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NAME

     hwpmc - Hardware Performance Monitoring Counter support

SYNOPSIS

     options HWPMC_HOOKS
     device hwpmc

     Additionally, for i386 systems:
     device apic

DESCRIPTION

     The hwpmc driver virtualizes the hardware performance monitoring
     facilities in modern CPUs and provides support for using these facilities
     from user level processes.

     The driver supports multi-processor systems.

     PMCs are allocated using the PMC_OP_PMCALLOCATE request.  A successful
     PMC_OP_PMCALLOCATE request will return an integer handle to the
     requesting process.  Subsequent operations on the allocated PMC use this
     handle to denote the specific PMC.  A process that has successfully
     allocated a PMC is termed an “owner process”.

     PMCs may be allocated to operate in process-private or in system-wide
     modes.

     Process-private  In process-private mode, a PMC is active only when a
                      thread belonging to a process it is attached to is
                      scheduled on a CPU.

     System-wide      In system-wide mode, a PMC operates independently of
                      processes and measures hardware events for the system as
                      a whole.

     The hwpmc driver supports the use of hardware PMCs for counting or for
     sampling:

     Counting  In counting modes, the PMCs count hardware events.  These
               counts are retrievable using the PMC_OP_PMCREAD system call on
               all architectures.  Some architectures offer faster methods of
               reading these counts.

     Sampling  In sampling modes, the PMCs are configured to sample the CPU
               instruction pointer after a configurable number of hardware
               events have been observed.  These instruction pointer samples
               are usually directed to a log file for subsequent analysis.

     These modes of operation are orthogonal; a PMC may be configured to
     operate in one of four modes:

     Process-private, counting
             These PMCs count hardware events whenever a thread in their
             attached process is scheduled on a CPU.  These PMCs normally
             count from zero, but the initial count may be set using the
             PMC_OP_SETCOUNT operation.  Applications can read the value of
             the PMC anytime using the PMC_OP_PMCRW operation.

     Process-private, sampling
             These PMCs sample the target processes instruction pointer after
             they have seen the configured number of hardware events.  The
             PMCs only count events when a thread belonging to their attached
             process is active.  The desired frequency of sampling is set
             using the PMC_OP_SETCOUNT operation prior to starting the PMC.
             Log files are configured using the PMC_OP_CONFIGURELOG operation.

     System-wide, counting
             These PMCs count hardware events seen by them independent of the
             processes that are executing.  The current count on these PMCs
             can be read using the PMC_OP_PMCRW request.  These PMCs normally
             count from zero, but the initial count may be set using the
             PMC_OP_SETCOUNT operation.

     System-wide, sampling
             These PMCs will periodically sample the instruction pointer of
             the CPU they are allocated on, and will write the sample to a log
             for further processing.  The desired frequency of sampling is set
             using the PMC_OP_SETCOUNT operation prior to starting the PMC.
             Log files are configured using the PMC_OP_CONFIGURELOG operation.

             System-wide statistical sampling can only be enabled by a process
             with super-user privileges.

     Processes are allowed to allocate as many PMCs as the hardware and
     current operating conditions permit.  Processes may mix allocations of
     system-wide and process-private PMCs.  Multiple processes may be using
     PMCs simultaneously.

     Allocated PMCs are started using the PMC_OP_PMCSTART operation, and
     stopped using the PMC_OP_PMCSTOP operation.  Stopping and starting a PMC
     is permitted at any time the owner process has a valid handle to the PMC.

     Process-private PMCs need to be attached to a target process before they
     can be used.  Attaching a process to a PMC is done using the
     PMC_OP_PMCATTACH operation.  An already attached PMC may be detached from
     its target process using the converse PMC_OP_PMCDETACH operation.
     Issuing a PMC_OP_PMCSTART operation on an as yet unattached PMC will
     cause it to be attached to its owner process.  The following rules
     determine whether a given process may attach a PMC to another target
     process:
     ·   A non-jailed process with super-user privileges is allowed to attach
         to any other process in the system.
     ·   Other processes are only allowed to attach to targets that they would
         be able to attach to for debugging (as determined by p_candebug(9)).

