.
              All  variables are specified like %{variable_name} and to output
              a normal % you just write them like %%. You can output a newline
              by  using \n, a carriage return with \r and a tab space with \t.

              NOTE: The %-letter is a special letter in the win32-environment,
              where  all  occurrences  of  %  must  be doubled when using this
              option.

              Available variables are at this point:

              url_effective  The URL that was fetched  last.  This  is  mostly
                             meaningful   if   you’ve   told  curl  to  follow
                             location: headers.

              http_code      The numerical response code that was found in the
                             last  retrieved  HTTP(S)  or  FTP(s) transfer. In
                             7.18.2 the alias response_code was added to  show
                             the same info.

              http_connect   The  numerical  code  that  was found in the last
                             response  (from  a  proxy)  to  a  curl   CONNECT
                             request. (Added in 7.12.4)

              time_total     The   total  time,  in  seconds,  that  the  full
                             operation lasted. The time will be displayed with
                             millisecond resolution.

              time_namelookup
                             The  time,  in  seconds,  it  took from the start
                             until the name resolving was completed.

              time_connect   The time, in seconds,  it  took  from  the  start
                             until  the  connect to the remote host (or proxy)
                             was completed.

              time_pretransfer
                             The time, in seconds,  it  took  from  the  start
                             until  the  file transfer is just about to begin.
                             This  includes  all  pre-transfer  commands   and
                             negotiations  that are specific to the particular
                             protocol(s) involved.

              time_redirect  The time, in seconds, it took for all redirection
                             steps  include  name lookup, connect, pretransfer
                             and  transfer  before   final   transaction   was
                             started.   time_redirect   shows   the   complete
                             execution time for multiple redirections.  (Added
                             in 7.12.3)

              time_starttransfer
                             The  time,  in  seconds,  it  took from the start
                             until  the  first  byte  is  just  about  to   be
                             transferred.  This  includes time_pretransfer and
                             also the time the server needs to  calculate  the
                             result.

              size_download  The total amount of bytes that were downloaded.

              size_upload    The total amount of bytes that were uploaded.

              size_header    The  total  amount  of  bytes  of  the downloaded
                             headers.

              size_request   The total amount of bytes that were sent  in  the
                             HTTP request.

              speed_download The average download speed that curl measured for
                             the complete download.

              speed_upload   The average upload speed that curl  measured  for
                             the complete upload.

              content_type   The  Content-Type  of  the requested document, if
                             there was any.

              num_connects   Number  of  new  connects  made  in  the   recent
                             transfer. (Added in 7.12.3)

              num_redirects  Number  of  redirects  that  were followed in the
                             request. (Added in 7.12.3)

              redirect_url   When a HTTP request was made without -L to follow
                             redirects, this variable will show the actual URL
                             a redirect would take you to. (Added in 7.18.2)

              ftp_entry_path The initial path libcurl ended up in when logging
                             on to the remote FTP server. (Added in 7.15.4)

       If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -x/--proxy <proxyhost[:port]>
              Use  specified  HTTP proxy. If the port number is not specified,
              it is assumed at port 1080.

              This option overrides existing environment variables  that  sets
              proxy  to  use.  If  there’s  an  environment variable setting a
              proxy, you can set proxy to "" to override it.

              Note that all operations that are performed over  a  HTTP  proxy
              will  transparently  be converted to HTTP. It means that certain
              protocol specific operations might not be available. This is not
              the  case  if you can tunnel through the proxy, as done with the
              -p/--proxytunnel option.

              Starting with 7.14.1, the proxy host can be specified the  exact
              same  way  as  the proxy environment variables, include protocol
              prefix (http://) and embedded user + password.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -X/--request <command>
              (HTTP)   Specifies   a   custom   request  method  to  use  when
              communicating with the HTTP server.  The specified request  will
              be  used instead of the method otherwise used (which defaults to
              GET).  Read  the  HTTP  1.1  specification   for   details   and
              explanations.

