Provided by: bsdgames_2.17-16_i386 bug

NAME

       sail - multi-user wooden ships and iron men

SYNOPSIS

       sail [ -s [ -l ] ] [ -x ] [ -b ] [ num ]

DESCRIPTION

       Sail  is  a  computer  version  of  Avalon Hill’s game of fighting sail
       originally developed by S. Craig Taylor.

       Players of Sail take command of an old fashioned Man of War  and  fight
       other  players  or  the  computer.   They  may re-enact one of the many
       historical sea battles recorded in the  game,  or  they  can  choose  a
       fictional battle.

       As a sea captain in the Sail Navy, the player has complete control over
       the workings of his ship.  He must order every maneuver, change the set
       of  his  sails,  and  judge  the right moment to let loose the terrible
       destruction of his broadsides.  In addition to fighting the  enemy,  he
       must  harness the powers of the wind and sea to make them work for him.
       The outcome of many battles during the age of sail was decided  by  the
       ability of one captain to hold the ‘weather gage.’

       The flags are:

       -s     Print the names and ships of the top ten sailors.

       -l     Show the login name.  Only effective with -s.

       -x     Play the first available ship instead of prompting for a choice.

       -b     No bells.

IMPLEMENTATION

       Sail is really two programs in one.  Each player starts  up  a  process
       which  runs  his own ship.  In addition, a driver process is forked (by
       the first player) to run the computer ships and  take  care  of  global
       bookkeeping.

       Because  the driver must calculate moves for each ship it controls, the
       more ships the computer is playing, the slower the game will appear.

       If a player joins a game in progress,  he  will  synchronize  with  the
       other  players  (a  rather  slow process for everyone), and then he may
       play along with the rest.

       To implement a multi-user  game  in  Version  7  UNIX,  which  was  the
       operating  system  Sail  was  first  written  under,  the communicating
       processes must use a common temporary file as a place to read and write
       messages.   In addition, a locking mechanism must be provided to ensure
       exclusive access  to  the  shared  file.   For  example,  Sail  uses  a
       temporary   file   named   /tmp/#sailsink.21   for   scenario  21,  and
       corresponding file names for the other scenarios.  To provide exclusive
       access  to the temporary file, Sail uses a technique stolen from an old
       game called "pubcaves" by Jeff Cohen.  Processes do a busy wait in  the
       loop

                  for (n = 0; link(sync_file, sync_lock)  0  n  30; n++)
                                           sleep(2);

       until   they   are   able   to   create   a   link   to  a  file  named
       "/tmp/#saillock.??".  The "??" correspond to the scenario number of the
       game.   Since  UNIX guarantees that a link will point to only one file,
       the process that succeeds in linking will have exclusive access to  the
       temporary file.

       Whether  or not this really works is open to speculation.  When ucbmiro
       was rebooted after a crash, the file system check program found 3 links
       between the Sail temporary file and its link file.

CONSEQUENCES OF SEPARATE PLAYER AND DRIVER PROCESSES

       When players do something of global interest, such as moving or firing,
       the driver must coordinate the action with the other ships in the game.
       For  example,  if  a  player  wants  to move in a certain direction, he
       writes a message into the temporary file requesting the driver to  move
       his  ship.   Each ‘‘turn,’’ the driver reads all the messages sent from
       the players and decides what happened.  It then writes  back  into  the
       temporary file new values of variables, etc.

       The  most  noticeable  effect this communication has on the game is the
       delay in moving.  Suppose a player types a move for his ship  and  hits
       return.  What happens then?  The player process saves up messages to be
       written to the temporary file in a buffer.  Every 7 seconds or so,  the
       player  process  gets exclusive access to the temporary file and writes
       out its buffer to the file.  The driver, running  asynchronously,  must
       read  in  the  movement command, process it, and write out the results.
       This takes two exclusive accesses to the temporary file.  Finally, when
       the  player  process  gets around to doing another 7 second update, the
       results of the move are displayed on the screen.  Hence, every movement
       requires four exclusive accesses to the temporary file (anywhere from 7
       to 21 seconds depending upon asynchrony) before  the  player  sees  the
       results of his moves.