     PMCs are released using PMC_OP_PMCRELEASE.  After a successful
     PMC_OP_PMCRELEASE operation the handle to the PMC will become invalid.

   Modifier Flags
     The PMC_OP_PMCALLOCATE operation supports the following flags that modify
     the behavior of an allocated PMC:

     PMC_F_DESCENDANTS
             This modifier is valid only for a PMC being allocated in process-
             private mode.  It signifies that the PMC will track hardware
             events for its target process and the target’s current and future
             descendants.

     PMC_F_KGMON
             This modifier is valid only for a PMC being allocated in system-
             wide sampling mode.  It signifies that the PMC’s sampling
             interrupt is to be used to drive kernel profiling via kgmon(8).

     PMC_F_LOG_PROCCSW
             This modifier is valid only for a PMC being allocated in process-
             private mode.  When this modifier is present, at every context
             switch, hwpmc will log a record containing the number of hardware
             events seen by the target process when it was scheduled on the
             CPU.

     PMC_F_LOG_PROCEXIT
             This modifier is valid only for a PMC being allocated in process-
             private mode.  With this modifier present, hwpmc will maintain
             per-process counts for each target process attached to a PMC.  At
             process exit time, a record containing the target process’ PID
             and the accumulated per-process count for that process will be
             written to the configured log file.

     Modifiers PMC_F_LOG_PROCEXIT and PMC_F_LOG_PROCCSW may be used in
     combination with modifier PMC_F_DESCENDANTS to track the behavior of
     complex pipelines of processes.  PMCs with modifiers PMC_F_LOG_PROCEXIT
     and PMC_F_LOG_PROCCSW cannot be started until their owner process has
     configured a log file.

   Signals
     The hwpmc driver may deliver signals to processes that have allocated
     PMCs:

     SIGIO   A PMC_OP_PMCRW operation was attempted on a process-private PMC
             that does not have attached target processes.

     SIGBUS  The hwpmc driver is being unloaded from the kernel.

PROGRAMMING API

     The recommended way for application programs to use the facilities of the
     hwpmc driver is using the API provided by the pmc(3) library.

     The hwpmc driver operates using a system call number that is dynamically
     allotted to it when it is loaded into the kernel.

     The hwpmc driver supports the following operations:

     PMC_OP_CONFIGURELOG
             Configure a log file for sampling mode PMCs.

     PMC_OP_FLUSHLOG
             Transfer buffered log data inside hwpmc to a configured output
             file.  This operation returns to the caller after the write
             operation has returned.

     PMC_OP_GETCPUINFO
             Retrieve information about the number of CPUs on the system and
             the number of hardware performance monitoring counters available
             per-CPU.

     PMC_OP_GETDRIVERSTATS
             Retrieve module statistics (for analyzing the behavior of hwpmc
             itself).

     PMC_OP_GETMODULEVERSION
             Retrieve the version number of API.

     PMC_OP_GETPMCINFO
             Retrieve information about the current state of the PMCs on a
             given CPU.

     PMC_OP_PMCADMIN
             Set the administrative state (i.e., whether enabled or disabled)
             for the hardware PMCs managed by the hwpmc driver.

     PMC_OP_PMCALLOCATE
             Allocate and configure a PMC.  On successful allocation, a handle
             to the PMC (a small integer) is returned.

     PMC_OP_PMCATTACH
             Attach a process mode PMC to a target process.  The PMC will be
             active whenever a thread in the target process is scheduled on a
             CPU.

             If the PMC_F_DESCENDANTS flag had been specified at PMC
             allocation time, then the PMC is attached to all current and
             future descendants of the target process.

     PMC_OP_PMCDETACH
             Detach a PMC from its target process.

     PMC_OP_PMCRELEASE
             Release a PMC.

     PMC_OP_PMCRW
             Read and write a PMC.  This operation is valid only for PMCs
             configured in counting modes.

     PMC_OP_SETCOUNT
             Set the initial count (for counting mode PMCs) or the desired
             sampling rate (for sampling mode PMCs).

     PMC_OP_PMCSTART
             Start a PMC.

     PMC_OP_PMCSTOP
             Stop a PMC.

