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NAME

       iconv - perform character set conversion

SYNOPSIS

       #include <iconv.h>

       size_t iconv(iconv_t cd,
                    char **inbuf, size_t *inbytesleft,
                    char **outbuf, size_t *outbytesleft);

DESCRIPTION

       The  argument  cd  must  be  a  conversion descriptor created using the
       function iconv_open(3).

       The main case is when inbuf is not NULL and *inbuf  is  not  NULL.   In
       this  case,  the  iconv()  function  converts  the  multibyte  sequence
       starting at *inbuf to a multibyte sequence  starting  at  *outbuf.   At
       most  *inbytesleft  bytes,  starting  at *inbuf, will be read.  At most
       *outbytesleft bytes, starting at *outbuf, will be written.

       The iconv() function converts one multibyte character at  a  time,  and
       for  each  character  conversion  it  increments  *inbuf and decrements
       *inbytesleft by the number of  converted  input  bytes,  it  increments
       *outbuf  and decrements *outbytesleft by the number of converted output
       bytes, and it updates the conversion state contained  in  cd.   If  the
       character  encoding  of the input is stateful, the iconv() function can
       also convert a sequence of input bytes to an update to  the  conversion
       state  without producing any output bytes; such input is called a shift
       sequence.  The conversion can stop for four reasons:

       1. An invalid multibyte sequence is encountered in the input.  In  this
       case  it  sets errno to EILSEQ and returns (size_t) -1.  *inbuf is left
       pointing to the beginning of the invalid multibyte sequence.

       2. The input byte  sequence  has  been  entirely  converted,  that  is,
       *inbytesleft  has  gone  down  to  0.  In this case iconv() returns the
       number of non-reversible conversions performed during this call.

       3. An incomplete multibyte sequence is encountered in  the  input,  and
       the  input  byte  sequence  terminates  after it.  In this case it sets
       errno to EINVAL and returns (size_t) -1.  *inbuf is  left  pointing  to
       the beginning of the incomplete multibyte sequence.

       4. The output buffer has no more room for the next converted character.
       In this case it sets errno to E2BIG and returns (size_t) -1.

       A different case is when inbuf is NULL or *inbuf is NULL, but outbuf is
       not  NULL  and *outbuf is not NULL.  In this case, the iconv() function
       attempts to set cd’s conversion state to the initial state and store  a
       corresponding  shift sequence at *outbuf.  At most *outbytesleft bytes,
       starting at *outbuf, will be written.  If the output buffer has no more
       room  for  this  reset  sequence,  it  sets  errno to E2BIG and returns
       (size_t) -1.   Otherwise   it   increments   *outbuf   and   decrements
       *outbytesleft by the number of bytes written.

       A  third  case  is  when inbuf is NULL or *inbuf is NULL, and outbuf is
       NULL or *outbuf is NULL.  In this case, the iconv() function sets  cd’s
       conversion state to the initial state.

RETURN VALUE

       The  iconv()  function  returns the number of characters converted in a
       non-reversible way during this call;  reversible  conversions  are  not
       counted.  In case of error, it sets errno and returns (size_t) -1.

ERRORS

       The following errors can occur, among others:

       E2BIG  There is not sufficient room at *outbuf.

       EILSEQ An invalid multibyte sequence has been encountered in the input.

       EINVAL An incomplete multibyte sequence has  been  encountered  in  the
              input.

VERSIONS

       This function is available in glibc since version 2.1.

CONFORMING TO

       POSIX.1-2001.

SEE ALSO

       iconv_close(3), iconv_open(3)

COLOPHON

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       description of the project, and information about reporting  bugs,  can
       be found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.