Provided by: groff-base_1.18.1.1-22build1_i386 bug


       grops - PostScript driver for groff


       grops [ -glmv ] [ -bn ] [ -cn ] [ -Fdir ] [ -ppapersize ]
             [ -Pprologue ] [ -wn ] [ files... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its


       grops translates the output of GNU troff to PostScript.  Normally grops
       should be invoked by using  the  groff  command  with  a  -Tps  option.
       (Actually,  this  is  the  default  for groff.)  If no files are given,
       grops will read the standard input.  A filename of -  will  also  cause
       grops  to read the standard input.  PostScript output is written to the
       standard output.  When grops is run by groff options can be  passed  to
       grops using the groff -P option.


       -bn    Workaround  broken  spoolers  and  previewers.   Normally  grops
              produces  output  that   conforms   the   Document   Structuring
              Conventions   version  3.0.   Unfortunately  some  spoolers  and
              previewers can’t handle such output.  The value  of  n  controls
              what  grops  does  to its output acceptable to such programs.  A
              value of 0 will cause  grops  not  to  employ  any  workarounds.
              Add 1 if no %%BeginDocumentSetup and %%EndDocumentSetup comments
              should be generated;  this  is  needed  for  early  versions  of
              TranScript that get confused by anything between the %%EndProlog
              comment and the  first  %%Page  comment.   Add  2  if  lines  in
              included  files  beginning with %!  should be stripped out; this
              is needed for  Sun’s  pageview  previewer.   Add  4  if  %%Page,
              %%Trailer  and  %%EndProlog  comments  should be stripped out of
              included  files;  this  is  needed  for  spoolers   that   don’t
              understand   the  %%BeginDocument  and  %%EndDocument  comments.
              Add 8 if the first line of the PostScript output should be %!PS-
              Adobe-2.0  rather than %!PS-Adobe-3.0; this is needed when using
              Sun’s Newsprint with a printer that requires page reversal.  The
              default value can be specified by a

                     broken n

              command in the DESC file.  Otherwise the default value is 0.

       -cn    Print n copies of each page.

       -Fdir  Prepend  directory  dir/devname to the search path for prologue,
              font, and device description files; name  is  the  name  of  the
              device, usually ps.

       -g     Guess  the  page  length.   This  generates PostScript code that
              guesses the page length.  The guess will be correct only if  the
              imageable  area is vertically centered on the page.  This option
              allows you to generate documents that can  be  printed  both  on
              letter (8.5×11) paper and on A4 paper without change.

       -l     Print the document in landscape format.

       -m     Turn manual feed on for the document.

              Set  physical  dimension  of  output medium.  This overrides the
              papersize and paperlength commands in the DESC file; it  accepts
              the same arguments as the papersize command.

              Use  the  file  prologue-file (in the font path) as the prologue
              instead of the default  prologue  file  prologue.   This  option
              overrides the environment variable GROPS_PROLOGUE.

       -wn    Lines  should  be drawn using a thickness of n thousandths of an
              em.  If this option is not given, the line thickness defaults to
              0.04 em.

       -v     Print the version number.


       There  are  styles  called  R, I, B, and BI mounted at font positions 1
       to 4.  The fonts are grouped into families A, BM, C, H, HN, N, P and  T
       having members in each of these styles:

              AR     AvantGarde-Book

              AI     AvantGarde-BookOblique

              AB     AvantGarde-Demi

              ABI    AvantGarde-DemiOblique

              BMR    Bookman-Light

              BMI    Bookman-LightItalic

              BMB    Bookman-Demi

              BMBI   Bookman-DemiItalic

              CR     Courier

              CI     Courier-Oblique

              CB     Courier-Bold

              CBI    Courier-BoldOblique

              HR     Helvetica

              HI     Helvetica-Oblique

              HB     Helvetica-Bold

              HBI    Helvetica-BoldOblique

              HNR    Helvetica-Narrow

              HNI    Helvetica-Narrow-Oblique

              HNB    Helvetica-Narrow-Bold

              HNBI   Helvetica-Narrow-BoldOblique

              NR     NewCenturySchlbk-Roman

              NI     NewCenturySchlbk-Italic

              NB     NewCenturySchlbk-Bold

              NBI    NewCenturySchlbk-BoldItalic

              PR     Palatino-Roman

              PI     Palatino-Italic

              PB     Palatino-Bold

              PBI    Palatino-BoldItalic

              TR     Times-Roman

              TI     Times-Italic

              TB     Times-Bold

              TBI    Times-BoldItalic

       There is also the following font which is not a member of a family:

              ZCMI   ZapfChancery-MediumItalic

       There  are  also  some special fonts called SS and S.  Zapf Dingbats is
       available as ZD and a reversed version of  ZapfDingbats  (with  symbols
       pointing   in  the  opposite  direction)  is  available  as  ZDR;  most
       characters in these fonts are unnamed and must be accessed using \N.

       The default color for \m and \M is black; for  colors  defined  in  the
       ‘rgb’   color   space,  setrgbcolor  is  used,  for  ‘cmy’  and  ‘cmyk’
       setcmykcolor, and for ‘gray’ setgray.

       grops understands various X  commands  produced  using  the  \X  escape
       sequence; grops will only interpret commands that begin with a ps: tag.

