Provided by: mah-jong_1.8-1build1_i386 bug

NAME

       xmj, mj-server, mj-player - programs for playing Mah-Jong

SYNOPSIS

       xmj [--id idnumber]
                [--server address]
                [--name playername]
                [--connect]
                [--show-wall | --no-show-wall]
                [--size N]
                [--animate]
                [--tileset directory]
                [--tileset-path directory-path]
                [--dialogs-popup | --dialogs-below | --dialogs-central]
                [--echo-server]
                [--pass-stdin]
                [--monitor]

       mj-server [--server address]  [--timeout seconds]
                [--pause deciseconds]
                [--random-seats]
                [--disconnect-penalties N1,N2,N3]
                [--end-on-disconnect]
                [--exit-on-disconnect]
                [--save-on-exit]
                [--option-file file]
                [--debug]
                [--logfile file]
                [--no-manager]
                [--no-special-scores]
                [--seed N]
                [--wallfile filefP]
                [--nohist]

       mj-player [--id idnumber] [--name playername]
                [--server address]
                [undocumented options]

DESCRIPTION

       A  set  of  three  programs  to  play Mah-Jong on Unix systems, against
       people or programs, over the Internet.

       mj-server
              is the program that handles communications and  control  of  the
              game;  the  rules and scoring are enforced there. Players, human
              or computer, connect to a server via the network.

       mj-player
              is a computer player.  At  present,  it  is  fairly  simplistic,
              having  only  offensive  tactics  with no knowledge of defensive
              play.

       xmj    is the X client for human players.

QUICK START

       If you don’t want to read this long document: to start a  game  against
       three  computer players, start xmj, select "New local game..." from the
       "Game" menu, and click  "Start  Game".  (Wait  about  ten  seconds  for
       everything to start up.)

OPTIONS

   All Programs
       --server address
              specifies the network address to listen on (for mj-server) or to
              connect to (for mj-player  and  xmj).   If  address  contains  a
              colon, it specifies an Internet socket, and should have the form
              host:port  .  If  address  does  not  contain  a  colon,  it  is
              interpreted  as a Unix file name and a Unix socket is used.  The
              default value for address is  localhost:5000 .  address can also
              be set in a dialog box in xmj.

   xmj and mj-player
       --id idnumber
              The  server assigns a unique integer ID (which is currently just
              1 to 4 in order of connection) to each player. This ID should be
              quoted  when  reconnecting  to  a  game  in progress (after, for
              example, losing a network  connection  or  accidentally  killing
              xmj). The default ID is 0, which denotes no pre-assigned ID.

       --name name
              Players  can  give themselves names which will be used by client
              programs. This option specifies the name. For xmj,  the  default
              is  the  value  of  the environment variable LOGNAME, or failing
              that the username of the logged  in  user.  For  mj-player,  the
              default is "Robot(PID)" where PID is the process id.

   xmj
       --connect
              By  default, xmj does not automatically connect to a server, but
              waits for the user to connect via a  menu.  If  this  option  is
              specified, xmj immediately connects.

       --show-wall
       --no-show-wall
              Tells  xmj  (not)  to  display the wall. By default, the wall is
              shown only if running on a big enough  screen.  This  option  is
              also controllable via the Display Options preference panel.

       --size number
              This  option  adjusts  the size of the main window. It should be
              thought of as the length of a tile rack, measured in tiles.  The
              default,  and  the largest value accepted, is 19, or 18 if on an
              800x600 display. The smallest usable value is 14.  This  is  not
              yet  changeable  while  the  program  is  running, but since the
              programs correctly handle dis- and re-connecting in  the  middle
              of a game, this is not a major drawback.
              If  the  --show-wall  option  is given, a --size smaller than 19
              will have no effect.

       --animate
              This option switches on some animation. Not all  tile  movements
              are  animated: only those that involve moving tiles to or from a
              hand from outside. This option  is  also  controllable  via  the
              Display Options preference panel.
              I’m not very keen on this; its main purpose is to draw attention
              to the tile being discarded or whatever. I welcome  comments  on
              whether it is liked, and whether it should be extended.

       --tileset directory
              xmj  needs  pixmaps to display the tiles and the tong box.  This
              option tells it which directory to find them in.  The default is
              set  at  compilation  time;  the  default  default is to use the
              compiled-in tiles.

       --tileset-path directory-path
              This  gives  a  colon-separated  (or  semicolon-separated  under
              Microsoft  Windows) list of directories in which to look for the
              directory named by the --tileset option.

       --dialogs-popup
              By default, most of the dialog boxes for player actions are part
              of  the  main  window. If this option is used, they will instead
              appear as separate transient windows.

       --dialogs-below
              By default, dialog boxes appear in the centre of the table.   If
              this  option  is  given,  dialogs  (apart  from some popups) are
              positioned below the table area. Please let me know which  style
              you prefer!

       --dialogs-central
              The  default:  dialog  boxes  appear in the middle of the table.
              These options are also  controllable  via  the  Display  Options
              preference panel.

       --echo-server
              If  this  option  is  given,  xmj  will echo to  stdout  all the
              protocol messages received from the server. This option  is  for
              use in debugging.

       --pass-stdin
              If  this  option is given, xmj will send any text given on stdin
              to the server. This option is for use in debugging.

       --monitor
              If this option is given, xmj will send requests  to  the  server
              only  in direct response to user actions; it will take no action
              itself  (and  hence  all  auto-declaring  and  playing  is  also
              disabled). This option is for use in debugging.

   mj-server
       --timeout seconds
              When  a  discard  is  made, there is a limit on the time players
              have to claim it. This option sets the timeout; a value of  zero
              disables it. The default is 15 seconds.

       --pause deciseconds
              This  will  make  the  server  enforce a delay of deciseconds/10
              seconds between each action in the game; the purpose is to  slow
              programmed  players  down  to  human  speed  (or,  in a teaching
              situation, to slow the  game  even  more).  The  current  server
              considers  that  50  (i.e.  5 seconds) is the maximum reasonable
              value for this option.
              The option can also be requested by players, via a  PlayerOption
              protocol request.

       --random-seats
              By  default,  players  are  seated in order of connection to the
              server. This option seats them  randomly.  It  will  become  the
              default later.

       --disconnect-penalties N1,N2,N3
              This specifies the penalties applied by the following option for
              players who disconnect before the end  of  a  game.  N1  is  the
              penalty for disconnecting in the middle of a hand; N2 at the end
              of a hand but in the middle of a round; N3 at the end of a round
              (other  than  end  of  game).  They  all  default  to  0  if not
              specified.

