Provided by: afnix_1.5.2-3.2_i386 bug

NAME

       vol-2 - afnix reference manual

RESERVED KEYWORDS

       This  chapter  contains a summary of the  AFNIX  reserved keywords with
       their syntax.

       assert
       The assert reserved keyword check for equality  between  two  operands.
       Both  objects must be of the same type. If the equality test fails, the
       reserved keyword print a message and abort the execution.  By  default,
       the  assertion checking is turned off. The interpreter option -f assert
       enables the assertion checking. When the  interpreter  is  compiled  in
       debug mode, the assertion checking is turned on by default.

       Syntax

              assert "form 1" "form 2"

       Example

              assert true (== 1 1) assert 3    (+  2 1)

       block
       The  block  reserved  keyword  defines  a  new  nameset  for sequential
       execution of regular form or implicit form.  When  the  block  form  is
       evaluated,  the block nameset is linked to its parent nameset. When all
       forms have been executed, the block nameset is destroyed and the result
       of  the  last evaluation in the block is considered to be the result of
       the block evaluation.

       Syntax

              block "regular form" block "block form"

       Example

              trans a 1 block {
                assert    a 1
                trans     a (+ 1 1)
                assert    a 2
                assert ..:a 1 } assert 1 a

       class
       The  class  reserved  keyword  creates  a  new  class  object.  Without
       argument,  an  instance  of that class is created without data members.
       With a list of arguments, the instance is created with a  set  of  data
       member initialized to nil.

       Syntax

              class class "data member-list"

       Example

              const Color (class) trans Color:initialize (red green blue) {
                const this:red   red
                const this:green green
                const  this:blue  blue } const red   (Color 255   0   0) const
              green (Color   0 255   0) const blue  (Color   0   0 255)

       const
       The const reserved keyword binds a symbol with an object and  marks  it
       as  a  constant  symbol. When used with three or four argument, a gamma
       expression is automatically created. const can also  be  used  to  bind
       class or instance members.

       Syntax

              const  symbol  "object"  const  symbol  "argument"  "body" const
              symbol "argument" "closed variables" "body"

       Example

              const number 123 const max (x y) (if (> x y) x y)

       daemon
       The daemon reserved keyword creates a new thread by executing the  form
       argument in a daemon thread. The created thread is executed by creating
       a clone of the interpreter and starting immediately  the  execution  of
       the  form  with  the cloned interpreter. The command returns the thread
       object in the calling thread. When the thread  terminates,  the  thread
       object holds the result of the last executed form. The main thread does
       not wait for a daemon thread to terminate.

       Syntax

              daemon "form"

       Example

              daemon (println "hello world")

       delay
       The delay reserved keyword delays the evaluation of the  form  argument
       by  creating  a  Promise object. The promise evaluate to itself until a
       call to force the evaluation has been made. When the promise  has  been
       forced,  the  evaluation  result  is stored. Further call to force will
       produce the same result.

       Syntax

              delay "form"

       Example

              trans  y 3 const  l ((lambda (x) (+ x y)) 1) assert 4 (force  l)
              trans  y 0 assert 4 (force l)

       do
       The  do  reserved keyword is used to build loop with forward condition.
       The loop construct accepts either 2 or 3 arguments.  With  2  argument,
       the first argument is the loop body and the second argument is the loop
       condition which must evaluates to a boolean object. With  3  arguments,
       the first argument is the initial condition that is executed only once.

       Syntax

              do "body" "condition" do "initial" "body" "condition"

       Example

              const number-of-digits (s) {
                const len (s:length)
                trans index 0
                trans count 0
                do {
                  trans c (s:get index)
                  if (c:digit-p) (count:++)
                } (< (index:++) len)
                eval count }

       enum
       The enum reserved  keyword  creates  an  enumeration  from  a  list  of
       literal.  The result object is an Enum object that holds the enumerated
       items. An item evaluation results with an Item object that is bound  to
       the enumeration object.

       Syntax

              enum "literal" ...

       Example

              const e (enum E1 E2 E3)

       errorln
       The  errorln  reserved keyword prints on the interpreter error stream a
       set of arguments. Each  arguments  have  to  be  a  literal  which  are
       converted  to a string. When all arguments have been printed a new line
       character is printed. The error reserved keyword behaves  like  errorln
       excepts  that  a  new  line  character is not printed at the end of the
       arguments.