       \Xps: exec code’
              This executes the arbitrary PostScript commands  in  code.   The
              PostScript  currentpoint  will  be set to the position of the \X
              command before executing code.  The origin will be  at  the  top
              left  corner  of  the page, and y coordinates will increase down
              the page.  A procedure u will be  defined  that  converts  groff
              units to the coordinate system in effect.  For example,

                     .nr x 1i
                     \Xps: exec \nx u 0 rlineto stroke’

              will  draw  a  horizontal  line  one  inch  long.  code may make
              changes to the graphics state, but any changes will persist only
              to the end of the page.  A dictionary containing the definitions
              specified by the def and mdef will be on top of  the  dictionary
              stack.   If  your  code adds definitions to this dictionary, you
              should  allocate  space  for  them  using  \Xps mdef n’.    Any
              definitions will persist only until the end of the page.  If you
              use the \Y escape sequence with an argument that names a  macro,
              code can extend over multiple lines.  For example,

                     .nr x 1i
                     .de y
                     ps: exec
                     \nx u 0 rlineto

              is another way to draw a horizontal line one inch long.

       \Xps: file name’
              This  is the same as the exec command except that the PostScript
              code is read from file name.

       \Xps: def code’
              Place a PostScript definition contained in code in the prologue.
              There  should  be  at  most one definition per \X command.  Long
              definitions can be split over several \X commands; all the  code
              arguments are simply joined together separated by newlines.  The
              definitions are placed in a dictionary  which  is  automatically
              pushed on the dictionary stack when an exec command is executed.
              If you use the \Y escape sequence with an argument that names  a
              macro, code can extend over multiple lines.

       \Xps: mdef n code’
              Like  def,  except  that  code  may contain up to n definitions.
              grops needs to know how many definitions code contains  so  that
              it  can  create  an appropriately sized PostScript dictionary to
              contain them.

       \Xps: import file llx lly urx ury width [ height ]’
              Import a PostScript graphic from file.  The arguments llx,  lly,
              urx, and ury give the bounding box of the graphic in the default
              PostScript coordinate system; they should all be  integers;  llx
              and  lly are the x and y coordinates of the lower left corner of
              the graphic; urx and ury are the x  and  y  coordinates  of  the
              upper right corner of the graphic; width and height are integers
              that give the desired width and height in  groff  units  of  the
              graphic.   The  graphic will be scaled so that it has this width
              and height and translated so that the lower left corner  of  the
              graphic  is  located at the position associated with \X command.
              If the height argument is omitted it will be scaled uniformly in
              the x and y directions so that it has the specified width.  Note
              that the contents of the  \X  command  are  not  interpreted  by
              troff;  so  vertical  space for the graphic is not automatically
              added, and the width and height arguments  are  not  allowed  to
              have  attached  scaling  indicators.   If  the  PostScript  file
              complies with the Adobe  Document  Structuring  Conventions  and
              contains  a  %%BoundingBox comment, then the bounding box can be
              automatically extracted from within  groff  by  using  the  psbb

              The  -mps  macros  (which are automatically loaded when grops is
              run by the groff command) include a PSPIC macro which  allows  a
              picture to be easily imported.  This has the format

                     .PSPIC [-L|-R|-I n] file [width [height]]

              file  is the name of the file containing the illustration; width
              and height give the desired width and  height  of  the  graphic.
              The  width  and  height  arguments  may  have scaling indicators
              attached; the default scaling indicator is i.  This  macro  will
              scale the graphic uniformly in the x and y directions so that it
              is no more than width wide and height  high.   By  default,  the
              graphic  will be horizontally centered.  The -L and -R cause the
              graphic to be left-aligned and right-aligned respectively.   The
              -I option causes the graphic to be indented by n.

       \Xps: invis\Xps: endinvis’
              No  output  will be generated for text and drawing commands that
              are bracketed  with  these  \X  commands.   These  commands  are
              intended for use when output from troff will be previewed before
              being processed with  grops;  if  the  previewer  is  unable  to
              display  certain  characters  or  other  constructs,  then other
              substitute characters or constructs can be used  for  previewing
              by bracketing them with these \X commands.

              For  example,  gxditview  is  not  able to display a proper \(em
              character because the standard X11 fonts do not provide it; this
              problem can be overcome by executing the following request

                     .char \(em \Xps: invis\
                     \Z\v-.25m\h.05m\Dl .9m 0\h.05m’’\
                     \Xps: endinvis\(em

              In  this  case,  gxditview  will  be  unable to display the \(em
              character and will draw the line, whereas grops will  print  the
              \(em character and ignore the line.