     PMC_OP_WRITELOG
             Insert a timestamped user record into the log file.

   i386 Specific API
     Some i386 family CPUs support the RDPMC instruction which allows a user
     process to read a PMC value without needing to invoke a PMC_OP_PMCRW
     operation.  On such CPUs, the machine address associated with an
     allocated PMC is retrievable using the PMC_OP_PMCX86GETMSR system call.

     PMC_OP_PMCX86GETMSR
             Retrieve the MSR (machine specific register) number associated
             with the given PMC handle.

             The PMC needs to be in process-private mode and allocated without
             the PMC_F_DESCENDANTS modifier flag, and should be attached only
             to its owner process at the time of the call.

   amd64 Specific API
     AMD64 CPUs support the RDPMC instruction which allows a user process to
     read a PMC value without needing to invoke a PMC_OP_PMCRW operation.  The
     machine address associated with an allocated PMC is retrievable using the
     PMC_OP_PMCX86GETMSR system call.

     PMC_OP_PMCX86GETMSR
             Retrieve the MSR (machine specific register) number associated
             with the given PMC handle.

             The PMC needs to be in process-private mode and allocated without
             the PMC_F_DESCENDANTS modifier flag, and should be attached only
             to its owner process at the time of the call.

SYSCTL VARIABLES AND LOADER TUNABLES

     The behavior of hwpmc is influenced by the following sysctl(8) and
     loader(8) tunables:

     kern.hwpmc.debugflags (string, read-write)
             (Only available if the hwpmc driver was compiled with -DDEBUG.)
             Control the verbosity of debug messages from the hwpmc driver.

     kern.hwpmc.hashsize (integer, read-only)
             The number of rows in the hash tables used to keep track of owner
             and target processes.  The default is 16.

     kern.hwpmc.logbuffersize (integer, read-only)
             The size in kilobytes of each log buffer used by hwpmc’s logging
             function.  The default buffer size is 4KB.

     kern.hwpmc.mtxpoolsize (integer, read-only)
             The size of the spin mutex pool used by the PMC driver.  The
             default is 32.

     kern.hwpmc.nbuffers (integer, read-only)
             The number of log buffers used by hwpmc for logging.  The default
             is 16.

     kern.hwpmc.nsamples (integer, read-only)
             The number of entries in the per-CPU ring buffer used during
             sampling.  The default is 16.

     security.bsd.unprivileged_syspmcs (boolean, read-write)
             If set to non-zero, allow unprivileged processes to allocate
             system-wide PMCs.  The default value is 0.

     security.bsd.unprivileged_proc_debug (boolean, read-write)
             If set to 0, the hwpmc driver will only allow privileged
             processes to attach PMCs to other processes.

     These variables may be set in the kernel environment using kenv(1) before
     hwpmc is loaded.

SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS

     PMCs may be used to monitor the actual behavior of the system on
     hardware.  In situations where this constitutes an undesirable
     information leak, the following options are available:

     1.   Set the sysctl(8) tunable security.bsd.unprivileged_syspmcs to 0.
          This ensures that unprivileged processes cannot allocate system-wide
          PMCs and thus cannot observe the hardware behavior of the system as
          a whole.  This tunable may also be set at boot time using loader(8),
          or with kenv(1) prior to loading the hwpmc driver into the kernel.

     2.   Set the sysctl(8) tunable security.bsd.unprivileged_proc_debug to 0.
          This will ensure that an unprivileged process cannot attach a PMC to
          any process other than itself and thus cannot observe the hardware
          behavior of other processes with the same credentials.

     System administrators should note that on IA-32 platforms FreeBSD makes
     the content of the IA-32 TSC counter available to all processes via the
     RDTSC instruction.

IMPLEMENTATION NOTES

   SMP Symmetry
     The kernel driver requires all physical CPUs in an SMP system to have
     identical performance monitoring counter hardware.

   x86 TSC Handling
     Historically, on the x86 architecture, FreeBSD has permitted user
     processes running at a processor CPL of 3 to read the TSC using the RDTSC
     instruction.  The hwpmc driver preserves this behavior.

