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NAME

       shape  -  identify  and  build  program configurations from versions of
       source objects

SYNOPSIS

       shape
            [ -f <description file> ]
            [ -R <version selection rule> ] [ -V <variant name> ]
            [ -echo <macro name> ] [ -force <target> ] [ -rebuild <target> ]
            [ - dDehiknprs ]
            [ -bct ]   [ -help ]   [ -nomsg ]    [ -novclass ]    [ -version ]
            [ -xpoff ] [ -xpon ]
            [ target1 target2 ... ] [ macro=value ... ] [ macro+=value ... ]

DESCRIPTION

       Shape  allows  to  transparently compile source objects that are either
       regular files, or source object  versions  in  the  ShapeTools  version
       object  base.  More  generally, shape produces a set of derived objects
       (‘‘targets’’) from appropriately  selected  versions  of  corresponding
       source  objects  according to a description of the dependencies between
       the  objects.  Shape  keeps  track  of  the  relevant  parameters   for
       compilations  (source  versions,  compiler  versions, compiler switches
       etc.) and thus provides a safe and efficient build machinery.

       When shape compiles source objects, it  stores  the  resulting  derived
       objects  together  with the effective compile parameters in its derived
       object cache. Before the derivation process for a requested  object  is
       actually  started,  shape  attempts  to find an existing derived object
       that matches the requirements for the target,  in  the  derived  object
       cache.   Caching  and  restoring  of  objects  that  are  derived  from
       immutable versions allows developers to profit from previous builds  by
       other team members. Overall compile costs in projects are substantially
       reduced.

       When serving a build request, shape considers a possibly  large  number
       of  versions that are stored for an object. Which particular version is
       bound to an object’s name in the description  file,  is  determined  by
       version selection rules.

       Shape  can manage builds of different variants of a system in parallel.
       Shape uses the combined potential of dynamic version selection, dynamic
       macro  redefinition,  and  derived  object management to handle variant
       builds. As most - if not all - of the objects and  parameters  involved
       in  a  build  are  defined  as  macros,  shape provides a great deal of
       flexibility by allowing to alter some or all of the macros dynamically,
       depending  on  which  variant  shall  be  built. The concept of variant
       definition in shape’s description file offers a clear focal  point  for
       all definitions that are relevant for a certain variant.

OPTIONS

       -f <description file>
              shape uses the supplied argument as name of the description file
              to be used for the build. If no -f option  is  specified,  shape
              tries  to  find  a  description  file  under  one  of  the names
              ‘‘Shapefile’’,  ‘‘shapefile’’,  ‘‘Makefile’’,  and  ‘‘makefile’’
              (from left to right). If no regular file with one of these names
              can be found, but versions of respective files are available  in
              the version object base, shape will use the most recent version.
              When more than one -f <description file> argument pair  appears,
              shape  reads  each description file in turn.  If the name of the
              description file is specified as  ‘‘-’’,  shape  will  read  the
              system  description  from  standard  input.  It  is  possible to
              specify the description file in  bound  version  notation,  e.g.
              Shapefile[2.8]  or Shapefile[Release4] (see vbind(1) for details
              about bound version notation).

       -R <selection rule name>
              activates  the  specified  selection  rule  as  initial  version
              binding  for  source objects. If the -R option is present, and a
              selection rule is defined as the first dependency of  the  first
              target, shape will use the selection rule passed via the command
              line, and ignore the first (and only the first)  selection  rule
              activation  within the description file. The option is useful to
              override initial default selection rules, specified  within  the
              description file, from the command line.

       -V <variant name>
              activates  the  variant  specified  by  <variant name>.  Several
              variants can be activated simultaneously from the  command  line
              by specifying the -V option multiple times. All variant specific
              definitions will be  in  effect  as  soon  as  shape  reads  the
              corresponding variant definition in the description file.

       -force <target>
              forces shape to build the specified target unconditionally, i.e.
              even if a suitable, previously build object exists.

       -echo <macro name>
              the value of the macro  <macro  name>  is  written  to  standard
              output.  This  option  is useful to extract information from the
              system description file (e.g.  shape  -echo  SOURCES,  or  shape
              -echo   SUBSYSTEMS),   or  to  control  the  effect  of  variant
              activations.

       -rebuild <target>
              attempt a  precise  rebuild  of  target  according  to  a  bound
              configuration thread, supplied in a file named <target>.bct (see
              description of -bct switch).

       -d     run shape in debug mode. Print out  detailed  information  about
              object dependencies and attributes.

       -D     print  detailed  information  about the version binding process,
              and  shape’s  reasoning  regarding  (re)builds  of  targets,  or
              retrievals from the derived object cache.  This switch is useful
              to find out about the  exact  reasons,  why  shape  rederives  a
              target (or not).

       -e     macro  definitions  that  are imported from the environment (see
              description of  special  macro  IMPORT,  below)  override  macro
              definitions   in   the   description  file  (by  default,  macro
              definitions in the description file have precedence over imports
              from the environment).

       -h     print   usage   information  on  standard  output  (this  is  an
              abbreviation for the -help switch, see below).

       -i     ignore error codes returned by commands.

       -k     when a nonzero error status is returned by an  invoked  command,
              the  work on the current target is abandoned but shape continues
              with other branches that do not depend on the failed target.

       -n     no execution mode. Shape  prints  out  commands,  but  does  not
              execute  them.  Even command lines beginning with @ are printed.
              If a command contains the $(MAKE) macro reference, however, that
              line  is  always executed in order to allow tracing of recursive
              build processes.

       -p     print  out  the  complete  set  of  macro  definitions,   target
              descriptions, and rule definitions, respectively.

       -r     do  not  use  shape’s  built-in  implicit  rules. Implicit rules
              defined in the description file remain in effect.

       -s     run in silent mode. Shape does not print out the commands before
              executing them.

       -bct   record  the  build in a bound configuration thread file. A shape
              configuration thread contains precise definitions of all  source
              versions,  their  dependencies,  the involved tools, and related
              options that were in  effect  for  a  build.  The  configuration
              thread  for  a produced toplevel target (the first target in the
              description file, or a target requested from the  command  line)
              is  stored  in  a  file  named <target>.bct. Bound configuration
              threads can be used as input for rebuilds (see option  -rebuild,
              above).  If the source version context of a bct-build is unsafe,
              shape will record that fact in the  bct,  and  issue  a  warning
              message.

       -help  print usage information on standard output.

       -nomsg turn off the trace facility msg in version selection rules.

       -novclass
              disable checking for incompatibility of activated variants.

       -version
              print the version identification of the shape program.