       In  practice,  the  delays  are  not  as annoying as they would appear.
       There is room for "pipelining"  in  the  movement.   After  the  player
       writes out a first movement message, a second movement command can then
       be issued.  The first message will be in the temporary file waiting for
       the  driver,  and  the  second will be in the file buffer waiting to be
       written to the file.  Thus, by always typing moves a turn ahead of  the
       time, the player can sail around quite quickly.

       If  the  player  types  several  movement commands between two 7 second
       updates, only the last movement command  typed  will  be  seen  by  the
       driver.   Movement  commands  within  the  same update "overwrite" each
       other, in a sense.

THE HISTORY OF SAIL

       I wrote the first version of Sail on a PDP-11/70 in the fall  of  1980.
       Needless  to say, the code was horrendous, not portable in any sense of
       the word, and didn’t work.  The program was not very  modular  and  had
       fseeks()  and  fwrites()  every  few lines.  After a tremendous rewrite
       from the top down, I got the first working version up by  1981.   There
       were  several  annoying  bugs  concerning firing broadsides and finding
       angles.  Sail uses no floating point, by  the  way,  so  the  direction
       routines are rather tricky.  Ed Wang rewrote my angle() routine in 1981
       to be more correct (although it still doesn’t work perfectly),  and  he
       added  code to let a player select which ship he wanted at the start of
       the game (instead of the first one available).

       Captain Happy (Craig Leres) is responsible for making Sail portable for
       the  first  time.  This was no easy task, by the way.  Constants like 2
       and 10 were very frequent in the code.  I also became famous for  using
       "Riggle  Memorial Structures" in Sail.  Many of my structure references
       are so long that they run off  the  line  printer  page.   Here  is  an
       example, if you promise not to laugh.

             specs[scene[flog.fgamenum].ship[flog.fshipnum].shipnum].pts

       Sail  received  its  fourth and most thorough rewrite in the summer and
       fall of 1983.  Ed Wang rewrote and modularized the code  (a  monumental
       feat)  almost  from scratch.  Although he introduced many new bugs, the
       final result was very much cleaner and (?)  faster.   He  added  window
       movement commands and find ship commands.

HISTORICAL INFO

       Old  Square  Riggers  were very maneuverable ships capable of intricate
       sailing.  Their only disadvantage was an inability to sail  very  close
       to  the wind.  The design of a wooden ship allowed only for the guns to
       bear to the left and right sides.  A few guns of small aspect  (usually
       6  or  9  pounders)  could  point  forward,  but their effect was small
       compared to a 68 gun broadside of 24 or 32  pounders.   The  guns  bear
       approximately like so:

              \
               b----------------
           ---0
               \
                \
                 \     up to a range of ten (for round shot)
                  \
                   \
                    \

       An  interesting phenomenon occurred when a broadside was fired down the
       length of an enemy ship.  The shot tended to bounce along the deck  and
       did  several  times  more  damage.   This phenomenon was called a rake.
       Because the bows of a ship are very strong and present a smaller target
       than  the stern, a stern rake (firing from the stern to the bow) causes
       more damage than a bow rake.

                               b
                              00   ----  Stern rake!
                                a

       Most ships were equipped with carronades, which were very large,  close
       range  cannons.   American  ships  from the revolution until the War of
       1812 were almost entirely armed with carronades.

       The period of history covered in Sail is approximately from the  1770’s
       until  the  end of Napoleonic France in 1815.  There are many excellent
       books about the age of sail.  My favorite author is  Captain  Frederick
       Marryat.  More contemporary authors include C.S. Forester and Alexander
       Kent.