              (FTP) Specifies a custom FTP command to use instead of LIST when
              doing file lists with ftp.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -y/--speed-time <time>
              If a download is slower than speed-limit bytes per second during
              a speed-time period, the download gets aborted. If speed-time is
              used, the default speed-limit will be 1 unless set with -y.

              This  option  controls  transfers  and thus will not affect slow
              connects etc. If this is a concern for you, try  the  --connect-
              timeout option.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -Y/--speed-limit <speed>
              If a download is slower than this  given  speed,  in  bytes  per
              second,  for  speed-time  seconds it gets aborted. speed-time is
              set with -Y and is 30 if not set.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -z/--time-cond <date expression>
              (HTTP/FTP)  Request a file that has been modified later than the
              given time and date, or one that has been modified  before  that
              time. The date expression can be all sorts of date strings or if
              it doesn’t match any internal ones, it tries  to  get  the  time
              from  a  given  file  name  instead! See the curl_getdate(3) man
              pages for date expression details.

              Start the date expression with a dash (-) to make it request for
              a  document that is older than the given date/time, default is a
              document that is newer than the specified date/time.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --max-redirs <num>
              Set   maximum   number  of  redirection-followings  allowed.  If
              -L/--location is used, this option can be used to  prevent  curl
              from following redirections "in absurdum". By default, the limit
              is set to 50 redirections. Set this option  to  -1  to  make  it
              limitless.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -0/--http1.0
              (HTTP) Forces curl to issue its requests using HTTP 1.0  instead
              of using its internally preferred: HTTP 1.1.

       -1/--tlsv1
              (SSL)  Forces  curl to use TSL version 1 when negotiating with a
              remote TLS server.

       -2/--sslv2
              (SSL) Forces curl to use SSL version 2 when negotiating  with  a
              remote SSL server.

       -3/--sslv3
              (SSL)  Forces  curl to use SSL version 3 when negotiating with a
              remote SSL server.

       -4/--ipv4
              If libcurl is capable of resolving an  address  to  multiple  IP
              versions  (which it is if it is ipv6-capable), this option tells
              libcurl to resolve names to IPv4 addresses only.

       -6/--ipv6
              If libcurl is capable of resolving an  address  to  multiple  IP
              versions  (which it is if it is ipv6-capable), this option tells
              libcurl to resolve names to IPv6 addresses only.

       -#/--progress-bar
              Make curl display progress information as a progress bar instead
              of the default statistics.

              If  this option is used twice, the second will again disable the
              progress bar.

FILES

       ~/.curlrc
              Default config file, see -K/--config for details.

ENVIRONMENT

       http_proxy [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets proxy server to use for HTTP.

       HTTPS_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets proxy server to use for HTTPS.

       FTP_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets proxy server to use for FTP.

       ALL_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets proxy server to use if no protocol-specific proxy is set.

       NO_PROXY <comma-separated list of hosts>
              list of host names that shouldn’t go through any proxy.  If  set
              to a asterisk ’*’ only, it matches all hosts.

EXIT CODES

       There  exists  a bunch of different error codes and their corresponding
       error messages that may appear during bad conditions. At  the  time  of
       this writing, the exit codes are:

       1      Unsupported protocol. This build of curl has no support for this
              protocol.

       2      Failed to initialize.

       3      URL malformat. The syntax was not correct.

       5      Couldn’t resolve proxy.  The  given  proxy  host  could  not  be
              resolved.

       6      Couldn’t resolve host. The given remote host was not resolved.

       7      Failed to connect to host.

       8      FTP  weird  server  reply.  The  server  sent data curl couldn’t
              parse.

       9      FTP access denied. The server denied login or denied  access  to
              the  particular  resource or directory you wanted to reach. Most
              often you tried to change to a directory that doesn’t  exist  on
              the server.