       Syntax

              errorln errorln "nil" errorln "literal list"

       Example

              errorln errorln "hello millennium" ’ ’ 2000

       eval
       The eval reserved keyword simply evaluates  the  object  argument.  The
       form  is  useful  when  returning  an  argument  from a lambda or gamma
       expression using an implicit form.

       Syntax

              eval "object"

       Example

              const ret (x) (eval x) eval (protect (+ 1 2))

       for
       The for reserved keyword provides a facility  to  iterate  on  iterable
       objects.  The  Cons,  List  and  Vector  objects  are  typical iterable
       objects. For  each  iterable  objects,  a  symbol  is  set  after  each
       iteration.   Each   object   symbol  value  can  be  used  for  further
       computation. The iteration stops when one of the objects iterator is at
       the end position.

       Syntax

              for "symbol list" "iterable object list" "body"

       Example

              # compute the scalar product of two vectors const scalar-product
              (u v) {
                trans result 0
                for (x y) (u v) (result:+= (* x y))
                eval result }

       force
       The force reserved keyword forces the evaluation of  its  argument.  If
       the  argument  evaluates to a promise object, the promise evaluation is
       forced. If the argument is not a promise, force  keyword  behaves  like
       eval.  When  a  promise has been forced, further call to force will not
       change the evaluation result.

       Syntax

              force "object"

       Example

              trans  y 3 const  l ((lambda (x) (+ x y)) 1) assert 4 (force  l)
              trans  y 0 assert 4 (force l)

       if
       The  if  reserved  keyword executes a form based on the evaluation of a
       boolean expression. In its first representation, if executes a form  if
       the  condition is evaluated to true. An alternate form can be specified
       and is executed if the boolean expression evaluates to false. It is  an
       error  to  use  a conditional form which does not evaluate to a boolean
       object.

       Syntax

              if "condition" "true form"  if  "condition"  "true  form"  "else
              form"

       Example

              const max (x y) (if (> x y) x y)

       lambda
       The   lambda  reserved  keyword  creates  a  new  closure  object  with
       eventually a set of arguments and a set of  closed  variables.  In  its
       first  form,  the closure is declared with a set of arguments or nil to
       indicate no argument. In its second form, the closure is declared  with
       a  set of arguments and a set of closed variables. The closed variables
       are evaluated at the construction of the closure and become part of the
       closure  object.  When  the closure is called, a new nameset is created
       and linked with the parent nameset. The set of  calling  arguments  are
       bounded  in  that  nameset  with the formal argument list to become the
       actual arguments. The set of closed variables is linked at  runtime  to
       the closure nameset. A lambda or gamma expression can have its argument
       declared as const argument.

       Syntax

              lambda  "nil"  "body"  lambda  "argument  list"  "body"   lambda
              "argument list" "closed variables list" "body"

       Example

              const no-args (lambda nil (+ 1 1)) const add     (lambda ((const
              x) (const y)) (+ x y)) const closed  (lambda (x) (y) (+ x y))

       launch
       The launch reserved keyword creates a new thread by executing the  form
       argument  in a normal thread. The created thread is added in the normal
       thread list by  creating  a  clone  of  the  interpreter  and  starting
       immediately  the execution of the form with the cloned interpreter. The
       command returns the thread object  in  the  calling  thread.  When  the
       thread  terminates,  the  thread  object  holds  the result of the last
       executed form. The main thread is suspended until  all  normal  threads
       have completed their execution.

       Syntax

              launch "form"

       Example

              launch (println "hello world")

       loop
       The  loop  reserved  keyword  executes  a  loop  based  on  an  initial
       condition, an exit condition and a step form. The initial condition  is
       only  executed  one  time.  The  exit  condition is tested at each loop
       iteration. The loop reserved keyword creates its own nameset since  the
       initial condition generally binds symbol locally for the loop.

       Syntax

              loop "init form" "exit form" "step" "form"

       Example

              loop (trans i 0) (< i 10) (i:++) (println i)

       nameset
       The nameset reserved keyword creates a new nameset. With no argument, a
       new nameset is created and no parent is binded to  this  nameset.  With
       one  argument, the argument must evaluate to a nameset and that nameset
       is used as the parent one. If a nameset has  to  be  created  with  the
       global  nameset  as the parent, the symbol ... can be used to reference
       the top level nameset. The symbol . references the current nameset. The
       symbol .. references the parent nameset of the current nameset.