   Intel P4/HTT Handling
     On CPUs with HTT support, Intel P4 PMCs are capable of qualifying only a
     subset of hardware events on a per-logical CPU basis.  Consequently, if
     HTT is enabled on a system with Intel Pentium P4 PMCs, then the hwpmc
     driver will reject allocation requests for process-private PMCs that
     request counting of hardware events that cannot be counted separately for
     each logical CPU.

   Intel Pentium-Pro Handling
     Writing a value to the PMC MSRs found in Intel Pentium-Pro style PMCs
     (found in Intel Pentium Pro, Pentium II, Pentium III, Pentium M and
     Celeron processors) will replicate bit 31 of the value being written into
     the upper 8 bits of the MSR, bringing down the usable width of these PMCs
     to 31 bits.  For process-virtual PMCs, the hwpmc driver implements a
     workaround in software and makes the corrected 64 bit count available via
     the PMC_OP_RW operation.  Processes that intend to use RDPMC instructions
     directly or that intend to write values larger than 2^31 into these PMCs
     with PMC_OP_RW need to be aware of this hardware limitation.

DIAGNOSTICS

     hwpmc: [class/npmc/capabilities]...  Announce the presence of npmc PMCs
     of class class, with capabilities described by bit string capabilities.

     hwpmc: kernel version (0x%x) does not match module version (0x%x).  The
     module loading process failed because a version mismatch was detected
     between the currently executing kernel and the module being loaded.

     hwpmc: this kernel has not been compiled withoptions HWPMC_HOOKS.  The
     module loading process failed because the currently executing kernel was
     not configured with the required configuration option HWPMC_HOOKS.

     hwpmc: tunable hashsize=%d must be greater than zero.  A negative value
     was supplied for tunable kern.hwpmc.hashsize.

     hwpmc: tunable logbuffersize=%d must be greater than zero.  A negative
     value was supplied for tunable kern.hwpmc.logbuffersize.

     hwpmc: tunable nlogbuffers=%d must be greater than zero.  A negative
     value was supplied for tunable kern.hwpmc.nlogbuffers.

     hwpmc: tunable nsamples=%d out of range.  The value for tunable
     kern.hwpmc.nsamples was negative or greater than 65535.

COMPATIBILITY

     The hwpmc driver is currently under development.  The API and ABI
     documented in this manual page may change in the future.  The recommended
     method of accessing this driver is using the pmc(3) API.

ERRORS

     A command issued to the hwpmc driver may fail with the following errors:

     [EBUSY]            A PMC_OP_CONFIGURELOG operation was requested while an
                        existing log was active.

     [EBUSY]            A DISABLE operation was requested using the
                        PMC_OP_PMCADMIN request for a set of hardware
                        resources currently in use for process-private PMCs.

     [EBUSY]            A PMC_OP_PMCADMIN operation was requested on an active
                        system mode PMC.

     [EBUSY]            A PMC_OP_PMCATTACH operation was requested for a
                        target process that already had another PMC using the
                        same hardware resources attached to it.

     [EBUSY]            A PMC_OP_PMCRW request writing a new value was issued
                        on a PMC that was active.

     [EBUSY]            A PMC_OP_PMCSETCOUNT request was issued on a PMC that
                        was active.

     [EDOOFUS]          A PMC_OP_PMCSTART operation was requested without a
                        log file being configured for a PMC allocated with
                        PMC_F_LOG_PROCCSW and PMC_F_LOG_PROCEXIT modifiers.

     [EEXIST]           A PMC_OP_PMCATTACH request was reissued for a target
                        process that already is the target of this PMC.

     [EFAULT]           A bad address was passed in to the driver.

     [EINVAL]           A process specified an invalid PMC handle.

     [EINVAL]           An invalid CPU number was passed in for a
                        PMC_OP_GETPMCINFO operation.

     [EINVAL]           An invalid CPU number was passed in for a
                        PMC_OP_PMCADMIN operation.

     [EINVAL]           An invalid operation request was passed in for a
                        PMC_OP_PMCADMIN operation.

     [EINVAL]           An invalid PMC ID was passed in for a PMC_OP_PMCADMIN
                        operation.

     [EINVAL]           A suitable PMC matching the parameters passed in to a
                        PMC_OP_PMCALLOCATE request could not be allocated.