       11     FTP  weird PASS reply. Curl couldn’t parse the reply sent to the
              PASS request.

       13     FTP weird PASV reply, Curl couldn’t parse the reply sent to  the
              PASV request.

       14     FTP  weird  227  format.  Curl  couldn’t  parse the 227-line the
              server sent.

       15     FTP can’t get host. Couldn’t resolve the host IP we got  in  the
              227-line.

       17     FTP  couldn’t  set  binary.  Couldn’t  change transfer method to
              binary.

       18     Partial file. Only a part of the file was transferred.

       19     FTP couldn’t  download/access  the  given  file,  the  RETR  (or
              similar) command failed.

       21     FTP quote error. A quote command returned error from the server.

       22     HTTP page not retrieved. The requested  url  was  not  found  or
              returned  another  error  with  the HTTP error code being 400 or
              above. This return code only appears if -f/--fail is used.

       23     Write error. Curl couldn’t write data to a local  filesystem  or
              similar.

       25     FTP  couldn’t  STOR  file. The server denied the STOR operation,
              used for FTP uploading.

       26     Read error. Various reading problems.

       27     Out of memory. A memory allocation request failed.

       28     Operation timeout. The specified  time-out  period  was  reached
              according to the conditions.

       30     FTP  PORT  failed.  The PORT command failed. Not all FTP servers
              support the PORT  command,  try  doing  a  transfer  using  PASV
              instead!

       31     FTP  couldn’t use REST. The REST command failed. This command is
              used for resumed FTP transfers.

       33     HTTP range error. The range "command" didn’t work.

       34     HTTP post error. Internal post-request generation error.

       35     SSL connect error. The SSL handshaking failed.

       36     FTP bad download resume. Couldn’t continue  an  earlier  aborted
              download.

       37     FILE couldn’t read file. Failed to open the file. Permissions?

       38     LDAP cannot bind. LDAP bind operation failed.

       39     LDAP search failed.

       41     Function not found. A required LDAP function was not found.

       42     Aborted  by  callback.  An  application  told  curl to abort the
              operation.

       43     Internal error. A function was called with a bad parameter.

       45     Interface error. A specified outgoing  interface  could  not  be
              used.

       47     Too  many  redirects.  When  following  redirects,  curl hit the
              maximum amount.

       48     Unknown TELNET option specified.

       49     Malformed telnet option.

       51     The peer’s SSL certificate or SSH MD5 fingerprint was not ok

       52     The server didn’t reply anything, which here  is  considered  an
              error.

       53     SSL crypto engine not found

       54     Cannot set SSL crypto engine as default

       55     Failed sending network data

       56     Failure in receiving network data

       58     Problem with the local certificate

       59     Couldn’t use specified SSL cipher

       60     Peer   certificate   cannot   be  authenticated  with  known  CA
              certificates

       61     Unrecognized transfer encoding

       62     Invalid LDAP URL

       63     Maximum file size exceeded

       64     Requested FTP SSL level failed

       65     Sending the data requires a rewind that failed

       66     Failed to initialise SSL Engine

       67     User, password or similar was not accepted and  curl  failed  to
              login

       68     File not found on TFTP server

       69     Permission problem on TFTP server

       70     Out of disk space on TFTP server

       71     Illegal TFTP operation

       72     Unknown TFTP transfer ID

       73     File already exists (TFTP)

       74     No such user (TFTP)

       75     Character conversion failed

       76     Character conversion functions required

       77     Problem with reading the SSL CA cert (path? access rights?)

       78     The resource referenced in the URL does not exist

       79     An unspecified error occurred during the SSH session

       80     Failed to shut down the SSL connection

       XX     There  will appear more error codes here in future releases. The
              existing ones are meant to never change.

AUTHORS / CONTRIBUTORS

       Daniel Stenberg is the main author, but the whole list of  contributors
       is found in the separate THANKS file.

WWW

       http://curl.haxx.se

FTP

       ftp://ftp.sunet.se/pub/www/utilities/curl/

SEE ALSO

       ftp(1), wget(1)