       The  input  to grops must be in the format output by troff(1).  This is
       described in groff_out(5).  In addition the device and font description
       files  for  the device used must meet certain requirements.  The device
       and font description files  supplied  for  ps  device  meet  all  these
       requirements.   afmtodit(1)  can  be used to create font files from AFM
       files.  The resolution must be an integer  multiple  of  72  times  the
       sizescale.  The ps device uses a resolution of 72000 and a sizescale of
       1000.  The device description file should contain a command

              paperlength n

       which says that output  should  be  generated  which  is  suitable  for
       printing  on a page whose length is n machine units.  Common values are
       792000  for  letter  paper  and  841890  for  paper   in   A4   format.
       Alternatively, it can contain

              papersize string

       to  specify a paper size; see groff_font(5) for more information.  Each
       font description file must contain a command

              internalname psname

       which says that the PostScript name of the font is psname.  It may also
       contain a command

              encoding enc_file

       which  says  that  the  PostScript  font  should be reencoded using the
       encoding described in enc_file; this file should consist of a  sequence
       of lines of the form:

              pschar code

       where  pschar  is the PostScript name of the character, and code is its
       position in  the  encoding  expressed  as  a  decimal  integer.   Lines
       starting  with  #  and  blank  lines  are  ignored.   The code for each
       character given in the font file must correspond to the  code  for  the
       character  in encoding file, or to the code in the default encoding for
       the font if the PostScript font is not to be reencoded.  This code  can
       be  used  with the \N escape sequence in troff to select the character,
       even if the character does not have a groff name.  Every  character  in
       the  font  file must exist in the PostScript font, and the widths given
       in the font file must match the widths used  in  the  PostScript  font.
       grops  will assume that a character with a groff name of space is blank
       (makes no marks on the page); it can make use of such  a  character  to
       generate more efficient and compact PostScript output.

       grops  can  automatically  include  the downloadable fonts necessary to
       print  the  document.   Any  downloadable  fonts  which  should,   when
       required,   be   included   by   grops  must  be  listed  in  the  file
       /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/font/devps/download;  this  should  consist  of
       lines of the form

              font filename

       where font is the PostScript name of the font, and filename is the name
       of the file containing the font; lines beginning with # and blank lines
       are  ignored;  fields may be separated by tabs or spaces; filename will
       be searched for using the same mechanism that is used  for  groff  font
       metric files.  The download file itself will also be searched for using
       this mechanism; currently, only the first found file in the  font  path
       is used.

       If  the  file  containing  a  downloadable  font  or  imported document
       conforms to the Adobe Document Structuring Conventions, then grops will
       interpret any comments in the files sufficiently to ensure that its own
       output is conforming.  It will also supply any  needed  font  resources
       that  are  listed  in  the  download  file  as  well as any needed file
       resources.  It is also able to handle inter-resource dependencies.  For
       example, suppose that you have a downloadable font called Garamond, and
       also a downloadable  font  called  Garamond-Outline  which  depends  on
       Garamond  (typically  it  would  be  defined  to  copy  Garamond’s font
       dictionary, and  change  the  PaintType),  then  it  is  necessary  for
       Garamond  to  be  appear  before  Garamond-Outline  in  the  PostScript
       document.  grops will  handle  this  automatically  provided  that  the
       downloadable font file for Garamond-Outline indicates its dependence on
       Garamond by means of the Document Structuring Conventions, for  example
       by beginning with the following lines

              %!PS-Adobe-3.0 Resource-Font
              %%DocumentNeededResources: font Garamond
              %%IncludeResource: font Garamond

       In this case both Garamond and Garamond-Outline would need to be listed
       in the download file.  A downloadable font should not include  its  own
       name in a %%DocumentSuppliedResources comment.

       grops    will    not    interpret    %%DocumentFonts   comments.    The
       %%DocumentNeededResources,                 %%DocumentSuppliedResources,
       %%IncludeResource,   %%BeginResource  and  %%EndResource  comments  (or
       possibly  the   old   %%DocumentNeededFonts,   %%DocumentSuppliedFonts,
       %%IncludeFont, %%BeginFont and %%EndFont comments) should be used.

   TrueType fonts
       TrueType  fonts  can  be  used with grops if converted first to Type 42
       format, an especial PostScript wrapper equivalent  to  the  PFA  format
       mentioned  in  pfbtops(1).   There  are  several  different  methods to
       generate a type42 wrapper and  most  of  them  involve  the  use  of  a
       PostScript  interpreter  such  as  Ghostscript  —  see gs(1).  Yet, the
       easiest method involves the use  of  the  application  ttftot42.   This
       program  uses  freetype(3)  (version  1.3.1)  to  generate  type42 font
       wrappers and well-formed AFM files that can be fed to  the  afmtodit(1)
       script to create appropriate metric files.  The resulting font wrappers
       should be added to the download file.   ttftot42  source  code  can  be
       downloaded    from    〈ftp://〉.


              If this is set to foo, then grops will use the file foo (in  the
              font  path)  instead of the default prologue file prologue.  The
              option -P overrides this environment variable.


              Device description file.

              Font description file for font F.

              List of downloadable fonts.

              Encoding used for text fonts.

              Macros for use with grops; automatically loaded by troffrc

              Definition of PSPIC macro, automatically loaded by ps.tmac.

              Macros to  disable  use  of  characters  not  present  in  older
              PostScript printers (e.g. ‘eth’ or ‘thorn’).

              Temporary file.


       afmtodit(1),  groff(1), troff(1), psbb(1), groff_out(5), groff_font(5),