       Fighting  ships  came  in  several  sizes  classed  by  armament.   The
       mainstays of any fleet were its "Ships of the Line", or "Line of Battle
       Ships".  They were so named because  these  ships  fought  together  in
       great lines.  They were close enough for mutual support, yet every ship
       could fire both its broadsides.  We get the modern words "ocean liner,"
       or  "liner," and "battleship" from "ship of the line."  The most common
       size was the 74 gun two decked ship of the line.   The  two  gun  decks
       usually mounted 18 and 24 pounder guns.

       The  pride  of  the  fleet were the first rates.  These were huge three
       decked ships of the line mounting 80 to 136  guns.   The  guns  in  the
       three tiers were usually 18, 24, and 32 pounders in that order from top
       to bottom.

       Various other ships came next.  They were almost all "razees," or ships
       of  the line with one deck sawed off.  They mounted 40-64 guns and were
       a poor cross between a frigate and a line of battle ship.  They neither
       had the speed of the former nor the firepower of the latter.

       Next  came  the  "eyes  of  the  fleet."   Frigates  came in many sizes
       mounting anywhere from 32 to 44 guns.  They were  very  handy  vessels.
       They  could  outsail  anything  bigger  and  outshoot anything smaller.
       Frigates didn’t fight in lines of battle as the much bigger  74’s  did.
       Instead,  they  harassed  the  enemy’s rear or captured crippled ships.
       They were much more useful in missions away from  the  fleet,  such  as
       cutting  out  expeditions or boat actions.  They could hit hard and get
       away fast.

       Lastly, there were  the  corvettes,  sloops,  and  brigs.   These  were
       smaller  ships  mounting  typically fewer than 20 guns.  A corvette was
       only slightly smaller than a frigate, so one might have up to 30  guns.
       Sloops  were  used  for  carrying dispatches or passengers.  Brigs were
       something you built for land-locked lakes.

SAIL PARTICULARS

       Ships in  Sail  are  represented  by  two  characters.   One  character
       represents  the  bow  of  the ship, and the other represents the stern.
       Ships have nationalities and numbers.  The first ship of a  nationality
       is  number  0,  the second number 1, etc.  Therefore, the first British
       ship in a game would be printed as "b0".   The  second  Brit  would  be
       "b1", and the fifth Don would be "s4".

       Ships  can  set  normal  sails,  called  Battle Sails, or bend on extra
       canvas called Full Sails.  A ship under full sail is a beautiful  sight
       indeed,  and  it  can  move much faster than a ship under Battle Sails.
       The only trouble is, with full sails set, there is so much  tension  on
       sail  and  rigging  that  a well aimed round shot can burst a sail into
       ribbons where it would only cause a little hole in a loose  sail.   For
       this  reason,  rigging damage is doubled on a ship with full sails set.
       Don’t let that discourage you from using full sails.  I  like  to  keep
       them  up right into the heat of battle.  A ship with full sails set has
       a capital letter for its nationality.  E.g., a Frog,  "f0",  with  full
       sails set would be printed as "F0".

       When  a  ship  is  battered  into  a  listing hulk, the last man aboard
       "strikes the colors."  This ceremony is the  ship’s  formal  surrender.
       The  nationality  character  of  a  surrendered ship is printed as "!".
       E.g., the Frog of our last example would soon be "!0".

       A ship has a random chance of catching fire or sinking when it  reaches
       the  stage  of  listing hulk.  A sinking ship has a "~" printed for its
       nationality, and a ship on fire and about to explode has a "#" printed.

       Captured ships become the nationality of the prize crew.  Therefore, if
       an American ship captures a British ship, the British ship will have an
       "a"  printed  for  its  nationality.   In  addition, the ship number is
       changed to "","’", "(", ,")", "*", or "+" depending upon  the  original
       number,  be it 0,1,2,3,4, or 5.  E.g., the "b0" captured by an American
       becomes the "a".  The "s4" captured by a Frog becomes the "f*".