       -xpoff turn  off  attribute expansion in source versions retrieved from
              the object base. By default, attribute expansion  is  turned  on
              for  all  source  objects  that  are directly retrieved from the
              object base, and turned off for source objects that are  regular
              files (see retrv(1) for details about attribute expansion).

       -xpon  turn  on  attribute  expansion  for  all source objects, even in
              regular files. By default, attribute expansion is turned off for
              source  objects  that  are  regular files, and turned on for all
              source objects that are directly retrieved from the object base.

       target ...
              A  list  of  target names can be passed to shape via the command
              line. If no target is given on the command line, and the special
              target  .DEFAULT  is  not  defined  within the description file,
              shape  tries  to  produce  the  first  target  defined  in   the
              description file.

       <macro definition>
              It  is  possible  to  define or modify macros in the description
              file from the command line.  Macros that are  defined  this  way
              take  precedence  over all other definitions. Command line macro
              definitions have either of two forms:

               NAME=VALUE
       and
               NAME+=VALUE

       with NAME being a word and VALUE an arbitrary string. If VALUE contains
       white  space,  make  sure  to quote it.  The first form of command line
       macro definitions sets NAME to the  substitution  VALUE.  If  VALUE  is
       empty,  the  macro  is  reset.   The  second  form appends VALUE with a
       leading space character  to  the  current  substitution  of  NAME.  The
       current  substitution  may  be defined in the description file, or by a
       previous setting on the command line. For details about  the  semantics
       of  macro  definitions  and  substitutions, see the respective sections
       below.

DESCRIPTION FILES

       The operation of shape is  controlled  by  a  system  description  file
       (usually  a  Makefile)  that  provides structural information about the
       system to be managed. Other than make(1), shape works on  top  of  AtFS
       (Attributed  File  System),  a  repository of versioned objects, rather
       than plain files. Thus, genuine shape description files (usually called
       Shapefile)  feature version selection rules, and variant definitions in
       addition to standard Makefile dependency  rules.   Shape’s  description
       file  is  an upward compatible extension of make(1)’s description file,
       the Makefile.  A useful structuring convention  for  shape  description
       files  is  to  maintain  a  Makefile, and a Shapefile in parallel. Only
       genuine shape constructs (such as version selection rules,  or  variant
       definitions)  are kept in Shapefile, while the bulk of target rule- and
       macro definitions is kept in Makefile. The Makefile shall  be  included
       in  Shapefile  (see  description  of  include  directive, below).  This
       structuring convention  has  the  advantage  that  programs  that  were
       developed  with  the support of the ShapeTools system can be shipped as
       source distribution to sites that don’t use ShapeTools.

       Although shape is largely downward compatible with  the  original  make
       program,  it  should  be  noted  that several popular extensions of the
       original make program, such as GNU Make or Sun Make,  provide  features
       not  present  in  shape.   See  the  section on known incompatibilities
       below.

       The description file provides an ideal central information base for all
       sorts of product related definitions.  Shape encourages the development
       of a set of (project- or organization-specific) conventions for  system
       description,  and provides a simple way to extract this information for
       use by other tools (see -echo  option,  above).  The  description  file
       syntax  not  only  serves  to  specify  component dependencies that are
       relevant for  build  processes,  but  allows  a  general,  hierarchical
       definition  of  product  oriented  tasks.   The  concept  of  recursive
       dependencies  maps  directly  to  a   stepwise   refinement   of   task
       definitions.  Such  tasks can be fully, partly, or not at all automated
       as  appropriate.  Thus,  certain  activities  may  be   automated   and
       standardized,  while  other activities are just informally described in
       order to document them or to reason about them  (see  shape_rms(1)  for
       examples).

Syntactical Structure

       The  basic syntactical structure of shape’s description file is made up
       of:

       Comments
              Comments begin with a ‘‘#’’ character and extend to the  end  of
              the  line.  In  Shapefiles,  the  end of a line is defined as an
              unescaped newline (‘‘\<newline>’’), or the end of the file.  The
              comment character can’t be escaped, but can be quoted in single-
              or double quotes. Comment characters in command lines of  target
              rules are ignored by shape.

       Directives
              Directives  are  special  keywords,  known  to shape. Directives
              begin at column 0  of  a  line  and  extend  to  the  line  end.
              Currently, the only directive recognized by shape is

               include <list of file names>

       Macro Definitions
              Macro definitions have the general form:

               NAME <macro definition symbol> VALUE

       NAME must be a single word consisting of a sequence of name characters.
       Name characters are all printable characters except the following:

                               $ # : = ; <space> \t \n

       The macro definition symbol is either  of  ‘‘=’’,  ‘‘+=’’,  or  ‘‘:=’’.
       VALUE  is  an  arbitrary string terminated by the end of the line, or a
       comment. Macro definitions usually begin in the first column of a line,
       but  may  be  preceded by leading <space> characters. Macro definitions
       must not  contain  leading  <tab>  characters  (see  section  on  Macro
       Definitions, below, for more details).

       Macro References
              Macro references have one of the following forms:

               $(<macro name>)
               ${<macro name>}
               $<single character name>

       The  macro  substitution  operator (‘‘$’’) can’t be escaped, but can be
       represented by  the  substitution  ‘‘$$’’.  Macro  substitution  occurs
       anywhere in the description file, except in comments, macro names, left
       hand sides of version selection rule- and  variant  definition  headers
       (see next section), and variant class definitions (see section on Macro
       Substitutions, below, for more details).

       Rules  Rules are made up from a rule header, and an optional rule body.
              The  rule header consists of a left hand side, a rule definition
              symbol, and an optional right hand  side.  The  left  hand  side
              usually  begins  in  column  0 of a line, and may be preceded by
              leading <space> characters. Left hand sides of rule headers must
              not  contain  leading  <tab> characters. The optional right hand
              side of a rule header extends to the end of  the  line,  or  the
              beginning  of the rule body. A rule body consists of consecutive
              lines beginning with a <tab> character. The body of  a  rule  is
              terminated   by  the  next  line  not  beginning  with  a  <tab>
              character, or the end of the file.

              Shape recognizes three different kinds of  rules,  distinguished
              by their respective rule definition symbols:

              ·
                target  rules.  Target  rules  have  a  single colon character
                (‘‘:’’) as rule definition symbol.   The  left  hand  side  of
                target  rule  headers  is a space-separated list of names. The
                optional right hand side consists of a space-separated list of
                names,  followed by an optional list of production ingredients
                (see section on Target Rules, below).

              ·
                version selection rules. Version selection rules have the rule
                definition symbol ‘‘:-’’. The rule header of version selection
                rules has a single word on its left hand side,  and  no  right
                hand side (see section on Version Selection Rules, below).