       Syntax

              nameset nameset "parent nameset"

       Example

              const  local-nameset-not-bound  (nameset)  const  local-nameset-
              bounded   (nameset ...)  const ...:global-nameset      (nameset)

       println
       The  println reserved keyword prints on the interpreter output stream a
       set of arguments.  Each  arguments  have  to  be  a  literal  which  is
       converted  to a string. When all arguments have been printed a new line
       character is printed. The print reserved keyword behaves  like  println
       excepts  that  a  new  line  character is not printed at the end of the
       arguments.

       Syntax

              println println "nil" println "literal list"

       Example

              println println "hello millennium" ’ ’ 2000

       protect
       The protect reserved keyword take a  single  argument  and  returns  it
       without  evaluation.  Protect  is  mainly  use  to get a symbol or form
       object.

       Syntax

              protect "object"

       Example

              const cons (protect (+ 1 2))

       return
       The return reserved keyword causes the current expression to  stop  its
       evaluation  and  returns  the  argument  or  nil. The return keyword is
       primarily used in lambda or gamma expressions. If used in a  top  level
       block, the block execution is stopped and the control is transferred to
       the top level.

       Syntax

              return "object"

       Example

              return (+ 1 2)

       sync
       The sync reserved keyword is  a  form  synchronizer.  Within  a  multi-
       threaded  environment,  the   AFNIX   engine  guarantees  that only one
       thread will execute the form. The other threads are suspended until the
       form has been completed.

       Syntax

              sync "form"

       Example

              const print-message (code mesg) (
                sync {
                  errorln "error  : " code
                  errorln "message: " mesg
                } )

       switch
       The  switch  reserved keyword is a form selector. The first argument is
       the object to switch. The second argument is a list of  forms  with  an
       object  matcher and an execution form. The else reserved keyword can be
       used as default matcher.

       Syntax

              switch "selector" "list of conditions"

       Example

              const get-primary-color (color value) (
                switch color (
                  ("red"   (return (value:substr 0 2))
                    ("green" (return (value:substr 2 4))
                      ("blue"  (return (value:substr 4 6))
                      )
                    )

       throw
       The throw reserved keyword throws an exception.  Without  argument,  an
       exception  of  type  user-exception  is  thrown. With one argument, the
       exception id is set. With two arguments, the exception id and exception
       reason  are  set.  With  three  arguments,  the exception id, exception
       reason and exception object are set. An exception object represented by
       the symbol what can also be thrown. This is the method used to re-throw
       an exception.

       Syntax

              throw throw what throw  "id"  throw  "id"  "reason"  throw  "id"
              "reason" "object"

       Example

              throw throw "type-error" throw "type-error" "invalid argument"

       trans
       The  trans  reserved  keyword  creates or sets a symbol with an object.
       trans searches in the current nameset only. If a symbol is found, it is
       set  with  the object. If the symbol is not found, it is created in the
       current nameset. The trans keyword can  also  be  used  with  qualified
       names.  With  3  or  4  arguments, trans creates automatically a lambda
       expression.

       Syntax

              trans symbol  "object"  trans  symbol  "argument"  "body"  trans
              symbol "argument" "closed variables" "body"

       Example

              trans a 1 trans fact (n) (if (< n 1) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1))))

       try
       The  try  reserved  keyword catch an exception in the current execution
       nameset. The first argument is a form to execute. The  optional  second
       argument is the exception handler to be called in case of exception. If
       there is no exception handler, all exceptions are caught. The result of
       execution  is either the result of the form execution, or the exception
       object in case of exception, or nil if the exception is a  native  one.
       If  there  is  an exception handler, the handler is executed with a new
       nameset and the special symbol what is bound to the exception.  If  the
       exception is nil, the symbol what is undefined.

       Syntax

              try "form" try "form" " exception handler"

       Example

              try  (+  1 2) try (throw) try (throw "hello") try (throw "hello"
              "world") try (throw "hello" "world" "folks")

       while
       The while  reserved  keyword  is  used  to  build  loop  with  backward
       condition.  The  loop construct accepts either 2 or 3 arguments. With 2
       argument, the first argument is  the  loop  condition  and  the  second
       argument  is  the  loop  body  that  must evaluate to a boolean. With 3
       arguments, the first argument is the initial condition that is executed
       only once.