       The ultimate example is, of course, an exploding Brit  captured  by  an
       American: "#".

MOVEMENT

       Movement is the most confusing part of Sail to many.  Ships can head in
       8 directions:

                                        0      0      0
               b       b       b0      b       b       b       0b      b
               0        0                                             0

       The stern of a ship moves when it turns.  The bow  remains  stationary.
       Ships  can  always  turn,  regardless  of  the  wind  (unless  they are
       becalmed).  All ships drift when they lose headway.  If a ship  doesn’t
       move  forward  at all for two turns, it will begin to drift.  If a ship
       has begun to drift, then it must move forward before it  turns,  if  it
       plans  to  do  more  than  make  a  right or left turn, which is always
       possible.

       Movement commands to Sail are a string of forward moves and turns.   An
       example  is  "l3".   It  will turn a ship left and then move it ahead 3
       spaces.  In the drawing above, the "b0" made 7 successive  left  turns.
       When Sail prompts you for a move, it prints three characters of import.
       E.g.,
            move (7, 4):
       The first number is the maximum number of moves you can make, including
       turns.   The second number is the maximum number of turns you can make.
       Between the numbers is sometimes printed a quote "’".  If the quote  is
       present,  it  means that your ship has been drifting, and you must move
       ahead to regain headway before you turn (see note above).  Some of  the
       possible moves for the example above are as follows:

            move (7, 4): 7
            move (7, 4): 1
            move (7, 4): d      /* drift, or do nothing */
            move (7, 4): 6r
            move (7, 4): 5r1
            move (7, 4): 4r1r
            move (7, 4): l1r1r2
            move (7, 4): 1r1r1r1

       Because square riggers performed so poorly sailing into the wind, if at
       any point in a movement command you turn into the  wind,  the  movement
       stops there.  E.g.,

            move (7, 4): l1l4
            Movement Error;
            Helm: l1l

       Moreover,  whenever  you  make a turn, your movement allowance drops to
       min(what’s left, what you would have at the new attitude).   In  short,
       if  you  turn closer to the wind, you most likely won’t be able to sail
       the full allowance printed in the "move" prompt.

       Old sailing captains had  to  keep  an  eye  constantly  on  the  wind.
       Captains in Sail are no different.  A ship’s ability to move depends on
       its attitude to the wind.  The best angle possible is to have the  wind
       off  your  quarter, that is, just off the stern.  The direction rose on
       the side of the screen gives the possible movements for  your  ship  at
       all  positions  to  the  wind.  Battle sail speeds are given first, and
       full sail speeds are given in parenthesis.

                            0 1(2)
                           \|/
                           -^-3(6)
                           /|\
                            | 4(7)
                           3(6)

       Pretend the bow of your ship (the "^") is pointing upward and the  wind
       is  blowing from the bottom to the top of the page.  The numbers at the
       bottom "3(6)" will be your speed under battle or full sails in  such  a
       situation.   If the wind is off your quarter, then you can move "4(7)".
       If the wind is off your beam, "3(6)".  If the wind  is  off  your  bow,
       then you can only move "1(2)".  Facing into the wind, you can’t move at
       all.  Ships facing into the wind were said to be "in irons".

WINDSPEED AND DIRECTION

       The windspeed and direction is displayed as a little  weather  vane  on
       the side of the screen.  The number in the middle of the vane indicates
       the wind speed, and the + to - indicates the wind direction.  The  wind
       blows  from  the  +  sign (high pressure) to the - sign (low pressure).
       E.g.,

                           |
                           3
                           +

       The wind speeds are 0 = becalmed,  1  =  light  breeze,  2  =  moderate
       breeze, 3 = fresh breeze, 4 = strong breeze, 5 = gale, 6 = full gale, 7
       = hurricane.  If a hurricane shows up, all ships are destroyed.