       --end-on-disconnect
              If this option is given, a  disconnection  by  one  player  will
              gracefully  terminate the game. Mid-hand, the hand is declared a
              wash-out; after Mah-Jong has been declared,  then  if  a  losing
              player  disconnects,  their tiles are shown, the hand is scored,
              and then the game ends; if a  winning  player  disconnects,  the
              hand  is  a wash-out. The disconnecting player may be assigned a
              penalty, according to the --disconnect-penalties  option,  which
              will  be  included in the scores printed out by the server. (The
              penalties will not be visible to the other players.)

       --exit-on-disconnect
              If this option is given, the server  will  quit  if  any  player
              disconnects,  rather than waiting indefinitely for reconnection.

       --save-on-exit
              If this option is given, the server will save the state  of  the
              game if it quits as a result of a player disconnecting. (It will
              not save the state if it quits as  the  result  of  an  internal
              error.)

       --option-file file
              This  names a file of protocol commands which will be applied to
              every game when it starts. Its  main  purpose  is  to  set  non-
              default  game options, via the GameOption protocol message (note
              that this is a CMsg, not a PMsg). However, users  will  normally
              set  options  and  preferences via the xmj control panel, not by
              this means.

       --load-game file
              This names a  file  containing  a  saved  game  (as  a  suitable
              sequence  of  protocol commands). The server will load the game;
              clients connecting will be treated as if they  had  disconnected
              and rejoined the game.

       --no-id-required
              In  the  most  common  case of resuming a saved game, namely one
              human playing against three robots, the robots will not have the
              same  names  or  ids  as  the  robots in the original game. This
              option tells the server that if it cannot match  a  reconnecting
              player  by  id  or name, it should anyway match it to one of the
              previously  disconnected  players.  (In  this  case,  the  human
              normally  connects  first  with  the  same name, so is correctly
              matched.)

       --no-manager
              Usually, the first player to connect becomes the  game  manager,
              and  can  change all the game settings. If this option is given,
              no player will be allowed to change the game settings.

       --debug
              This enables  various  debugging  features.  In  particular,  it
              enables  protocol commands that allow one to change the tiles in
              a hand...

       --logfile file
              The server will write a complete record of  the  game  to  file;
              this  will  be  quite  large,  and  is only useful for automatic
              comparison of different computer players.

       --no-special-scores
              This option suppresses the scoring of  points  and  doubles  for
              flowers  and seasons. It is primarily intended for running tests
              of different players; for human  use,  a  game  option  will  be
              provided to eliminate the specials altogether.

       --seed n
              This  option specifies the seed for the random number functions.
              Used for repeatable tests.

       --wallfile file
              This names a file containing space separated tile  codes  giving
              the  wall; used for repeatable tests. (This is a testing option;
              it is not robust.)

       --nohist
              Another option only used in  automatic  comparison:  this  saves
              some  CPU  time  by disabling the book-keeping required to allow
              players to disconnect and reconnect.

   mj-player
       has numerous options affecting its strategy,  but  these  are  not  yet
       documented as they are not at all stable.

USING THE XMJ PROGRAM

       The main window contains a menu-bar and a table area; the table is in a
       tasteful shade of dark green. The table displays a stylized version  of
       the  game:  stylized in that there is no jazzy graphics or perspective,
       and the tiles are not intended to be pictures of real objects,  and  so
       on.  Otherwise,  the  layout  is  as  one  would expect of a real game.
       However, the wall may or may not  be  displayed,  depending  on  option
       settings and screen size. (See above.)

       Specifically,  the  four  players are arranged around the four edges of
       the table, with "us" at the bottom.  For  each  player,  the  concealed
       tiles  are  displayed  nearest the edge of the table; our own tiles are
       visible, the other players’ tiles  are  face-down.   In  front  of  the
       concealed  tiles  are (to the player’s left) any declared sets, and (to
       the player’s right) flowers and seasons, and the tong box if the player
       is East. The tong box displays the wind of the round in a white circle.
       If necessary, the flowers and seasons will overflow into the  concealed
       row.

       The discards are displayed face-up in the middle of the board: they are
       laid down in order by each player, in the  natural  orientation.  TODO:
       add  options  to display discards randomly, or face-down.  If animation
       (see --animate option) is not being used, then the most recent  discard
       will be highlighted in red.

       The  name  of  a face-up tile can be displayed by right-clicking in the
       tile. Alternatively, the Tiletips display option can be set,  in  which
       case the name of a tile is displayed whenever the mouse enters it.

       Our  tiles  are  displayed in sorted order, which happens to be Bamboos
       (1-9), Characters (1-9), Circles (1-9), Winds  (ESWN),  Dragons  (RWG),
       Flowers, Seasons.

       Actions  are generally carried out by clicking a button in a dialog box
       that appears in the middle of the board. For many actions, a tile  must
       be  selected.  A  tile is selected or unselected by single-clicking it;
       when selected, it appears as a  depressed  button.   The  program  will
       generally pre-select a sensible tile: specifically:
       during  the initial declaration of special tiles, the rightmost special
       is selected;
       after we draw a tile from the wall, the drawn tile is selected;
       when  declaring  concealed  sets  after  going  Mah  Jong,  the   first
       undeclared tile is selected.

       To  describe  the  possible actions, let us run through the course of a
       game.

       First select "New local game..." from the "Game"  menu.  A  panel  will
       appear. The default options are to play a game against the computer, so
       click "Start Game".  After a second or two, a game will  start.  (NOTE:
       this  assumes  correct  installation. If this fails, start a server and
       players manually, and use the "Join server..." menu item.)

       The first thing that happens is a  dialog  box  "Ready  to  start  next
       hand".  The server will not start playing a hand until all players have
       indicated their willingness to continue play.

       Next, the tiles are dealt. Then each player  in  turn  is  expected  to
       declare  flowers and seasons. When it is our turn, a dialog will appear
       with the following buttons:

       Declare
              declare the selected flower or season. (Note: the program  auto-
              selects  the  rightmost  special tile.)  If no tile is selected,
              this finishes declarations.  This button will not appear if  the
              game is being played without flowers and seasons.

       Kong   If  we  have  a  concealed kong, we can declare it now with this
              button.

       Finish Finish declaring specials and kongs.

       When all players have finished declaring specials and kongs,  a  dialog
       box appears, asking (on East’s behalf) permission to continue.

       During  play,  when  we  draw  a  tile  from the wall, it will be auto-
       selected. We may also of course select a different tile.  A dialog will
       appear giving us the following possibilities:

       Discard
              discard  the selected tile. This button also serves to declare a
              flower or season, and the label changes to "Declare" when one is
              selected.

       &Calling
              discard  the  selected  tile  and  declare a calling hand.  This
              button is only shown when calling is allowed (by  default,  only
              Original Call is allowed).