       Syntax

              while "condition" "body" while "initial" "condition" "body"

       Example

              const gcd (u v) {
                while (!= v 0) {
                  trans r (u:mod v)
                  u:= v
                  v:= r
                }
                eval u }

RESERVED OBJECTS

       This  chapter is a reference of the  AFNIX  reserved objects with their
       respective builtin methods. The   AFNIX   reserved  objects  are  those
       objects  defined in the global interpreter nameset and bind as reserved
       names. All literal have a string representation. The  to-string  method
       is  always available for these reserved objects. A literal object has a
       default constructor. Generally, it can also be constructed  by  a  same
       type object or by a string object.

       Literal
       The  Literal  object  is a base object for all literal object. The sole
       purpose of a literal object is to provide to  methods  named  to-string
       and  to-literal  that  return  a  string  representation of the literal
       object.

       Predicate

              literal-p

       Inheritance

              Serial

       Methods

              to-string -> String (none)
              The to-string method returns  a  string  representation  of  the
              literal.  The  string  is  expected  to  represent  at  best the
              literal.

              to-literal -> String (none)
              The to-literal method returns a  string  representation  of  the
              literal.  The  string  differs  from the to-string method in the
              sense that the string is a literal representation.  For  example
              the literal representation of a string is the quoted string.

       Nameable
       The  Nameable object is a base object that support name definition. The
       sole purpose of a literal object is to provide to method named get-name
       that returns the object name.

       Predicate

              nameable-p

       Inheritance

              Object

       Methods

              get-name -> String (none)
              The  get-name  method  returns  the  associated object name. The
              object name defined here is a name  that  the  class  wishes  to
              associate  with  the  object.  For  example,  the InputFile is a
              nameable class and the name is the file name.

       Item
       The Item reserved object is an enumeration item. The item is  bound  to
       an  enumeration object. An item object is created during the evaluation
       of an enumeration object. An enumeration  item  cannot  be  constructed
       directly.

       Predicate

              item-p

       Inheritance

              Literal

       Operators

              == -> Boolean (Boolean)
              The  ==  operator returns true if the calling object is equal to
              the boolean argument.

              != -> Boolean (Boolean)
              The == operator returns true if the calling object is not  equal
              to the boolean argument.

       Methods

              get-enum -> Enum (none)
              The  get-enum method returns the enumeration object bound to the
              item. The item must be a dynamic item or an exception is thrown.

       Boolean
       The Boolean reserved object implements the behavior of a native boolean
       type. Two builtin symbols, namely true and false are used to  represent
       the value of a boolean instance. The Boolean type is primarily used for
       test expression.

       Predicate

              boolean-p

       Inheritance

              Literal

       Constructors

              Boolean (none)
              The Boolean constructor create a boolean  object  those  default
              value is false.

              Boolean (Boolean)
              The Boolean constructor create a boolean object with the boolean
              object argument.

              Boolean (String)
              The Boolean constructor create a boolean object with the  string
              object  argument. The string "true" denotes the true value while
              the string "false" denotes the false value.

       Operators

              == -> Boolean (Boolean)
              The == operator returns true if the calling object is  equal  to
              the boolean argument.

              != -> Boolean (Boolean)
              The  == operator returns true if the calling object is not equal
              to the boolean argument.

       Integer
       The Integer reserved object implements the behavior of a native 64 bits
       signed  integer  type.  Standard  decimal notation is used to construct
       integer  object  from  a  literal.  The  integer  object  can  also  be
       constructed  from  a  string.  Standard operators are provided for this
       class.

       Predicate

              integer-p

       Inheritance

              Literal

       Constructors

              Integer (none)
              The Integer constructor create an integer object  those  default
              value is 0.

              Integer (Real)
              The  Integer  constructor create an integer object with the real
              object argument those value is truncated to an integer value.

              Integer (Integer)
              The Integer  constructor  create  an  integer  object  with  the
              integer object argument.

              Integer (Character)
              The  Integer  constructor  create  an  integer  object  with the
              character object argument. The character encoding value is  used
              as the integer value.