GRAPPLING AND FOULING

       If two ships collide, they run the risk of becoming  tangled  together.
       This is called "fouling."  Fouled ships are stuck together, and neither
       can move.  They can unfoul  each  other  if  they  want  to.   Boarding
       parties  can  only  be  sent  across  to ships when the antagonists are
       either fouled or grappled.

       Ships can grapple each other by throwing grapnels into the  rigging  of
       the other.

       The  number  of  fouls and grapples you have are displayed on the upper
       right of the screen.

BOARDING

       Boarding was a very costly venture in terms of  human  life.   Boarding
       parties  may  be  formed  in  Sail  to either board an enemy ship or to
       defend your own  ship  against  attack.   Men  organized  as  Defensive
       Boarding  Parties  fight  twice  as hard to save their ship as men left
       unorganized.

       The boarding strength of a crew depends upon its quality and  upon  the
       number of men sent.

CREW QUALITY

       The  British  seaman  was  world  renowned  for  his sailing abilities.
       American sailors, however, were actually the best seamen in the  world.
       Because  the  American  Navy offered twice the wages of the Royal Navy,
       British seamen who liked the sea defected to America by the  thousands.

       In Sail, crew quality is quantized into 5 energy levels.  "Elite" crews
       can outshoot and outfight all other sailors.  "Crack" crews  are  next.
       "Mundane" crews are average, and "Green" and "Mutinous" crews are below
       average.  A good rule of thumb is that "Crack" or "Elite" crews get one
       extra  hit per broadside compared to "Mundane" crews.  Don’t expect too
       much from "Green" crews.

BROADSIDES

       Your two broadsides may be loaded  with  four  kinds  of  shot:  grape,
       chain,  round,  and  double.   You have guns and carronades in both the
       port and starboard batteries.  Carronades only have a range of two,  so
       you  have to get in close to be able to fire them.  You have the choice
       of firing at the hull or rigging of another ship.  If the range of  the
       ship is greater than 6, then you may only shoot at the rigging.

       The types of shot and their advantages are:

ROUND

       Range of 10.  Good for hull or rigging hits.

DOUBLE

       Range  of  1.   Extra  good for hull or rigging hits.  Double takes two
       turns to load.

CHAIN

       Range of 3.  Excellent for tearing down rigging.  Cannot damage hull or
       guns, though.

GRAPE

       Range of 1.  Sometimes devastating against enemy crews.

       On  the  side  of  the screen is displayed some vital information about
       your ship:

                      Load  D! R!
                      Hull  9
                      Crew  4  4  2
                      Guns  4  4
                      Carr  2  2
                      Rigg  5 5 5 5

       "Load" shows what your port (left) and starboard (right) broadsides are
       loaded  with.   A  "!"  after  the type of shot indicates that it is an
       initial broadside.  Initial broadside  were  loaded  with  care  before
       battle  and  before  the  decks  ran red with blood.  As a consequence,
       initial broadsides are a little more effective than  broadsides  loaded
       later.   A  "*" after the type of shot indicates that the gun crews are
       still loading it, and you cannot fire yet.  "Hull" shows how much  hull
       you have left.  "Crew" shows your three sections of crew.  As your crew
       dies off, your ability to fire decreases.  "Guns" and "Carr" show  your
       port  and  starboard  guns.   As  you  lose  guns, your ability to fire
       decreases.  "Rigg" shows how much rigging you  have  on  your  3  or  4
       masts.  As rigging is shot away, you lose mobility.