       Kong   declare  a  concealed  kong  of  the  selected  tile, or add the
              selected tile to an exposed pung, as appropriate

       Mah Jong!
              declare Mah Jong! (no selection needed)

       If the wall is not being shown, the dialog  will  note  the  number  of
       tiles left in the live wall.

       A tile can also be discarded simply by double-clicking it.

       When another player discards, a dialog appears to allow us to claim it.
       If the dialogs are in the middle of the table, the dialog displays  the
       tile  in  a  position  and  orientation  to  indicate  the  player  who
       discarded; if the dialogs are at the bottom, this is not done, to  save
       space.   In  any  case  the  dialog  displays the name of the tile, and
       buttons for the possible claims. (Note: in  the  default  case,  it  is
       possibly  confusing  that  the  discarded  tile can be seen both on the
       table and in the dialog box. Opinions are sought on  this  point.)   If
       the  wall  is not being shown, the dialog will note the number of tiles
       left in the live wall.  Note: there appear to be subtle  bugs  in  GTK,
       which  mean  that  sometimes  the  name  of  the  tile  does not appear
       properly. I have completely failed to track this down; if  it  happens,
       just  iconify (that’s minimize in Windoze-speak) the window and open it
       again.  There is also a ‘progress bar’ which shows how time is  running
       out.   The  buttons use one variant of traditional English terminology,
       viz:

       No claim
              we don’t claim this tile. If there is no timeout  in  operation,
              it  is  necessary to click this to indicate a "pass", and in any
              case it is desirable to speed up play.

       Chow   claim for a sequence.  If our claim is successful and  there  is
              more than one possible sequence to be made, a dialog will appear
              asking us to specify which one.

       Pung   claim for a triplet.

       Kong   claim for quadruplet.

       Mah Jong!
              claim for Mah Jong.  If the claim succeeds, a  dialog  box  will
              appear  asking  whether  we  want  the  tile for "Eyes", "Chow",
              "Pung", or a "Special Hand" (such as Thirteen  Unique  Wonders).
              (The term "Eyes" is used instead of "Pair" so that when keyboard
              accelerators are implemented, E  is  different  from  P!  Is  it
              better to stick to "Pair"?)

       When  a player (including us) claims, the word "Chow!" etc. will appear
       (in big letters on a yellow background, if things are correctly set up;
       please  tell  me  if this doesn’t happen) for a couple of seconds above
       the player’s tiles.

       When all players have claimed, or timed out, the  successful  claim  is
       implemented;  no  additional  announcement  is made of this. (Should it
       be?)

       If a player adds a tile to an exposed pung, and that tile would give us
       Mah  Jong,  then a dialog box pops up to ask whether we wish to rob the
       kong.

       After somebody goes Mah Jong, we are asked  to  declare  our  concealed
       sets.  A  dialog  appears  with  buttons for "Eyes", "Chow", "Pung". To
       declare a set, select a tile, which must be the first tile in  the  set
       for  a  chow,  and  click  the appropriate button. (If we are going Mah
       Jong, the first undeclared tile is auto-selected.) When finished, click
       "Finished"  to  reveal the remaining tiles to the other players.  If we
       are the winner, there will be a button for "Special Hand": this is used
       to  declare  hands  of  non-standard  shape,  such  as  Thirteen Unique
       Wonders. (Note: the Seven Pairs hand, if in use, should be declared  by
       means of the "Eyes" button, not the "Special Hand" button.)

       At  this  point,  a new top-level window appears to display the scoring
       information. The scoring is done entirely by the  server,  not  by  the
       players;  the server sends a text description of the score calculation,
       and this is displayed for each  player  in  the  Scoring  window.   The
       information  in the Scoring window remains there until the next hand is
       scored; the window can be brought up at any time via the "Show" menu.

       Finally, the "continue with next hand" dialog appears.  The  hand  just
       completed  will remain visible on the table until the next hand starts.

       Keyboard Accelerators
       There are keyboard accelerators for all the actions in  the  course  of
       play. For selecting tiles, the Left and Right arrow keys can be used to
       move the selection left or  right  along  the  row  of  tiles.  In  all
       dialogs,  Space  or  Return will activate the shadowed button, which is
       usually the commonest choice. Each button  can  also  be  activated  by
       typing  the  underlined  letter.  (Note: at present, the Left and Right
       arrow accelerators do not work under Windows.)
       The menus are also accessible via accelerators. To open a  menu,  press
       Meta-X (Alt-X on Windows), where X is the underlined letter in the menu
       name. (Meta-X is often (confusingly) Alt-X  on  Linux  systems.)   Then
       each  entry has an underlined letter which if pressed will activate it.

       An additional top-level window showing the state of  the  game  can  be
       obtained by selecting "Game info" from the "Show" menu.

       There  is  also  a  facility  for  sending  text  messages to the other
       players. Select "Messages" from the "Show"  menu,  and  a  window  will
       appear:  in  the  top is a display of all messages sent, and below is a
       single line in which you can enter your message. It will be  sent  when
       you  hit  Return.  The  message window pops up automatically whenever a
       message is received, unless prevented by a display preference.  If  the
       "Display  status  and  messages  in main window" display option is set,
       then this window will instead appear in  the  main  window,  above  the
       table. In that case, there is a checkbox "Keep cursor here" next to the
       message entry line. Checking this box will  ensure  that  the  keyboard
       focus  stays in the message entry field, even when you click on buttons
       in the  game.  (Consequently,  you  will  be  unable  to  use  keyboard
       accelerators while this option is checked.)

   Starting games and re-connecting
       The "Game" menu has the "New local game..." item to start a new game on
       your local computer, and the "Join server..." item  to  connect  to  an
       existing game. The dialogs for both these have the following entries:

       Checkboxes for Internet/Unix server
              These  specify  whether  the  server is listening on an Internet
              socket or a Unix socket. If an Internet (TCP) socket,  the  host
              name  ("Join Game..." only) and port number should be entered in
              the appropriate boxes; if a Unix socket, the file  name  of  the
              socket should be entered.  These fields are remembered from game
              to game.

       "Player ID" and "Name" fields
              The "Player ID" should be left at 0, unless reconnecting  to  an
              existing game, in which case it should be the ID assigned by the
              server on first connecting to that game. The "Name" field can be
              anything.  When  reconnecting  to an existing game, if the ID is
              given as 0, the server will try to use the  "Name"  to  identify
              the  player.  (This may not be true in future.) The "Name" field
              is remembered from game to game.