              ·
                variant definitions. Although variant definitions are - as the
                name suggests - definitions, not rules (from a semantical view
                point),  their  syntactical  representation is that of a rule.
                Variant definitions have the rule  definition  symbol  ‘‘:+’’.
                The  rule  header of a variant definition has a single word on
                its left hand side, and no right hand  side  (see  section  on
                Variant Definitions, below).

       Variant Class Definitions
              Variant class definitions have the form

                     vclass <name> ::= (variant1, variant2, ...)

       (see section on Variants, below).

       Line Continuations
              If  the  end  of an input line is escaped by a backslash (‘‘\’’)
              the  next  line  is  considered  as  a  continuation  line.  The
              backslash newline character sequence is replaced by a space.

Macro Definitions

       Macro definitions associate names with strings that will be substituted
       wherever the name of the macro is referenced (see next section). Macros
       are  useful  for writing maintainable, and somewhat generic description
       files. Even moderately large projects will find it extremely  rewarding
       to define conventions for naming and usage of certain macros throughout
       the product description file.

       There are three different kinds of macro definitions:

       Simple Macro Definitions

       A simple macro definition looks like

               NAME = <any string>

       The string that is associated with the macro  name  can  contain  macro
       references.  If  a macro is defined multiple times within a description
       file, the last definition will be  effective.  Macros  defined  on  the
       command  line take precedence over definitions of the same macro in the
       description file.

       Additive Macro Definitions

       This type of macro definition looks like

               NAME += <any string>

       The string on the right hand side of the definition is appended to  any
       existing  value  associated  with NAME, separated by a space character.
       Multiple additive macro definitions are concatenated in  the  order  in
       which  they  appear  in  the  description  file.  If  an additive macro
       definition occurs on the command line, the last string value defined in
       the  description  file  is prepended to the string value defined on the
       command line. Additive macro definitions in the  description  file  are
       appended to string values defined on the command line.

       Evaluative Macro Definitions

       Evaluative macros are defined in the following way:

               NAME := <any string>

       First,  the  string  value is associated to NAME in the same way as for
       simple macro definitions. When NAME is substituted for the first  time,
       the  right  hand side of the definition is evaluated, and the result of
       this evaluation replaces the  original  string  value  associated  with
       NAME. Thus, evaluation of the right hand side occurs exactly once. This
       is particularly useful if the defining string is a command substitution
       (see next section).

Macro Substitutions

       Macro  substitution is the process of substituting a macro reference by
       the string value associated with a macro name.  References to undefined
       macros are substituted by an empty string. Macro references have either
       of the forms:

               $(NAME)
               ${NAME}
               $<any single character>

       The following are valid macro references:

               $(CFLAGS)
               $7
               ${SOURCE-FILES}
               $(X)
               $X

       The  last  two  references  have  identical  substitutions.  The  macro
       reference

               $$

       will substitute a single dollar sign.

       Before  a macro reference is substituted, the associated string will be
       evaluated. Evaluation of a string value includes

       -
         substitution of all macro references in the string value

       -
         command substitution. Any substring of the string value  enclosed  in
         backquotes  (‘‘‘’’)  will  be  passed as command to the shell, and be
         replaced by the command’s standard output.

       -
         string substitution. If a macro reference has the form

               $(NAME:<old>=<new>)

       the reference will be substituted by the evaluated value of NAME,  with
       all  occurrences of the string <old> replaced by the string <new>. This
       is particularly useful to maintain related lists, such as CSOURCES  and
       OBJECTS for example, automatically:

               CSOURCES := ‘echo *.c‘
               OBJECTS := $(CSOURCES:.c=.o)

       Shape   substitutes   macro  references  as  late  as  possible.  Macro
       references occurring in a macro definition are  only  substituted  when
       the  defined  macro  itself  is  substituted.  Macro  references on the
       dependencies side of target rules are  substituted  when  the  rule  is
       evaluated.  Macro  references  on  the  target side of target rules are
       substituted immediately after shape has read the description file, i.e.
       before   any   production  is  started.  Macro  references  in  include
       directives are substituted when the directive is executed  while  shape
       reads the description file.

Built-in and Special Purpose Macros

       In order to provide parametrization of shape’s built-in implicit rules,
       a number of predefined macros is supplied by convention.  These  macros
       have  meaningful  initial values that can be altered by the user. There
       are also several macros that have special meaning for shape.

       Macro       Purpose            Initial value   Remark

       @           full name of the current           <dynamic>special
                   target

       ?           list of target dependencies        <dynamic>special

       <           name of the first target           <dynamic>special
                   dependency

       *           prefix shared by target            <dynamic>special
                   and the dependent filenames

       #           bound version id of the current    <dynamic>special
                   dependency

       $           the character ‘‘$’’                $<special>

       +           name of object to be bound         <dynamic>special
                   to a version (selection rules
                   only!)

       AS          Program for doing assembly         asconventional

       ASFLAGS     Flags for the assembler            <none>conventional

       CC          Program for compiling C            ccconventional
                   programs

       CFLAGS      Flags for the C compiler           <none>conventional

       FC          Program for compiling Fortran      f77conventional
                   programs

       FFLAGS      Flags for the Fortran compiler     <none>conventional

       HOSTTYPE    Host architecture of the           <none>special
                   computer that runs shape.
                   The value of this macro is
                   used by shape to construct
                   the derivation key attribute
                   for derived objects

       IMPORT      List of environment variables      <none>special
                   that shall be imported as
                   macro definitions

       LD          Program to link programs           ldconventional

       LDFLAGS     Flags for the linker               <none>conventional

       LEX         Program to turn Lex grammars       lexconventional
                   into C or Ratfor programs

       LFLAGS      Flags for the lexical analyzer     <none>conventional
                   lex

       LOGNAME     The name or network-id under       <dynamic>special
                   which the user who owns the
                   shape process is logged on

       M2C         Program for compiling Modula2      m2cconventional
                   programs

       M2FLAGS     Flags for the Modula2 compiler     <none>conventional

       MAKE        The command line with which        shape $(MAKEFLAGS)special
                   shape has been invoked.
                   This macro is used for
                   recursive calls to shape

       MAKEFLAGS   Command line flags relevant        <defined fromspecial
                   for recursive calls to shape       command line>

       PC          Program for compiling Pascal       pcconventional
                   programs

       PFLAGS      Flags for the Pascal compiler      <none>conventional

       RFLAGS      Flags for the Fortran compiler     <none>conventional
                   for Ratfor programs

       SHAPEPID    The process id of the              <dynamic>special
                   running shape program

       SHAPEVERSION                   The version id of theshape_CM-4.4special
                   shape program      (or above)

       SHELL       The command processor for          /bin/shspecial
                   the target rule command
                   lines. The referenced command
                   processor must be able to
                   take its commands  from
                   standard input (see section
                   on Command execution,
                   below)

       VPATH       Search path extension for          <none>special
                   localizing source components

       YACC        Program to turn Yacc grammars      yaccconventional
                   into C programs

       YFLAGS      Flags for yacc     <none>          conventional

       vpath       Dynamic search path extension      <none>special
                   for variants of source components

       The function of the special  purpose  macros  HOSTTYPE,  IMPORT,  MAKE,
       VPATH,  and  vpath  are  described  in  the  sections on OPERATION, and
       Variants below.