EFFECTIVENESS OF FIRE

       It  is  very  dramatic when a ship fires its thunderous broadsides, but
       the mere opportunity to fire them does not guarantee  any  hits.   Many
       factors  influence the destructive force of a broadside.  First of all,
       and the chief factor, is distance.  It is harder to hit a ship at range
       ten  than it is to hit one sloshing alongside.  Next is raking.  Raking
       fire, as mentioned before, can sometimes dismast a ship at  range  ten.
       Next,  crew  size  and  quality affects the damage done by a broadside.
       The number of guns firing  also  bears  on  the  point,  so  to  speak.
       Lastly,  weather  affects the accuracy of a broadside.  If the seas are
       high (5 or 6), then the lower gunports of ships of the line can’t  even
       be  opened  to  run  out the guns.  This gives frigates and other flush
       decked vessels an advantage in a storm.  The scenario  Pellew  vs.  The
       Droits de LHomme takes advantage of this peculiar circumstance.

REPAIRS

       Repairs may be made to your Hull, Guns, and Rigging at the slow rate of
       two points per three turns.  The message "Repairs  Completed"  will  be
       printed if no more repairs can be made.

PECULIARITIES OF COMPUTER SHIPS

       Computer  ships  in  Sail  follow  all  the  rules  above  with  a  few
       exceptions.  Computer ships never repair  damage.   If  they  did,  the
       players  could  never beat them.  They play well enough as it is.  As a
       consolation, the computer ships can fire double shot every turn.   That
       fluke  is  a good reason to keep your distance.  The Driver figures out
       the moves of the computer ships.  It computes them with a typical  A.I.
       distance function and a depth first search to find the maximum "score."
       It seems to work fairly well, although I’ll be the first  to  admit  it
       isn’t perfect.

HOW TO PLAY

       Commands are given to Sail by typing a single character.  You will then
       be prompted for  further  input.   A  brief  summary  of  the  commands
       follows.

COMMAND SUMMARY

           ’f’  Fire broadsides if they bear
           ’l’  Reload
           ’L’  Unload broadsides (to change ammo)
           ’m’  Move
           ’i’  Print the closest ship
           ’I’  Print all ships
           ’F’  Find a particular ship or ships (e.g. "a?" for all Americans)
           ’s’  Send a message around the fleet
           ’b’  Attempt to board an enemy ship
           ’B’  Recall boarding parties
           ’c’  Change set of sail
           ’r’  Repair
           ’u’  Attempt to unfoul
           ’g’  Grapple/ungrapple
           ’v’  Print version number of game
          ’^L’  Redraw screen
           ’Q’  Quit

           ’C’      Center your ship in the window
           ’U’        Move window up
           ’D’,’N’  Move window down
           ’H’        Move window left
           ’J’        Move window right
           ’S’      Toggle window to follow your ship or stay where it is

SCENARIOS

       Here is a summary of the scenarios in Sail:

Ranger vs. Drake:

       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Ranger            19 gun Sloop (crack crew) (7 pts)
       (b) Drake             17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (6 pts)

The Battle of Flamborough Head:

       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       This  is  John  Paul  Jones’  first famous battle.  Aboard the Bonhomme
       Richard, he was able to overcome the  Serapis’s  greater  firepower  by
       quickly boarding her.

       (a) Bonhomme Rich     42 gun Corvette (crack crew) (11 pts)
       (b) Serapis           44 gun Frigate (crack crew) (12 pts)

Arbuthnot and Des Touches:

       Wind from the N, blowing a gale.

       (b) America           64 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (20 pts)
       (b) Befford           74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (b) Adamant           50 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (b) London            98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
       (b) Royal Oak         74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (f) Neptune           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Duc de Bourgogne  80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Conquerant        74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Provence          64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
       (f) Romulus           44 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (10 pts)

Suffren and Hughes:

       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Monmouth          74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Hero              74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (b) Isis              50 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (b) Superb            74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
       (b) Burford           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Flamband          50 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (14 pts)
       (f) Annibal           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Severe            64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
       (f) Brilliant         80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
       (f) Sphinx            80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)

Nymphe vs. Cleopatre:

       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Nymphe            36 gun Frigate (crack crew) (11 pts)
       (f) Cleopatre         36 gun Frigate (average crew) (10 pts)

Mars vs. Hercule:

       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.
       (b) Mars              74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (f) Hercule           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (23 pts)

Ambuscade vs. Baionnaise:

       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Ambuscade         32 gun Frigate (average crew) (9 pts)
       (f) Baionnaise        24 gun Corvette (average crew) (9 pts)

Constellation vs. Insurgent:

       Wind from the S, blowing a gale.