     [EINVAL]           An invalid PMC mode was requested during a
                        PMC_OP_PMCALLOCATE request.

     [EINVAL]           An invalid CPU number was specified during a
                        PMC_OP_PMCALLOCATE request.

     [EINVAL]           A CPU other than PMC_CPU_ANY was specified in a
                        PMC_OP_ALLOCATE request for a process-private PMC.

     [EINVAL]           A CPU number of PMC_CPU_ANY was specified in a
                        PMC_OP_ALLOCATE request for a system-wide PMC.

     [EINVAL]           The pm_flags argument to an PMC_OP_PMCALLOCATE request
                        contained unknown flags.

     [EINVAL]           A PMC allocated for system-wide operation was
                        specified with a PMC_OP_PMCATTACH request.

     [EINVAL]           The pm_pid argument to a PMC_OP_PMCATTACH request
                        specified an illegal process ID.

     [EINVAL]           A PMC_OP_PMCDETACH request was issued for a PMC not
                        attached to the target process.

     [EINVAL]           Argument pm_flags to a PMC_OP_PMCRW request contained
                        illegal flags.

     [EINVAL]           A PMC_OP_PMCX86GETMSR operation was requested for a
                        PMC not in process-virtual mode, or for a PMC that is
                        not solely attached to its owner process, or for a PMC
                        that was allocated with flag PMC_F_DESCENDANTS.

     [EINVAL]           (On Intel Pentium 4 CPUs with HTT support) An
                        allocation request for a process-private PMC was
                        issued for an event that does not support counting on
                        a per-logical CPU basis.

     [ENOMEM]           The system was not able to allocate kernel memory.

     [ENOSYS]           (i386 architectures) A PMC_OP_PMCX86GETMSR operation
                        was requested for hardware that does not support
                        reading PMCs directly with the RDPMC instruction.

     [ENXIO]            A PMC_OP_GETPMCINFO operation was requested for a
                        disabled CPU.

     [ENXIO]            A system-wide PMC on a disabled CPU was requested to
                        be allocated with PMC_OP_PMCALLOCATE.

     [ENXIO]            A PMC_OP_PMCSTART or PMC_OP_PMCSTOP request was issued
                        for a system-wide PMC that was allocated on a
                        currently disabled CPU.

     [EOPNOTSUPP]       A PMC_OP_PMCALLOCATE request was issued for PMC
                        capabilities not supported by the specified PMC class.

     [EOPNOTSUPP]       (i386 architectures) A sampling mode PMC was requested
                        on a CPU lacking an APIC.

     [EPERM]            A PMC_OP_PMCADMIN request was issued by a process
                        without super-user privilege or by a jailed super-user
                        process.

     [EPERM]            A PMC_OP_PMCATTACH operation was issued for a target
                        process that the current process does not have
                        permission to attach to.

     [EPERM]            (i386 and amd64 architectures) A PMC_OP_PMCATTACH
                        operation was issued on a PMC whose MSR has been
                        retrieved using PMC_OP_PMCX86GETMSR.

     [ESRCH]            A process issued a PMC operation request without
                        having allocated any PMCs.

     [ESRCH]            A process issued a PMC operation request after the PMC
                        was detached from all of its target processes.

     [ESRCH]            A PMC_OP_PMCATTACH request specified a non-existent
                        process ID.

     [ESRCH]            The target process for a PMC_OP_PMCDETACH operation is
                        not being monitored by the hwpmc driver.

SEE ALSO

     kenv(1), pmc(3), pmclog(3), kgmon(8), kldload(8), pmccontrol(8),
     pmcstat(8), sysctl(8), p_candebug(9)

HISTORY

     The hwpmc driver first appeared in FreeBSD 6.0.

BUGS

     The driver samples the state of the kernel’s logical processor support at
     the time of initialization (i.e., at module load time).  On CPUs
     supporting logical processors, the driver could misbehave if logical
     processors are subsequently enabled or disabled while the driver is
     active.

     On the i386 architecture, the driver requires that the local APIC on the
     CPU be enabled for sampling mode to be supported.  Many single-processor
     motherboards keep the APIC disabled in BIOS; on such systems hwpmc will
     not support sampling PMCs.