Target Rules

       A target rule defines how,  and  under  what  conditions  a  target  is
       derived  from a set of source objects and/or other targets. A target is
       a name that can refer to a file but need not to do  so.   Target  rules
       have the following format:

               <target>... : [<version binding>] [+<variant>...] [<dependency>...] \
                       [: <ingredient>...] [; <command>]
                       \t[<command>]
                       ...

       The header of a target rule (see Syntactical Structure, above) consists
       of a list of targets, terminated by a colon, followed  by  an  optional
       list  of  dependencies, and an optional list of production ingredients,
       beginning  after  a  second  colon  character.   The  rule  header   is
       terminated  by  a  newline or a semicolon, and followed by the optional
       rule body. The rule body consists of command lines  that  are  executed
       when  a  target  needs  to  be  rederived.   The first command line may
       immediately follow the  semicolon  that  terminates  the  rule  header.
       Subsequent  command lines must begin with a <tab> character. The target
       rule body is terminated by the first line that  doesn’t  begin  with  a
       <tab>, or by the end of the file.

       Targets

       When  multiple  targets  appear on the left hand side of a rule header,
       and the derivation process needs to be started, shape will  derive  all
       of the targets in a single run.

       Dependencies

       Shape  checks  a  target’s  dependencies  from left to right. The first
       dependency is examined whether it is the name of  a  version  selection
       rule.  If  it  is,  shape sets the selection rule active (eclipsing all
       previous  selection  rule  activations),  and  proceeds  to  the   next
       dependency.  Next,  shape  checks  whether  the dependency is a variant
       activation. If the dependency starts with a ‘‘+’’ character followed by
       the  name  of  a  variant, the variant is activated (see the section on
       Variants, below). Shape proceeds to check for variant activations until
       the  first  dependency  that isn’t a variant activation is found. Next,
       shape proceeds through the list of remaining  dependencies,  and  binds
       (or  derives)  each  of  them  as  necessary,  performing a depth first
       traversal of the  dependency  graph  (see  the  section  on  OPERATION,
       below).

       Production Ingredients

       After all dependencies have been bound, shape constructs the derivation
       key for the target. The derivation key is an attribute that defines the
       complete  set of parameters that determine whether a target needs to be
       rebuild. Besides all bound dependencies, the  derivation  key  contains
       the  production  ingredients  that  were  specified  in the target rule
       header. Production ingredients are typically  complete  definitions  of
       the macros that are referenced in the command lines of the rule’s body.
       Thus, tool versions and switches affecting the operation of a tool  can
       be  made  part  of  the  derivation parameters of a target. In order to
       include macro definitions into the derivation  key  of  a  target,  the
       special reference

               +(NAME1) +(NAME2) ...

       must occur in place of the production ingredients.

       Command Lines

       When  shape  concludes  that  a  target  needs  to be (re-)derived, the
       commands in the target rule body are executed. The rule  body  consists
       of  consecutive  lines  that  are  treated  as  separate commands. Each
       command line  is  evaluated  as  described  in  the  section  on  Macro
       Substitution,  above,  and passed to the command interpreter defined by
       the macro SHELL. Each command line is executed as a  separate  process.
       If  complex  commands are needed that don’t fit on a single line, or if
       the overhead of  repeated  process  invocations  shall  be  avoided,  a
       logical  command  line  can  be extended by escaping the newline with a
       backslash  character  (\<newline>),  and  continuing  it  on  the  next
       physical line.

       Command lines may be preceded by one or two special characters:

       -      shape  ignores any nonzero error code returned by a command line
              for which the first character is a minus sign. The minus sign is
              not passed to the shell. When a command returns a nonzero return
              status, shape usually considers the derivation process  for  the
              target  as failure and terminates, unless the -i or -k switches,
              or the .IGNORE special target is in effect.

       @      If the first character of a command is a ‘‘@’’, shape  does  not
              print  the  command before executing it. The ‘‘@’’ is not passed
              to the shell.

       @-     If the first two non-<tab> characters are ‘‘@-’’, shape  ignores
              nonzero return codes, and suppresses the printing of the command
              line.

       If shape is invoked in no execution mode (-n),  the  evaluated  command
       lines  are  printed  on standard output, showing what shape would do if
       invoked without -n. Command lines  that  contain  the  macro  reference
       $(MAKE)  are  always executed, even if -n is set. This is done to allow
       simulation of recursive builds that may span over  subdirectories.  The
       reference $(MAKE) is substituted by a shape command invocation with all
       relevant command line switches set.

       Within command lines of the rule body, some parts of  the  target  rule
       header can be dynamically referenced. When a command line is evaluated,
       the following substitutions are possible

       Reference   Substitution
       $@          full name of the current target
       $?          list of dependencies
       $<          name of the first dependency
       $*          prefix shared by current and the dependent filenames
       $#          bound version id of the current dependency
                   (implicit rules only)

Implicit Rules

       Shape’s target rules come  in  two  different  flavors:  explicit,  and
       implicit.   Implicit  rules  can  be  seen  as  templates  that  define
       dependency patterns which apply to most targets of a  given  kind.  For
       this  reason,  implicit rules are sometimes called pattern rules. Shape
       converts make’s old-style implicit rules (e.g.  .c.o:) to pattern rules
       while  it reads the description file.  A typical dependency pattern is,
       for example, the dependency of files containing linkable  object  code,
       e.g.  module.o  to  corresponding  files  containing  source code, e.g.
       module.c. The derivation process for most of these source/derived pairs
       is   identical.    Rather   than   writing   separate   rules  for  all
       source/derived dependencies of a system, it  is  possible  to  write  a
       single,  generic  rule, called implicit rule.  An implicit rule has the
       following format:

               %[.<suff1>] %[.<suff2>] ... : %[.<suff3>] %[.<suff4>]... \
                   [: <ingredient>...] [; <command>]
                   \t[<command>]
                   \t[<command>]
                   ...