       (a) Constellation     38 gun Corvette (elite crew) (17 pts)
       (f) Insurgent         36 gun Corvette (average crew) (11 pts)

Constellation vs. Vengeance:

       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Constellation     38 gun Corvette (elite crew) (17 pts)
       (f) Vengeance         40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)

The Battle of Lissa:

       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Amphion           32 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
       (b) Active            38 gun Frigate (elite crew) (18 pts)
       (b) Volage            22 gun Frigate (elite crew) (11 pts)
       (b) Cerberus          32 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
       (f) Favorite          40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
       (f) Flore             40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
       (f) Danae             40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (f) Bellona           32 gun Frigate (green crew) (9 pts)
       (f) Corona            40 gun Frigate (green crew) (12 pts)
       (f) Carolina          32 gun Frigate (green crew) (7 pts)

Constitution vs. Guerriere:

       Wind from the SW, blowing a gale.

       (a) Constitution      44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Guerriere         38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (15 pts)

United States vs. Macedonian:

       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) United States     44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Macedonian        38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (16 pts)

Constitution vs. Java:

       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Constitution      44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Java              38 gun Corvette (crack crew) (19 pts)

Chesapeake vs. Shannon:

       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Chesapeake        38 gun Frigate (average crew) (14 pts)
       (b) Shannon           38 gun Frigate (elite crew) (17 pts)

The Battle of Lake Erie:

       Wind from the S, blowing a light breeze.

       (a) Lawrence          20 gun Sloop (crack crew) (9 pts)
       (a) Niagara           20 gun Sloop (elite crew) (12 pts)
       (b) Lady Prevost      13 gun Brig (crack crew) (5 pts)
       (b) Detroit           19 gun Sloop (crack crew) (7 pts)
       (b) Q. Charlotte      17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (6 pts)

Wasp vs. Reindeer:

       Wind from the S, blowing a light breeze.

       (a) Wasp              20 gun Sloop (elite crew) (12 pts)
       (b) Reindeer          18 gun Sloop (elite crew) (9 pts)

Constitution vs. Cyane and Levant:

       Wind from the S, blowing a moderate breeze.

       (a)  Constitution       44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts) (b) Cyane
       24 gun Sloop (crack crew) (11 pts) (b) Levant            20  gun  Sloop
       (crack crew) (10 pts)

Pellew vs. Droits de LHomme:
       Wind from the N, blowing a gale.

       (b) Indefatigable     44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (14 pts)
       (b) Amazon            36 gun Frigate (crack crew) (14 pts)
       (f) Droits L’Hom      74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)

Algeciras:

       Wind from the SW, blowing a moderate breeze.

       (b) Caesar            80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
       (b) Pompee            74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
       (b) Spencer           74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (b) Hannibal          98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
       (s) Real-Carlos       112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
       (s) San Fernando      96 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (24 pts)
       (s) Argonauta         80 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (23 pts)
       (s) San Augustine     74 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (20 pts)
       (f) Indomptable       80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Desaix            74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)

Lake Champlain:

       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Saratoga          26 gun Sloop (crack crew) (12 pts)
       (a) Eagle             20 gun Sloop (crack crew) (11 pts)
       (a) Ticonderoga       17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (9 pts)
       (a) Preble            7 gun Brig (crack crew) (4 pts)
       (b) Confiance         37 gun Frigate (crack crew) (14 pts)
       (b) Linnet            16 gun Sloop (elite crew) (10 pts)
       (b) Chubb             11 gun Brig (crack crew) (5 pts)

Last Voyage of the USS President:

       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) President         44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Endymion          40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (b) Pomone            44 gun Frigate (crack crew) (20 pts)
       (b) Tenedos           38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (15 pts)

Hornblower and the Natividad:

       Wind from the E, blowing a gale.