       The "Join server..." dialog then  simply  has  a  "Connect"  button  to
       establish  the  connection.  The  "New local game..." has the following
       fields:

       For each of three further players,
              A checkbox to say whether to start a computer player. (Some  of)
              these  should  be unchecked if you wish other humans to join the
              games.  If checked, there is a text entry to  set  the  players’
              names,  and  a text entry field in which options can be given to
              the players; the latter should only be used  if  you  understand
              the options!

       An "allow disconnection" checkbox
              If  this is checked, the server that is started will continue to
              run even if players disconnect. If it is not checked, the server
              will  quit  if  any  player  disconnects. If you are playing one
              against the computer, this should generally be  left  unchecked,
              in order to avoid server processes accidentally being left lying
              around. If playing against people,  it  should  be  checked,  to
              allow players to go away, or to guard against network outages.

       As "save game state on exit" checkbox
              If  this  is  checked,  the server will save the game state (see
              below on on saving and resuming games) when a player disconnects
              and causes it to quit.

       A "seat players randomly" checkbox
              If  this  is left unchecked, players will be initially seated as
              East, South, West, North in  order  of  connection.  (We  always
              connect first.)  If it is checked, the seating will be random.

       A numeric entry field
              to  specify  the time limit for claiming discards.  If set to 0,
              there will be no time limit.

       A button to start the game
              Note that it takes a few seconds to start a game,  during  which
              time  the  dialog  stays  up with the button pressed. (TODO: fix
              this!)

   Saving and resuming games
       At any time during the play of a game, you can choose the "Save"  entry
       from  the "Game" menu. This causes the server to save the current state
       of the game in a file. The file will be named game-date.mjs by default;
       if  a  name  has  previously been specified, or if the game was resumed
       from a file, that name will be used. To specify a name, use  the  "Save
       as..."  entry  in  the "Game" menu. Note that for security, directories
       cannot be specified (except by resuming a game), so the  file  will  be
       created in the working directory of the server.

       To  resume a saved game, use the "Resume game..." entry from the "Game"
       menu. This is just like the "New local game..." panel, but it has a box
       to  specify  the  file  containing the saved game. At present, you must
       type the name of the file into this box.  TODO  find  a  file  selector
       widget for this.

   Setting display and game options
       The  "Options"  menu  of  xmj  brings  up panels to set various options
       related to the display and to the game rules.  Most  of  these  options
       can  be  stored  in  the preferences file, which is .xmjrc in your home
       directory on Unix, and xmj.ini  in  your  home  (whatever  that  means)
       directory on Microsoft Windows.

   Display Options
       This  panel  controls  options  related  to  the local display.  At the
       bottom are three buttons: "Save & Apply" applies changes and saves them
       in  the preferences file for future sessions; "Apply (no save)" applies
       any changes, but does not save them; "Cancel"  ignores  changes.   Note
       that  many  display  options  can  also  be  controlled by command-line
       arguments; if an option is specified both in the preferences  file  and
       on the command line, the command line takes priority.

       Position of action dialogs.
              This  determines  where the dialogs for user actions in the game
              are popped up; see the description of the --dialogs-central etc.
              options above. This option is stored in the preferences file as
              Display DialogPosition posn
              where posn is one of "central", "below" or "popup".

       Animation
              determines   whether   tile  movements  are  animated  (see  the
              --animate  option  above).  This  option  is   stored   in   the
              preferences file as
              Display Animate bool
              where bool is "0" or "1".

       Display status and messages in main window
              puts  the  game  status  and  message (chat) windows in the main
              window, above  the  table,  instead  of  having  separate  popup
              windows. This option is stored in the preferences file as
              Display InfoInMain bool
              where bool is "0" or "1".

       Don’t popup scoring/message windows
              will  prevent  the  automatic popup of the scoring window at the
              end of a hand, the message window on the arrival of  a  message,
              and  the  game status window at the end of the game. This option
              is stored in the preferences file as
              Display NoPopups bool
              where bool is "0" or "1".

       Tiletips always shown
              means that the name of a tile is displayed  whenever  the  mouse
              enters  it,  and  the name of the selected tile is always shown.
              (Otherwise, right-click to display the  name.)  This  option  is
              stored in the preferences file as
              Display Tiletips bool
              where bool is "0" or "1".

       Display size
              This  drop-down list specifies the size of the display. The size
              should be thought of as the length of a tile rack. This is  only
              relevant  if  the wall is not being displayed. Values range from
              14 to 19; if "(auto)" (the default)  is  specified,  the  client
              tries  to  choose a size as big as will fit in the display. This
              option  can  also  be  specified  by  the  command  line  --size
              argument. This option is stored in the preferences file as
              Display Size n

       Show the wall
              "always"  is  equivalent  to  the --show-wall option; "never" is
              equivalent to the --no-show-wall option; and "when room" is  the
              default. This option is stored in the preferences file as
              Display ShowWall when
              where when is one of "always", "when-room" or "never".

       Iconify all windows with main
              If  this  option  is  set  (the default), then when the main xmj
              window is iconified, (almost) all other  open  windows  such  as
              dialogs  will  also  be  iconified;  when  the  main  window  is
              uniconified, the other windows will also be uniconified.  If  it
              is  not  set,  all  windows are independent of one another. This
              option is stored in the preferences file as
              Display IconifyDialogs bool
              This option is not currently supported under Microsoft  Windows.

       Tileset
              this  is  the tile pixmap directory, also given by the --tileset
              option. This option is stored in the preferences file as
              Display Tileset dirname

       Tileset Path
              this is the search path for tileset directories, also  given  by
              the   --tileset-path  option.  This  option  is  stored  in  the
              preferences file as
              Display TilesetPath search-path

       Main font selection...
              This button brings up a font selection dialog to choose the font
              used  in  buttons,  menus,  etc.  in  the client. This option is
              stored in the preferences file as
              Display MainFont lfd
              where lfd is an X logical font descriptor as used by GTK.

       Text font selection...
              This button brings up a font selection dialog to choose the font
              used  in  text  display  (such  as scoring info and chat) in the
              client. This option is stored in the preferences file as
              Display TextFont lfd
              where lfd is an X logical font descriptor as used by GTK.

       Table colour selection...
              Unaccountably, not everybody likes my choice of dark  green  for
              the  table  background. This button brings up a colour selection
              box to allow the table  colour  to  be  changed.This  option  is
              stored in the preferences file as
              Display TableColour col
              where   col   is  a  valid  X  colour  specification,  typically
              rgb:RRRR/GGGG/BBBB where RRRR etc are four digit hex values  for
              red, green and blue.