       While the structure of implicit rules is the same as  described  above,
       the  names of targets and dependencies are replaced by target patterns,
       and dependency templates respectively.   The  percent  character  in  a
       target  pattern  acts  as  wildcard  that  is  matched against all of a
       target’s name up to the optional trailing suffix. For shape, an  object
       name  suffix  is the sequence of characters enclosed by the last period
       character  (‘‘.’’)  within  the  name,  and   the   <space>   character
       terminating the name. The following example illustrates shape’s concept
       of suffixes:

           Name        Suffix
           sample.cde  cde
           sample.x.y.cc
           sample_c
           .sample.c   c

       The following is an example for an implicit rule that derives  linkable
       object code from corresponding C source files:

           %.o : %.c : +(CC) +(CFLAGS)
               \t@echo shape - executing: $(CC) -c $(CFLAGS) $#;
               \t@$(CC) $(CFLAGS) -E %.c |
                 sed ’s;^\(# [0-9][0-9]* \"\)%.c\(\".*\)$$;e1$#\2;’ > %.i;
               \t@$(CC) -c $(CFLAGS) %.i;
               \t@rm %.i;

       NOTE:  This  rule is shape’s built-in implicit rule to compile C source
       files.  The cryptic command sequence has  the  purpose  to  encode  the
       complete  file  version  id  into  the  object code (e.g. sample.c[3.4]
       rather than sample.c). This is extremely  useful  in  conjunction  with
       with  the  -g  switch  of  most  C  compilers,  and  version  sensitive
       debuggers, such as vgdb.

       If a target is derived using implicit rules, the name of the target  is
       matched  against  the  target patterns of the implicit rules. If a rule
       matches, the matching portion of the target name (the stem, referred to
       by  the ‘‘%’’) is consistently substituted for all other occurrences of
       the wildcard character throughout the rule.  Once  this  is  done,  the
       implicit rule is treated like an explicit target rule.

Explicit Rules

       Explicit   rules   associate   explicit   target  names  with  explicit
       dependencies.  Explicit  rules  are  most  typically  used  to  specify
       dependencies that cannot be covered by implicit rules, such as deriving
       an executable program by linking many object  code  modules.   In  many
       cases,   explicit   rules   are  used  to  specify  only  those  target
       dependencies that are not implied by an implicit rule (such as  include
       dependencies  for object files), while the ‘‘natural’’ dependencies are
       assumed as being present. If a description file contains only this sort
       of  explicit  dependencies,  the  omitted implicit dependencies (and an
       applicable rule body) are automatically added by  shape  to  the  total
       list of target dependencies.

Built-in Implicit Rules

       Shape  provides a number of predefined implicit target rules that cover
       many common source/target derivations. The following table lists target
       patterns, and dependency templates for shape’s built-in implicit rules.

       Target      Dependency  Derivation
       %.a         %.c         Compile archive library from C source
       %.c         %.l         Generate C programs from Lex grammar
       %.c         %.y         Generate C programs from Yacc grammar
       %.o         %.l         Compile object code from Lex grammar
       %.o         %.y         Compile object code from Yacc grammar
       %.o         %.s         Translate assembler program to object code
       %.o         %.r         Compile Ratfor source
       %.o         %.F         Compile Fortran source
       %.o         %.f         Compile Fortran source
       %.sym       %.def       Compile Modula definition modules
       %.o         %.mod       Compile Modula implementation modules
       %.o         %.p         Compile Pascal source
       %.o         %.c         Compile C source
       %           %.sh        Make executable program from shell-script
       %           %.r         Build executable program from Ratfor source
       %           %.F         Build executable program from Fortran source
       %           %.f         Build executable program from Fortran source
       %           %.p         Build executable program from Pascal source
       %           %.mod       Build executable program from Modula source
       %           %.c         Build executable program from C source

       For a complete definition of shape’s built-in implicit rules, run shape
       -p.

Special Purpose Targets

       Several  aspects of shape’s operation are controlled by special purpose
       targets that can be put into  the  description  file.  Special  purpose
       targets  by  convention  begin  with  a  period  character, and have no
       associated commands.

       Target      Purpose

       .DEFAULT:   commands in the rule body of the .DEFAULT target  rule  are
                   executed for all targets that cannot be derived by explicit
                   or implicit target rules. If no commands at  all  shall  be
                   executed  for  a  rule  but  .DEFAULT  is  needed for other
                   targets, that rule can be given an empty command (either  a
                   ‘‘;’’  at  the  end  of  the  rule header, or an empty line
                   beginning with <tab>). If .DEFAULT has dependencies, and no
                   targets   are   requested  from  the  command  line,  these
                   dependencies are treated as if they were targets  requested
                   from the command line.

       .IGNORE:    causes  shape  to  ignore  non zero return codes of invoked
                   commands.  Equivalent to the -i switch

       .SILENT:    silent command execution. The command lines are not printed
                   before execution.  Equivalent to the -s switch

       .BPOOL:     only  the  dependencies  associated  with  this  target are
                   stored in the derived object cache

       .NOBPOOL:   dependencies associated with this target are not stored  in
                   the derived object cache.

       If  both,  .BPOOL, and .NOBPOOL are defined, only the difference set of
       both dependency lists will be stored in the derived object cache.

Version Selection Rules

       When shape builds a target, it uses version selection rules to  bind  a
       unique version to each name of the prerequisite source objects. Version
       selection rules consist of a name, and an associated set  of  predicate
       lists in the rule body. The format of version selection rules is:
               <name> [( <arg1>, <arg2>,...)] :-
                   \t[<pattern1>,] <pred1> (...), <pred2> (...);
                   \t[<pattern2>,] <pred1> (...), <pred2> (...);
                   ...
                   \t.
       The  body  of  a  version  selection  rule  consists  of  a sequence of
       alternatives, separated by semicolons. Each of the alternatives  is  an
       optional pattern, followed by a comma-separated list of predicates. The
       selection rule is terminated by  a  period  character.  The  semicolon-
       separated   sequence  of  alternatives  in  a  version  selection  rule
       constitutes a  logical  OR  expression.  The  comma-separated  list  of
       predicates in an alternative constitutes a logical AND expression.

       Version Binding

       Version  binding is the process of determining exactly one version of a
       given source object from the set of  all  available  versions.  Version
       binding is said to succeed if one of the rule alternatives succeeds. An
       alternative succeeds, if it leads to the identification of exactly  one
       version.  It  is said to fail otherwise.  When shape binds a version to
       the name of a source object, it tries each alternative with a  matching
       pattern,  until  the  name  is unambiguously bound to a version. If the
       pattern is omitted, the alternative will be tried unconditionally.