       A scenario for you Horny fans.  Remember, he sank the Natividad against
       heavy odds and winds.  Hint: don’t try to board the Natividad, her crew
       is much bigger, albeit green.

       (b) Lydia             36 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
       (s) Natividad         50 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (14 pts)

Curse of the Flying Dutchman:

       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       Just for fun, take the Piece of cake.

       (s) Piece of Cake     24 gun Corvette (average crew) (9 pts)
       (f) Flying Dutchy     120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)

The South Pacific:

       Wind from the S, blowing a strong breeze.

       (a) USS Scurvy        136 gun 3 Decker SOL (mutinous crew) (27 pts)
       (b) HMS Tahiti        120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
       (s) Australian        32 gun Frigate (average crew) (9 pts)
       (f) Bikini Atoll      7 gun Brig (crack crew) (4 pts)

Hornblower and the battle of Rosas bay:

       Wind from the E, blowing a fresh breeze.

       The  only battle Hornblower ever lost.  He was able to dismast one ship
       and stern rake the others though.  See if you can do as well.

       (b) Sutherland        74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (f) Turenne           80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Nightmare         74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Paris             112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Napoleon          74 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (20 pts)

Cape Horn:

       Wind from the NE, blowing a strong breeze.

       (a) Concord           80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
       (a) Berkeley          98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
       (b) Thames            120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
       (s) Madrid            112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Musket            80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)

New Orleans:

       Wind from the SE, blowing a fresh breeze.

       Watch that little Cypress go!

       (a) Alligator         120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
       (b) Firefly           74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
       (b) Cypress           44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (14 pts)

Botany Bay:

       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Shark             64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
       (f) Coral Snake       44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Sea Lion          44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)

Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea:

       Wind from the NW, blowing a fresh breeze.

       This one is dedicated to Richard Basehart and David Hedison.

       (a) Seaview           120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
       (a) Flying Sub        40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (b) Mermaid           136 gun 3 Decker SOL (mutinous crew) (27 pts)
       (s) Giant Squid       112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)

Frigate Action:

       Wind from the E, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Killdeer          40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
       (b) Sandpiper         40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
       (s) Curlew            38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (16 pts)

The Battle of Midway:

       Wind from the E, blowing a moderate breeze.

       (a) Enterprise        80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
       (a) Yorktown          80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
       (a) Hornet            74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (j) Akagi             112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
       (j) Kaga              96 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (24 pts)
       (j) Soryu             80 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (23 pts)

Star Trek:

       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Enterprise        450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (a) Yorktown          450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (a) Reliant           450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (a) Galileo           450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (k) Kobayashi Maru    450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (k) Klingon II        450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (o) Red Orion         450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (o) Blue Orion        450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)

CONCLUSION

       Sail has been a group effort.

AUTHOR

       Dave Riggle

CO-AUTHOR

       Ed Wang

REFITTING

       Craig Leres

CONSULTANTS

       Chris Guthrie
       Captain Happy
       Horatio Nelson
            and many valiant others...

REFERENCES

       Wooden Ships  Iron Men, by Avalon Hill
       Captain Horatio Hornblower Novels, (13 of them) by C.S. Forester
       Captain Richard Bolitho Novels, (12 of them) by Alexander Kent
       The Complete Works of Captain Frederick Marryat, (about 20) especially
             Mr. Midshipman Easy
             Peter Simple
             Jacob Faithful
             Japhet in Search of a Father
             Snarleyyow, or The Dog Fiend
             Frank Mildmay, or The Naval Officer

BUGS

       Probably a few, and please report them  to  "riggle@ernie.berkeley.edu"
       and "edward@ucbarpa.berkeley.edu"