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NAME

     setuid, seteuid, setgid, setegid - set user and group ID

LIBRARY

     Standard C Library (libc, -lc)

SYNOPSIS

     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <unistd.h>

     int
     setuid(uid_t uid);

     int
     seteuid(uid_t euid);

     int
     setgid(gid_t gid);

     int
     setegid(gid_t egid);

DESCRIPTION

     The setuid() system call sets the real and effective user IDs and the
     saved set-user-ID of the current process to the specified value.  The
     setuid() system call is permitted if the specified ID is equal to the
     real user ID or the effective user ID of the process, or if the effective
     user ID is that of the super user.

     The setgid() system call sets the real and effective group IDs and the
     saved set-group-ID of the current process to the specified value.  The
     setgid() system call is permitted if the specified ID is equal to the
     real group ID or the effective group ID of the process, or if the
     effective user ID is that of the super user.

     The seteuid() system call (setegid()) sets the effective user ID (group
     ID) of the current process.  The effective user ID may be set to the
     value of the real user ID or the saved set-user-ID (see intro(2) and
     execve(2)); in this way, the effective user ID of a set-user-ID
     executable may be toggled by switching to the real user ID, then re-
     enabled by reverting to the set-user-ID value.  Similarly, the effective
     group ID may be set to the value of the real group ID or the saved set-
     group-ID.

RETURN VALUES

     Upon successful completion, the value 0 is returned; otherwise the
     value -1 is returned and the global variable errno is set to indicate the
     error.

ERRORS

     The system calls will fail if:

     [EPERM]            The user is not the super user and the ID specified is
                        not the real, effective ID, or saved ID.

SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS

     Read and write permissions to files are determined upon a call to
     open(2).  Once a file descriptor is open, dropping privilege does not
     affect the process’s read/write permissions, even if the user ID
     specified has no read or write permissions to the file.  These files
     normally remain open in any new process executed, resulting in a user
     being able to read or modify potentially sensitive data.

     To prevent these files from remaining open after an exec(3) call, be sure
     to set the close-on-exec flag is set:

     void
     pseudocode(void)
     {
             int fd;
             /* ... */

             fd = open("/path/to/sensitive/data", O_RDWR);
             if (fd == -1)
                     err(1, "open");

             /*
              * Set close-on-exec flag; see fcntl(2) for more information.
              */
             if (fcntl(fd, F_SETFD, FD_CLOEXEC) == -1)
                     err(1, "fcntl(F_SETFD)");
             /* ... */
             execve(path, argv, environ);
     }

SEE ALSO

     getgid(2), getuid(2), issetugid(2), setregid(2), setreuid(2)

STANDARDS

     The setuid() and setgid() system calls are compliant with the ISO/IEC
     9945-1:1990 (“POSIX.1”) specification with _POSIX_SAVED_IDS not defined
     with the permitted extensions from Appendix B.4.2.2.  The seteuid() and
     setegid() system calls are extensions based on the POSIX concept of
     _POSIX_SAVED_IDS, and have been proposed for a future revision of the
     standard.

HISTORY

     The setuid() and setgid() functions appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.