   Playing Preferences
       This  panel  controls  what actions the client may take on your behalf.
       The first (and currently only) section specifies when the client should
       declare tiles and sets for you. It has the following checkboxes:

       flowers and seasons
              if checked, will be automatically declared as soon as drawn.

       losing hands
              if this is checked, then when somebody else goes out, the client
              will declare your closed sets. It declares in the  order  pungs,
              pairs, chows.

       winning hands
              this is the same for when you go out.

       The  panel  has "Save & Apply", "Apply (no save)" and "Cancel" buttons,
       as in the display options panel.

   Game Option Preferences
       This panel controls preferred game options which will be  sent  to  the
       server  when  a game starts. Preferences will only be applied if we are
       the game manager, or the game has  no  manager.  (Normally,  the  first
       human player to connect to the server becomes the game manager.)
       For details of options and their meanings, see the Game Options section
       in the rules.
       The panel has two action buttons, "Save Changes" and "Cancel", with the
       obvious  meanings.  Note  if a game is in progress, changed preferences
       are NOT applied to it; however, there is a button in the  Current  Game
       Options panel to apply preferences.
       The main body of the panel is a scrollable window listing all the known
       options. If no preference is stored for the FooBar option,  then  there
       is  an "Add pref" button next to a description of the FooBar option. If
       this button is clicked, an entry for setting the  option  appears.  The
       format  of  this  entry depends on the type of the option (see the Game
       Options section of the rules for details of types):

       Boolean (on/off) options
              have a checkbox.

       Integer options
              have a spinbutton for numerical entry: the value  can  be  typed
              in, or the up and down arrows can be used to change it

       Score options
              have  radio  buttons  for selecting Limit, Half-Limit, or other;
              for other, the number of doubles and/or points is  entered  with
              spinbuttons.  (Note:  the underlying protocol allows percentages
              (possibly more than 100%) of limits to be specified for  scores;
              however,  the  current graphical interfaces allow only limits or
              half-limits. Even  half-limits  are  pretty  strange,  but  some
              bizarre  sets  of  rules,  such as those of the British Mah-Jong
              Association (which plays a weird American/Western/Chinese  mix),
              allow other fractions of limits.)

       String options
              have a simple text entry field.

       All option entries have a "Reset" button which returns the entry to its
       previous state.
       A preference is removed by clicking the "Remove pref" button.

   Current Game Options
       When there is a connected game, this panel allows its game  options  to
       be  modified (if we have permission to do so). The three action buttons
       are "Apply changes", which applies the panel’s settings to the  current
       game; "Apply prefs", which applies our preferences (as described above)
       to the current game; and "Cancel".
       The body of the panel contains entries  for  all  the  options  of  the
       current  game, in the same format as the preferences panel (see above).

UPDATES

       The latest release of the Unix Mah-Jong programs should be available at
       http://www.stevens-bradfield.com/MahJong/

RULES

       The  game  currently  implemented is a version of the classical Chinese
       game. The most convenient  and  comprehensive  set  of  rules  is  that
       provided  by  A.  D.  Millington,  "The  Complete  Book  of Mah-Jongg",
       Weidenfield & Nicolson (1993), ISBN 0 297 81340 4.  In the following, M
       103 denotes item 103 of the rules laid out in Chapter 3 of that book. I
       here describe only the differences from  these  rules,  some  of  which
       differences  are consequences of using computers, and some of which are
       points where my house rules differ from Millington’s  version.  In  due
       course,  all variations (of Chinese classical) will be accommodated, if
       there is sufficient desire.

       Classification of tiles (M 1-8): the tiles are a standard Chinese  set.
       The  tiles  do  not  have  Arabic  numerals, except for the flowers and
       seasons, where the identifying Chinese characters are too small  to  be
       legible.
       The  flowers  and seasons may be removed from the tile set by unsetting
       the Flowers game option.

       Preliminary (M 9-10): nothing to say.

       Duration of the game (M 11-14):  standard  rules.  In  particular,  the
       title of East does not pass after a wash-out.

       Selection  of  seats  (M  15): the players are seated in the order they
       connect to the server, or randomly, according to the  option  given  to
       the server.

       The  deal  etc.  (M  16-27):  There is no attempt to simulate the usual
       dealing ritual (M 16-20, 23-26); the wall  is  built  randomly  by  the
       server. The dead wall is also maintained by the server.
       The existence of a dead wall is controlled by the DeadWall game option;
       normally there is a dead wall.
       The deal wall is either 14 tiles and kept at 13 or 14 during  play  (as
       in  most  authors),  or  is  16  tiles,  not  extended during play (per
       Millington (M 22)), according to the DeadWall16 game option.
       Replacement tiles for kongs are always taken from the loose tiles,  but
       replacements for bonus tiles may be drawn from the live wall (M 31), or
       from the loose tiles, according to the FlowersLoose game option.

       Object of game (M 28-31): all winning hands must comprise four sets and
       a  pair,  with  the  exception  of the Thirteen Unique Wonders.  If the
       SevenPairs game option is set, then a hand of any seven pairs  is  also
       allowed as a winning hand.

       Bonus tiles (M 31): M requires that bonus tiles must be declared in the
       turn in which they are drawn; otherwise the player may not exchange  or
       score  them  (and  thus  they  cannot  go  out).  We  do  not make this
       restriction, as it is (a) pointless (b)  unenforceable  in  real  life.
       Bonus  tiles  may  be declared at any time after drawing from the wall.
       (Obviously, there is no reason not to declare them immediately.)

       Commencement of the Game (M 32-33): standard.

       Playing procedure  (M  34-38):  standard.   In  particular,  the  other
       players  have to give permission for east to start playing (M 34).  The
       display of discards cannot be controlled by the server; the  current  X
       client  displays  them  in an organized fashion, rather than the random
       layout required by M 35.

       Chow (M 39-42): standard.

       Pung (M 43-45): standard.

       Kongs (M 46-52):  M  distinguishes  three  types  of  kong:  concealed,
       claimed  (by  Kong),  and  annexed  (formed  by  adding a discard to an
       exposed pung), and allows claimed kongs to be counted as concealed  for
       the  purposes  of  doubling combinations. I have not seen this anywhere
       else; normally, a claimed kong is treated as exposed for all  purposes.
       We follow the normal convention; however, the game option KongHas3Types
       can be set to implement M’s rules. In this case, the xmj  program  will
       distinguish  claimed  kongs  by displaying them with the last tile face
       down, whereas annexed kongs are all face up.
       Players may declare a concealed kong, or add to a pung, only when  they
       have  just  drawn a tile from the wall (live or dead); not just after a
       claiming a discard. (A silly restriction in my view, but one  that  all
       rule sets seem to have (M 51).)

       Calling  and  Mah Jong (M 53-54): standard. (I.e. there is no "Calling"
       declaration.)