       The functioning of version selection  rules  is  one  of  shape’s  most
       important, yet most subtile aspects. In order to provide a basis for an
       intuitive understanding of the selection rule mechanism, an example  is
       described. The rule most_recent, below, binds:
       - files  that  were  checked out for modification by the shape-invoking
       user
       - versions of files that were recently modified (→ status saved) by the
       same user
       -  the  most  recently  proposed  version  (→ status proposed) of files
       modified by other users,
       - or the file version from the last release.

           LASTRELEASE := ‘lastrelease‘# "lastrelease" returns the name
                                    # of the last release
           most_recent :-
               eq (status, busy), exists ($+[locked_by($(LOGNAME)):]);
               ge (status, saved), max (mtime),
                 max (version), eq (author, $(LOGNAME));
               ge (status, proposed), max (mtime),
                 max (version);
               eq (__SymbolicName__, $(LASTRELEASE));
               cut ($_rule$: couldn’t bind $+ as requested!).

           locked_by (user_id) :-
               max (version), eq (locker, $_user_id$).

       For a more detailed  description  of  version  selection  rule  syntax,
       semantics, and the list of built-in predicates, see BindRules(7).

       Activation of Version Selection Rules

       A  version  selection for a certain target is invoked by specifying the
       name of the selection rule as first  dependency  of  a  target,  or  by
       supplying  a  selection  rule name as argument to the -R option.  If no
       selection rule is specified explicitly, shape uses its built-in version
       selection  rule  that  tries to bind a regular file, or the most recent
       version to the name of an object.

Variants

       The term variant refers to the intention to manage a product that  must
       comply  with  different sets of varying external constraints as a unit.
       Independently from particular semantics that might be  associated  with
       the  variant  notion,  there  exists  a  small  number of techniques to
       implement software variation on a  technical  level.  These  techniques
       are:

       physical   separation  of  variant  components.  This  is  achieved  by
       maintaining separate copies of components in different directories,  or
       by maintaining variant specific branches in version control systems;

       source  preprocessing  of  variant  components.  With  this  technique,
       multiple logical variants of a source component  are  maintained  in  a
       single   file   that   contains  preprocessor  instructions.  Before  a
       particular variant can be accessed, a preprocessor must extract it from
       the  common  source. A popular example of this technique is conditional
       compilation, controlled by the #if, and #ifdef instructions within  the
       domain of C/C++ programming;

       composition  variation  of  complex  product  variants.  This technique
       addresses the case when different variants of a complex  product  (such
       as a program) are composed from different sets of components;

       derivation  variation  (or  variation  of  the  process)  that produces
       different variants of derived objects from the same set of  sources  by
       modifying  parameters  of the derivation process. A typical example for
       this case is cross compilation of the same sources for different target
       platforms,  or  code  instrumentation  for  various  purposes,  such as
       debugging, testing, profiling, or optimization.

       Depending on the particular needs of a project, all of these techniques
       may  be  in  simultaneous use, and can occur intermixed as appropriate.
       Shape  allows  to  associate  logical  variant  names  with  a  set  of
       definitions  that control all of the above mentioned techniques, making
       it possible to  request  builds  of  particular  system  variants  (and
       combinations  of  compatible  variants) without the need to worry about
       how these variants are realized technically.

Variant Definitions

       Shape derives its flexibility from  using  macro  substitution  in  the
       description  file  wherever  possible.  Shape  variant  definitions are
       basically groups of macro definitions that take effect when the variant
       is  activated  for  a  build.  A  variant  definition has the following
       format:

               <variant-name> :+
                   \t<Macro name1>=<Value>
                   ...

       When a variant is activated, the macro definitions associated with  the
       variant  become  effective.  Any previous definition of a macro made in
       the description file, or on the command line is replaced by the variant
       macro  substitution. If a macro is defined in several variants that are
       activated together, the respective values are concatenated.

       Locating physically separate Variant Source Objects

       Shape provides a special macro, vpath, that is intended to be  used  in
       variant  definitions. The vpath macro defines shape’s search precedence
       when source version archives are located. If vpath is non-empty,  shape
       tries  to  find  any  referenced source object in the vpath directories
       first. If several activated variants define vpath, the  variant  search
       path  is  concatenated  and searched from right to left, i.e.  the last
       variant that has been activated has precedence. Only  if  a  referenced
       source  component  cannot be found in any of the vpath directories, the
       current directory is searched.  If a source object has been  found,  it
       will be bound by the current version selection rule, and be temporarily
       installed in the build directory. This means that components which  are
       maintained in a vpath subdirectory are temporarily moved up to the main
       directory. Thus, it is not necessary to make any reference to  a  vpath
       subdirectory path in the target rules.

       Variant Activation

       When  a  product  is  configured  and  built,  variants  are  typically
       activated by supplying a variant name as argument to the -V options.

       Variants can also  be  activated  for  a  given  target  by  specifying
       respective,  ‘‘+’’-prefixed  variant names as dependencies (see section
       on Target Rules, above). Variant activations for a  target  must  occur
       before any real object dependency on the dependency line, and after the
       optional version selection rule activation.

Variant Class Definitions

       With Variant class definitions, shape offers a construct that allows to
       define  incompatible  variants,  i.e. variants that cannot be activated
       simultaneously. Shape variant  class  definitions  have  the  following
       format:

               vclass <variant-class-name>  ::= ( <var1>, <var2> ...)

       The  same variant name can occur in multiple variant class definitions.
       If a combination of variants is requested with any  two  variant  names
       that  are  member  of the same variant class, shape will issue an error
       message, and terminate. Checking of variant classes can be disabled  by
       specifying the -novclass switch on the command line.

       NOTE:  variant  class  definitions  must  occur in the description file
       before any variant definition referenced in a variant  class.   Variant
       classes  that  are  defined  after  referenced  variants cannot enforce
       mutual exclusion of incompatible variants.

       An Example

       The following example shall illustrate the use of variant  definitions,
       and variant classes:

           vclass compiler ::= (gnu, prop)

           gnu:+
               CC = gcc -Wall
               OPTIMIZE = -O2 -inline-functions
               DEBUG = -g -g3
               PROFILE = -pg -a
               STDC = -ansi

           prop:+
               CC = cc
               OPTIMIZE = +O3
               DEBUG = -g -z +Y
               PROFILE = -G
               STDC = -Aa

           vclass quality ::= (debug, profile, optimize)

           debug:+
               VARCFLAGS = $(DEBUG)

           profile:+
               VARCFLAGS = $(PROFILE)

           optimize:+
               VARCFLAGS = $(OPTIMIZE)

           CFLAGS += $(VARCFLAGS)

       If  a  variant  requires  the  modification  of  macros with predefined
       meaning, it is sometimes a good idea not to redefine the  macro  itself
       in  the  variant  section.  In such a case it is possible to augment an
       existing  macro  value  by  using  shape’s  additive  macro  definition
       facility,  and  a  macro  from  the variant definition defined for this
       purpose (e.g. VARCFLAGS in the example above).

OPERATION

       When invoked, shape first parses the command line.  Shape  records  the
       names  of the variants to be activated from the command line via the -V
       option. Next, shape initializes the built-in, and special macros. Also,
       shape’s built-in derivation rules are initialized.

       Reading the Description File

       After  that,  all  macro  definitions made on the command line are made
       effective. Shape then locates and opens its  description  file.  If  no
       description file is specified as argument to the -f option, shape tries
       to find one of the files Shapefile, shapefile, Makefile,  or  makefile.
       For each of these names, shape tries to find a regular file first, and,
       if no such file exists, to find the most recent version of that file in
       a version control archive. If no such version can be found, shape tries
       the next name.

       When  shape  reads  the  description  file,  it  collects   all   macro
       definitions,  and  makes  them immediately effective, unless a macro of
       the same name has been defined on the  command  line.  If  the  special
       macro  IMPORT  is  encountered,  the  listed  environment variables are
       defined as macros.  If  macros  with  the  same  name  as  an  imported
       environment  variable occurs in the description file, it has precedence
       over the definition from the environment, unless the -e  switch  is  in
       effect.

       When  shape  reads  an  include directive, it evaluates the rest of the
       line (i.e. the characters that immediately follow the  directive),  and
       interprets each word as the name of a file to be read. Each of the file
       names is bound to either a regular file, or the most recent version  of
       the  file. Shape opens each of the included files, suspends reading the
       current description file, and continues to read  the  contents  of  the
       included  file(s),  before  it  resumes reading of the original control
       file. If multiple file names are specified  in  an  include  directive,
       shape  reads each of the files in turn, starting with the leftmost, and
       ending with the rightmost file name. If an included file could  not  be
       opened, shape issues a warning.

       While  shape  reads its description files, version selection rules, and
       target rules are collected. They  are  defined  only  after  shape  has
       finished  reading  the  description file. Macro-, variant-, and variant
       class definitions  are  made  effective  as  soon  as  they  have  been
       recognized.

       The Build Process

       After  the  description  file  has  been  read,  shape determines which
       targets have been requested. If targets have been  requested  from  the
       command  line,  shape will attempt to build each of them, starting with
       the leftmost target and proceeding towards the rightmost. If no  target
       has   been   requested  from  the  command  line,  shape  searches  the
       description file for a target named .DEFAULT. If such a target  exists,
       and  there  are any dependencies associated with it, shape will attempt
       to build each of these dependencies, from left to right. If no .DEFAULT
       target  rule  has  been  defined  in  the  description file, shape will
       attempt to build the first target defined in the description file.

       When shape builds a target, it proceeds as follows:

       1)
          determine the names of the source objects  for  a  given  target  by
          traversing  the  dependency  graph, using built-in and user supplied
          target rules. The dependency graph is traversed depth first. The ids
          of all applied rules are recorded.

       2)
          for  each  required source object, locate the source version archive
          in the repository. Locating of source  version  archives  takes  the
          current vpath into account.

       3)
          bind  each of the source object’s names to an appropriate version as
          implied by the currently active version selection rule.  Record  the
          id  of  each  bound  dependency. If a dependency is itself a derived
          object, use its cache key as id.

       4)
          construct the derivation key for the current target from the  target
          name and the records resulting from steps 1) and 3).

       5)
          search  the derived object cache for an object that has a derivation
          key identical to the key constructed in step 4).

       6a)
          if an appropriate  derived  object  was  found,  a  copy  of  it  is
          installed  in  the build directory, rather than deriving it from its
          sources.

       6b)
          if no appropriate  derived  object  was  found,  it  is  created  by
          deriving it from its parts. The resulting derived object is put into
          the derived object cache, and associated  with  the  derivation  key
          resulting from step 4).

       Targets  with  an  empty  list  of  dependencies  -  and  thus an empty
       derivation key - are always (re-) derived.

       When shape determines the dependencies of a requested target,  it  does
       so  by  evaluating  either  explicit  target  rules,  or  by applying -
       possibly built-in - implicit rules. If explicit  target  rules  specify
       object  dependencies  but  no derivation script in the rule body, shape
       will attempt to supply an appropriate default derivation  script.  When
       searching  for such a default derivation script, shape tries to find an
       applicable implicit rule for the current target. An  implicit  rule  is
       considered  applicable,  if  it  has  the current target in its list of
       targets (after pattern substitution), and all - explicit, and implied -
       dependencies  exist.  If  no  implicit  rule is found to be applicable,
       shape looks for the .DEFAULT target rule. If such a rule exists, and if
       it  has  an  associated derivation script in its rule body, this script
       will be supplied as default derivation script. If neither  of  the  two
       possibilities leads to a default derivation script, shape gives up.

       Derived Object Caching

       Before  the derivation process for a requested target is started, it is
       attempted to find a suitable derived object in the derived object cache
       that  matches the required properties. Shape is based on the derivation
       key concept for target  objects.  The  derivation  key  is  constructed
       according to the algorithm described above. Relevant parameters that go
       into the derivation key are the list of dependency ids, the target rule
       id,  the  list  of  production ingredients, the build platform (usually
       defined by the macro HOSTTYPE; if this  macro  is  not  defined,  shape
       takes  the  host  id  as  build  platform), and the attribute expansion
       status of each source object. When an object has  been  derived,  shape
       stores it in the derived object cache, and marks it with the derivation
       key attribute.  For a detailed trace of shape’s  derived  object  cache
       handling, and the use of derivation keys, run shape with the -D switch.

       Command Execution

       When a target needs to be (re-) derived, shape  executes  the  commands
       associated  with  the  target.  Before the commands are executed, shape
       sets up the command execution  context.  The  version  objects  of  the
       target’s  dependencies  are  installed  as  regular  files  in the file
       system. If necessary, shape retrieves source objects from  the  version
       control archive. If a file with the object’s name already exists in the
       place where a version is to be installed, shape will  temporarily  move
       it  to  the  AtFS subdirectory. After the command script has completed,
       shape will restore the original state of all affected directories.