       NOTE: M permits players to change their mind about making  a  claim  (M
       69);  we  do  not,  and all claims are irrevocable. Question: should we
       allow revocation?

       Original Call (M 55):  the  Original  Call  declaration  must  be  made
       simultaneously  with  the first discard, rather than afterwards.  NOTE:
       the server does *not* check  that  the  declarer  does  indeed  have  a
       calling  hand,  as  a  mistaken original call does not damage the other
       players or  the  progress  of  the  game.  The  server  does,  however,
       thereafter  prevent  the declarer from changing their hand; therefore a
       mistaken original call will make it impossible to go out. (Note: in  M,
       an  Original  Caller  may  change their hand, but will thereby lose the
       ability to go out (M 55(b)); is this a better way to treat  it?)   Note
       also: as per M, an original call can be made even if another player has
       claimed a discard before, unlike the Japanese version.

       Robbing a Kong (M 57-60): Robbing a kong is  implemented.  However,  as
       with  discards,  we  require that kongs are robbed before anything else
       happens, and in particular before the konger draws a replacement  tile.
       Therefore,  after  a kong, all other players must either claim Mah Jong
       or pass. (The provided programs will pass automatically if  robbing  is
       not possible.) As for discards, there is a time limit.

       Precedence  of claims for discard (M 61-65): Many rules allow a discard
       to be claimed up until the time the next discard is made. M does  this,
       with  elaborate  rules  for  the  precise  specification.   For ease of
       implementation, we do not allow this: instead, all players are required
       to  make  a  claim  or  pass,  and  once  all players have claimed, the
       successful claim is implemented irrevocably.  The server imposes a time
       limit;  players  that  do not claim within the limit are deemed to have
       passed. This defaults to 15 seconds, but can be changed or disabled  by
       the Timeout game option.

       Irregularities  in  Play (M 66-81): the server does not permit unlawful
       moves, and so no irregularities can arise.

       False Declaration of Mah Jong (M  82-83):  such  declarations  are  not
       permitted by the server.

       False Naming of Discards (M 84-88): this also cannot happen.

       Incorrect Hands (M 89): cannot happen.

       Letting  Off  a Cannon (M 90-96): as in M. However, if a player makes a
       dangerous discard, but has no choice, the server will  determine  this;
       it is not necessary to plead "no choice" explicitly, and neither is the
       player’s hand revealed to the other players.

       Wash-Out (M 97-99): standard.

       Points of Etiquette (M 100-102): not applicable.

       Displaying the Hand (M 103-106): The format of display is a matter  for
       the client program, and cannot be controlled by the server.
       After  Mah  Jong,  the  players are responsible for declaring concealed
       sets in whatever way they wish. The winner, of course, is  required  to
       declare a complete hand; but the losers may declare as they wish.  Once
       a set is declared, it cannot be  revoked.  Note  that  the  losers  may
       declare multiple scoring pairs.

       Procedure  in Settlement (M 107-111): The settlement is classical: that
       is, the winner gets the value of  their  hand  from  all  players;  the
       losers pay one another the differences between their scores; except all
       payments to or from East are doubled; and if players let off a  cannon,
       they  pay  everybody’s debt.  Unlike normal play (M 110), all hands are
       scored by the server, rather than by the players.  Settlement  is  also
       computed by the server.  Some variations in settlement are provided: if
       the LosersSettle game option is set to false,  there  are  no  payments
       between  losers;  if  the  EastDoubles  game  option  is  set to false,
       payments to or from East are  not  doubled;  if  the  DiscDoubles  game
       option  is  set  to true, then the discarder of the tile that gave Mah-
       Jong will pay double to the winner, and a self-draw is paid  double  by
       everybody.

       Method  of  Scoring  (M  112-122):  The method is standard (M 112), viz
       calculate points  obtained  from  sets  and  bonuses,  and  then  apply
       doubles.

       The following points are given for tiles:

       Bonus tiles:
              4 each (M 114(a))

       Pungs: 2  for  exposed  minor  tiles;  4 for exposed major or concealed
              minor; 8 for concealed major. (M 114(b))

       Kongs: 8 for exposed minor; 16 for exposed major or concealed minor; 32
              for concealed major. (M 114(c))

       Chows: no score. (M 114(d))

       Pair:  2  for  a pair of Dragons, Own Wind, or Prevailing Wind.  A pair
              that is both Own and Prevailing Wind scores 4. (M  114(e))  Non-
              winning hands may score more than one pair.

       Basic points:
              the  winner  gets  20  points  for  going Mah Jong.  This can be
              changed by  the  MahJongScore  game  option  (M  115(a)  has  10
              points).

       Seven Pairs hand:
              If  Seven  Pairs  hands  are allowed, they receive an additional
              score of 20 points, changed by the SevenPairsVal game option.

       Winning from wall:
              if the final tile is drawn from the wall, 2 points are added  (M
              115(b)).

       Filling the only place:
              if  the  final  tile  is  the  only denomination that could have
              completed the hand, 2 points are added (M 115(c)).  NOTE: As  in
              M,  if  all  four  copies of a tile are exposed on the table, it
              does not count as available for completing the hand.

       Fishing the eyes:
              a player who completes by obtaining a pair gets 2 points if  the
              pair  is minor, or 4 if major (M 115(d)).  Note: to obtain these
              points for a discard, the player must actually claim the discard
              for  a  pair:  e.g.  if waiting on 5677, and 7 is discarded, the
              player must claim for the pair, not the chow.

       The following doubles apply to all hands.  All possible  clauses  apply
       unless stated otherwise.

       Having own flower or own season.
              No extra score. Changed by the FlowersOwnEach game option.

       Having own flower AND own season,
              1 double. (M 116(a)). Changed by the FlowersOwnBoth game option.

       Having all four flowers,
              1 double. (M 116(b)). Changed by the FlowersBouquet game option.

       Having all four seasons,
              1 double. (M 116(b)). Changed by the FlowersBouquet game option.

       Each set of dragons,
              1 double. (M 116(d))

       A set of the player’s own wind,
              1 double. (M 116(e))

       A set of the prevailing wind,
              1 double. (M 116(f))

       "Little Three Dragons": two sets and a pair of dragons.
              1 double. (M 116(g))

       "Big Three Dragons": three sets of dragons.
              2 doubles. (M 116(h))

       "Little Four Winds": three sets and a pair of winds.
              1 double. (M 116(i))

       "Big Four Winds": four sets of winds.
              2 doubles. (M 116(j))

              (Note: the definitions of these last four doubles  when  applied
              to  non-winning  hands  are subject to wide variations. Possibly
              there should be options to allow other possibilities.)