       Shape executes a command line by starting the program referenced in the
       $(SHELL)  macro,  and  opening  a  pipe  to the resulting process.  The
       command line is written to the pipe, and  thus  sent  to  the  $(SHELL)
       process’ standard input.

       Each  of  the  command  lines in a rule body are executed by a separate
       process. Thus,  the  execution  status  of  separate  commands  is  not
       preserved.  If  multiple commands are needed that rely on the execution
       status of previous commands, all these commands must occur in a  single
       command  line. This is possible with line continuations (see section on
       Syntactical Structure, above).
       NOTE: many command interpreters use  the  ‘‘$’’  character  as  special
       symbol  (typically  as  variable  reference).  Make  sure to pass ‘‘$’’
       characters in commands to the $(SHELL)  process  by  using  the  ‘‘$$’’
       special macro (see section on Macro References, above).

INCOMPATIBILITIES

       In order to facilitate migration from make(1), shape was designed to be
       upward compatible with Makefiles. Although most of  make’s  description
       file   features   are   present   in   shape,  there  is  a  number  of
       incompatibilities that may need to be taken care of. There exists  also
       a number of popular extensions of the original make program (e.g. Sun’s
       Make, HP’s Make, GNU Make,  nmake  etc.)  that  offer  various  special
       features  that  aren’t supported by other make extensions, or by shape.
       When a migration from make to shape is planned, it  should  be  checked
       whether special extensions or incompatible features are used.

       Features not supported by shape

       Double colon rules
              Double  colon  rules  associate  the  same target with different
              derivation scripts. This type  of  rule  is  useful  to  support
              different   derivations   for   a   target  depending  on  which
              dependencies are out of date. Because shape bases  its  decision
              whether  to  derive  on  the  derivation  key,  rather than mere
              modification time stamps of files, this sort of  rule  makes  no
              sense in shape.

       Archive member targets
              Archive  member targets are objects that live in an archive file
              (see ar(1)) rather than the file system. Within these  archives,
              make  bases  its  decisions  on  the modification time stamps of
              source files, and archive entry dates. There is no way for shape
              to  simulate the concept of derivation keys for archive members.
              Maintenance of archives, however, is easy  with  shape,  because
              all  data for compiled object files is maintained in the derived
              object cache. If the source for an object that is stored  in  an
              archive  is  modified,  shape  can  rederive  this  object,  and
              selectively replace the entry in the archive.

       SCCS stuff
              In order to provide basic support for team oriented  development
              processes,  make  allows  to retrieve the most recent version of
              source files from SCCS archives. Because of the  awkward  naming
              convention  for  SCCS version archive files, special support for
              dealing with these archives had to be built into  make.  Because
              shape  is  tightly  integrated  with  the  AtFS  version  object
              repository, there is no need for any special SCCS support.

       Special targets
              Shape does not recognize the  special  targets  .PRECIOUS:,  and
              .SUFFIXES:. The .PRECIOUS target in Makefiles has the purpose to
              prevent deletion of expensively derived intermediate targets (by
              default,  make  deletes  intermediate  targets).  Because  shape
              stores intermediate targets in the derived object  cache,  there
              is  no  need  for  the  .PRECIOUS feature. To prevent caching of
              possibly large, useless intermediate targets, use the  .NOBPOOL:
              special  target  (see  section  on  Special Targets, above). The
              .SUFFIXES target in Makefiles has the purpose to  introduce  new
              suffix types into make’s derivation engine, and to determine the
              order in which implicit rules (suffix rules in make terminology)
              are   applied.   In   shape,  new  suffix  types  can  be  added
              dynamically, simply by introducing new implicit rules. Moreover,
              shape has an intelligent algorithm the determines the applicable
              implicit rule.

       Features with different semantics

       Environment Variables
              Many  make  programs  import  the  entire  set  of   environment
              variables  as macro definitions into the build process. This can
              sometimes produce  surprising  results.  In  shape,  environment
              variables are explicitly imported with the IMPORT special macro.

       ? Macro
              In make’s target  rules,  the  special  macro  reference  $?  is
              substituted  by  the  names  of those dependency file names that
              have been updated since the current  target  has  been  derived.
              Because  shape  bases  its  decision  whether  to  derive on the
              concept of derivation key, rather than  mere  file  modification
              time  stamps, the ?  macro cannot be correctly defined. Instead,
              shape substitutes the entire list of dependency names -  updated
              or not.

FILES

       Shapefile,  shapefile,  Makefile,  makefile,  /tmp/shapeXXXXXX, <target
       name>.bct

SEE ALSO

       make(1),  save(1),  retrv(1),  vadm(1),   vl(1),   vgdb(1),   vbind(1),
       afintro(3), atfstkintro(3), sttkintro(3), bindrules(7)

CAVEATS AND BUGS

       Macro  references  containing string substitutions cause a syntax error
       if used in place of target dependencies. Workaround: use indirect macro
       substitution.

       There  are  probably more bugs in shape. Please report any bug findings
       to shape-cr@cs.tu-berlin.de.

FURTHER READING

       Axel Mahler:
                 ‘‘Using  the   Shape   Toolkit   for   Cooperative   Software
                 Development - A Tutorial’’, in the toolkit distribution.

       Axel Mahler and Andreas Lampen:
                 ‘‘An    Integrated    Toolset    for   Engineering   Software
                 Configurations’’,  Sigplan  Notices,  Vol.  24,  No.  2,   or
                 Software Engineering Notes, Vol.  13, No. 5, November 1988.

       Andreas Lampen and Axel Mahler:
                 ‘‘An   Object   Base   for   Attributed  Software  Objects’’,
                 Proceedings of the Fall 1988 EUUG Conference.

       These and other papers are available via anonymous ftp from coma.cs.tu-
       berlin.de (pub/shapeTools/papers).

AUTHOR

       Shape  was  designed  by the shape project team at Technical University
       Berlin. The program was originally implemented by Wolfgang Obst (1988).
       Extensive  fixes  and  modifications  were  introduced  by  Axel Mahler
       (1992). Valuable contributions came from Steve Emmerson. In  1993  most
       parts  of shape were re-implemented by Axel Mahler. The version binding
       was re-implemented by Andreas Lampen. A complete  re-implementation  of
       the Shapefile parser was done by Juergen Nickelsen.

       Contact:
       SHAPE
       Technical University Berlin
       Sekr. FR 5-6
       Franklinstr. 28/29
       10587 Berlin

       General correspondence: shape@cs.tu-berlin.de
       Bug reports and modification requests: shape-cr@cs.tu-berlin.de