       Three concealed pungs:
              1 double. (M 116(k)) (Note: if the KongHas3Types game option  is
              set,  a  claimed kong counts as concealed for this hand; see the
              note above under "Kongs".)

       The following doubles apply to the winning hand only:

       No score hand: four chows and a non-scoring pair.
              1 double. (M 117(a)) (Note: like M, we allow any  of  the  extra
              points  (Fishing  the  Eyes,  etc)  to go with this double. Some
              rules say that the extra points invalidate this  hand.  Possibly
              there should be an option for this.)

       No chows:
              1 double. (M 117(b))

       Concealed hand:
              1  double  (M  117(c)),  changeable with the ConcealedFully game
              option. (Note: this means a hand that is fully  concealed  after
              going  out. Another common value for this is 3 doubles, in which
              case 1 double is usually given for a  semi-concealed  hand  (see
              below).)   (Note:  if  the  KongHas3Types  game option is set, a
              claimed kong counts as concealed for this  hand;  see  the  note
              above under "Kongs".)

       The following doubles normally apply to the winning hand only; however,
       the LosersPurity game option can be set to allow losing hands to  score
       them  (this  is  a  highly  deprecated  American  feature, but has been
       requested by a user).

       Semi-concealed hand:
              no doubles, changeable with  the  ConcealedAlmost  game  option.
              (Not in M) (Note: this means a winning hand that is concealed up
              to the point of going out, or, if enabled,  a  concealed  losing
              hand.  According to a discussion on rec.games.mahjong, a winning
              semi-concealed hand is  classically  awarded  one  double  (with
              three  given  for  fully  concealed).  One book in my possession
              (U.S.A., early 1920s) awards this double only to a hand that  is
              concealed  except  for  the  pair.)  (Note: if the KongHas3Types
              game option is set, a claimed kong counts as concealed for  this
              hand; see the note above under "Kongs".)

       One suit with honours:
              1 double. (M 117(d))

       One suit only:
              3 doubles. (M 117(e))

       All majors:
              1 double. (M 117(f))

       All honours (in an unlimited game):
              2  doubles.  (M  117(g))  (Note: such a hand will also score the
              double for all majors.)

       All terminals (in an unlimited game):
              2 doubles. (Not in M) (Note: such a hand  will  also  score  the
              double for all majors.)

       The following doubles apply only to the winning hand:

       Winning with loose tile:
              1   double.   (M  117(h))  (Note:  with  the  default  settings,
              replacements for bonus tiles come from the live wall. Hence this
              double applies only to winning after Kong.)

       Winning from the bottom of the sea (winning with last tile),
              1 double. (M 117(i))

       Catching a fish from the bottom of the sea (winning with last discard),
              1 double. (M 117(j))

       Robbing a kong,
              1 double. (M 117(k))

       Completing Original Call,
              1 double. (M 117(l))

       Limit  (M 118-120): the limit is 1000 by default, and can be changed by
       the ScoreLimit game option. The NoLimit game option can be used to play
       a game "with the roof off".

       The following hands are limit hands:

       Heaven’s Blessing: East wins with dealt hand. (M 122(a))

       Earth’s Blessing: player wins with East’s first discard. (M 122(b))

       Gathering Plum Blossom from the Roof: winning with 5 Circles from the
              loose wall. (M 122(c))

       Catching the Moon from the Bottom of the Sea: winning with 1 Circle as
              the  last  tile.  (M 122(d)) (Note: M says that the tile must be
              drawn. It seems more reasonable also to allow it to be the  last
              discard, which is what we do. Objections?)

       Scratching a Carrying Pole: robbing a kong of 2 Bamboos. (M 122(e))

       (Note: these last three limits are rather arbitrary, but of the
              arbitrary  limits  they  are  apparently  the most common. There
              should be options to disable them.)

       Kong upon Kong: making a Kong, making another Kong with the loose
              tile, and with the second loose tile obtaining Mah Jong.  (Also,
              of course, with three or four successive kongs.) (M 122(f))

       Four Kongs. (M 122(g))

       Buried Treasure: all concealed and no chows. (M 122(h))

       The  Three  Great  Scholars:  three  sets  of  dragons and no chows. (M
       122(i))
              (Note:  in  most rules I have seen, there is no restriction to a
              no chow hand. Since in M’s rules, three sets and a  chow  scores
              at  least  (10  (M has 10 for Mah Jong) + 12 (at least 3 pungs))
              times 8 (2 for each set of  dragons)  times  4  (for  Big  Three
              Dragons)  = 704, this is significant with the default limit. For
              us, with 20 for going out, Big Three Dragons is over the default
              limit anyway.)

       Four Blessings o’er the Door: four sets of winds and a pair. (M 122(j))

       All Honours. (M 122(k))

       Heads and Tails: all terminals. (M 122(l))

       Imperial  Jade:  contains  only  Green  Dragon and 2,3,4,6,8 Bamboo. (M
       122(m))
              (Note: another rather arbitrary hand, but widely adopted.)

       Nine  Gates:  calling  on  1-1-1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-9-9  of  one  suit. (M
       122(n)).

       Wriggling Snake: 1-1-1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-9-9 plus 2, 5 or 8 of
              one suit (M 122(o)).  (Note: another rather arbitrary hand.)

       Concealed Clear Suit: one suit only and all concealed. (M 122(p))

       Thirteen Unique Wonders: one of each major tile, and a match to any of
              them. (M 122(q))

       East’s 13th consecutive Mah-Jong. (M 122(r))

       General note: there are many other doubles and limits kicking around. I
       welcome opinions on which should be possible options; and also on which
       of  the  above I should eject from the default set.  I dislike Imperial
       Jade, Wriggling Snake, and  the  ones  depending  on  a  specific  tile
       (Gathering  Plum  Blossom,  Catching  the  Moon,  Scratching a Carrying
       Pole): which of these are so commonly adopted that they  should  be  in
       even a fairly minimalist default set?

GAME OPTIONS

       This section describes the options that can be set in the game. Whether
       an option can be used, depends on the version of the programs. This  is
       described by a "protocol version number"; this is not strictly speaking
       a version just of the communication  protocol,  but  a  version  number
       reflecting  the  combination  of protocol and programs. When playing by
       oneself, this does not matter, but in the case  of  a  networked  game,
       players  might  have  different versions of the software, in which case
       the game is played according to the lowest version of any player.

       Game options can be controlled in two ways: the --option-file  argument
       to  the  mj-server  program gives options to be applied to the game, or
       options can be set by the players, using the interface described in the
       manual section for xmj.

       In  the  user  interface,  the  options  are  referred to by a one line
       description, but each option also has a short name, given here.

       Options are of several types:

       bool   boolean, or on/off, options.

       int    integer options

       nat    non-negative integer options

       string is a miscellaneous type, whose values are strings of at most 127
              characters which must not contain white space

       score  is  the  type  used  for  options  that  give  the score of some
              combination or feature in a hand. A score is either a limit  (or
              a  half-limit;  the  underlying protocol supports percentages of
              limits, but the current user programs only  support  limits  and
              half  limits); or a number of doubles to be awarded; or a number
              of points to be added. It is possible (though never  needed)  to
              have both points and doubles. If points/doubles are specified as
              well as a limit, they will be used  in  a  no-limit  game.  (The
              server  implements  a  hard  limit of 100000000 on all scores to
              avoid  arithmetic  overflow,  but  that’s  unlikely   to   worry
              anybody.)

   Currently supported options
       The  following  options  are implemented in the versions of the program
       with which this document is distributed. If playing against people with
       older  versions of the software, some options may not be available. The
       list gives for each option the short name, type, and short description,
       followed by a detailed explanation.

       Timeout (nat) time limit for claims
              This  is  the  time in seconds allowed to claim a discard, or to
              rob a kong. If set to zero, there is no timeout. The default  is
              15 seconds.

       TimeoutGrace (nat) grace period when clients handle timeouts
              This  period  (in  seconds) is added to the Timeout above before
              the server actually forces a timeout. This is for  when  clients
              handle  timeouts  locally,  and allows for network lags. If this
              option is zero, clients are not  permitted  to  handle  timeouts
              locally.  The  current server also only allows players to handle
              timeouts locally if all of them wish to do so.

       ScoreLimit (nat) limit on hand score
              This is the limit for the score of a hand. In a  no-limit  game,
              it is the notional value of a "limit" hand. The default is 1000.

       NoLimit (bool) no-limit game
              If this option is set, the game has no limit on hand scores. The
              default is unset.

       MahJongScore (score) base score for going out
              This  is  the  number  of  points  for  obtaining Mah-Jong.  The
              default is 20.

       SevenPairs (bool) seven pairs hand allowed
              If this option is set, then Mah-Jong hands of seven  pairs  (any
              seven pairs) are allowed. The default is unset.

       SevenPairsVal (score) score for a seven pair hand
              This  gives  the  score (in addition to the base Mah-Jong score)
              for a seven pairs hand. The default is 20.

       Flowers (bool) play using flowers and seasons
              If this option is set, the deal includes four flowers  and  four
              seasons  in  the Chinese Classical style. If unset, only the 136
              standard tiles are used. The default is set.

       FlowersLoose (bool) flowers replaced by loose tiles
              If playing with flowers, this option determines whether  flowers
              and seasons are replaced from the live wall (unset), or by loose
              tiles (set). The default is unset.

       FlowersOwnEach (score) score for each own flower or season
              This option gives the score  for  having  one’s  own  flower  or
              season.   If  one  has both, this score will be given twice. The
              default is no score.

       FlowersOwnBoth (score) score for own flower and own season
              This is the score for having both one’s own flower and one’s own
              season.  Note  that  this  is  awarded  in addition to twice the
              previous score. The default is 1 double.

       FlowersBouquet (score) score for all four flowers or all four seasons
              This is the score for  having  all  four  flowers  or  all  four
              seasons.  The default is 1 double.

       DeadWall (bool) there is a dead wall
              This  determines whether there is a dead wall, so that play ends
              when it is reached (set), or whether  all  tiles  may  be  drawn
              (unset).  The default is set.

       DeadWall16 (bool) dead wall is 16 tiles, unreplenished
              If  this  option  is  set,  then  the dead wall initially has 16
              tiles, and does not have any more tiles added to it (this is the
              set-up  described  by  Millington). If the option is unset, then
              the dead wall initially  has 14 tiles, and after two loose tiles
              have  been  taken, two tiles are moved from the live wall to the
              dead wall (this is  the  set-up  described  by  almost  everyone
              else).  The  default  is  unset in versions 1.1 onwards, and set
              previously. (To be precise, the protocol level default  is  set,
              but all servers from 1.1 onwards will change this to unset.)

       ConcealedFully (score) score for fully concealed hand
              This  is  the  score  for a winning hand with no open sets.  The
              default is 1 double.

       ConcealedAlmost (score) score for almost concealed hand
              This is the score for a hand that is concealed up to  the  point
              of going out.  The default is no additional score.

       LosersPurity (bool) losing hands score doubles for pure, concealed etc.
              If  this  option is set, losing hands will score various doubles
              for one suit, almost concealed, etc. See the rules for  details.
              This option is an (Anglo-)Americanism alien to Chinese Classical
              (see Foster for a spirited but faulty argument  in  its  favour,
              and Millington for the rejoinder).  The default is unset.

       KongHas3Types (bool) claimed kongs count as concealed for doubling
              If  this  option  is  set,  claimed kongs count as concealed for
              various doubling combinations, although they  score  as  exposed
              for basic points. See the note above under "Kongs".  The default
              is unset.

       LosersSettle (bool) losers pay each other
              If this option is set, the losers pay each other the  difference
              between  their  scores.  If  it unset, they pay only the winner.
              The default is set.

       EastDoubles (bool) east pays and receives double
              If this option is set,  payments  to  and  from  East  Wind  are
              doubled,  as in the Chinese Classical game.  The default is set.

       DiscDoubles (bool) the discarder pays double
              If this option is set, the settlement procedure is changed to  a
              style  common  in Singapore. That is, if the winning player wins
              off a discard, the discarder pays double the hand value, and the
              other  players  pay  the hand value. If the winner wins from the
              wall, then all other players pay double  the  hand  value.   The
              default  is unset.  Note: EastDoubles and DiscDoubles can be set
              together, but nobody plays such a rule.

       ShowOnWashout (bool) reveal tiles on washout
              If this option is set, the players’ hands will  be  revealed  in
              the event of a washout.

   Option file format
       Both in the option file and in the .xmjrc file, options are recorded in
       the format used by the server protocol. This is a line of the form

       GameOption 0 name type minprot enabled value desc

       The meanings of the elements are:

       GameOption 0
              identifies this as a game option line (the 0  is  an  irrelevant
              field from the protocol).

       name   is the name of the option.

       type   is the type of the option.

       minprot
              is  the  minimum  protocol  version with which the option can be
              used (which is not necessarily  the  version  at  which  it  was
              introduced).

       enabled
              will always be 1.

       value  is the value: a decimal (signed) integer for nat and int; 0 or 1
              for bool; the string for string; and for score, if the score  is
              c centi-limits, d doubles and p points, the value is c*1000000 +
              d*10000 + p.

       desc   is a short description of the option, which is not required  but
              is usually copied in from the server.