       Operators

              == -> Boolean (Integer|Real)
              The  ==  operator returns true if the calling object is equal to
              the integer or real argument.

              != -> Boolean (Integer|Real)
              The != operator returns true if the calling object is not  equal
              to the integer or real argument.

              + -> Integer (Integer|Real)
              The  +  operator  returns the sum of the calling integer with an
              integer or a real object.

              - -> Integer (Integer|Real)
              The - operator returns the subtraction of  the  calling  integer
              with an integer or a real object.

              * -> Integer (Integer|Real)
              The * operator returns the multiplication of the calling integer
              with an integer or a real object.

              / -> Integer (Integer|Real)
              The / operator returns the division of the calling integer  with
              an integer or a real object.

              < -> Boolean (Integer|Real)
              The  < operator returns true if the calling integer is less than
              the integer or real object.

              <= -> Boolean (Integer|Real)
              The <= operator returns true if  the  calling  integer  is  less
              equal than the integer or real object.

              > -> Boolean (Integer|Real)
              The  >  operator  returns true if the calling integer is greater
              than the integer or real object.

              >= -> Boolean (Integer|Real)
              The >= operator returns true if the calling integer  is  greater
              equal than the integer or real object.

              ++ -> Integer (Integer|Real)
              The ++ operator increments the calling integer by 1.

              -- -> Integer (Integer|Real)
              The -- operator decrements the calling integer by 1.

              += -> Integer (Integer|Real)
              The  +=  operator  add  and  assign  the calling integer with an
              integer or real argument object.

              -= -> Integer (Integer|Real)
              The -= operator subtracts and assign the calling integer with an
              integer or real argument object.

              *= -> Integer (Integer|Real)
              The  *= operator multiply and assign the calling integer with an
              integer or real argument object.

              /= -> Integer (Integer|Real)
              The += operator divide and assign the calling  integer  with  an
              integer or real argument object.

       Methods

              or -> Integer (Integer)
              The  or method returns the binary or between the integer and the
              integer argument.

              abs -> Integer (none)
              The abs method returns the absolute value of the calling integer
              instance.

              not -> Integer (none)
              The  not  method  returns  the  binary  negation  of the calling
              integer instance.

              shl -> Integer (Integer)
              The shl method  returns  a  new  integer  corresponding  to  the
              calling integer instance shifted left by the integer argument.

              shr -> Integer (Integer)
              The  shr  method  returns  a  new  integer  corresponding to the
              calling integer instance shifted right by the integer  argument.

              and -> Integer (Integer)
              The and method returns a new integer corresponding to the binary
              and  between  the  calling  integer  instance  and  the  integer
              argument.

              xor -> Integer (Integer)
              The xor method returns a new integer corresponding to the binary
              xor  between  the  calling  integer  instance  and  the  integer
              argument.

              mod -> Integer (Integer)
              The  mod  method returns the modulo between the integer instance
              and the integer argument. A type-error exception  is  raised  if
              the argument is not an argument.

              odd-p -> Boolean (none)
              The  odd-p  method  returns true if the integer instance is odd,
              false otherwise.

              even-p -> Boolean (none)
              The even-p method returns true if the integer instance is  even,
              false otherwise.

              zero-p -> Boolean (none)
              The  zero-p method returns true if the integer instance is null,
              false otherwise.

       Relatif
       The Relatif reserved object implements the  behavior  of  an  unlimited
       signed  integer  type. Standard decimal notation followed by the ’r’ or
       ’R’ character is used to construct relatif object from a  literal.  The
       relatif  object  can  also  be constructed from a string. This class is
       similar to the Integer class.

       Predicate

              relatif-p

       Inheritance

              Literal

       Constructors

              Relatif (none)
              The Relatif constructor create a relatif  object  those  default
              value is 0.

              Relatif (Real)
              The  Relatif  constructor create an relatif object with the real
              object argument those value is truncated to an integer value.

              Relatif (Relatif)
              The Relatif  constructor  create  an  relatif  object  with  the
              relatif object argument.

              Relatif (Integer)
              The  Relatif  constructor  create  an  relatif  object  with the
              integer object argument.

              Relatif (Character)
              The Relatif  constructor  create  an  relatif  object  with  the
              character  object argument. The character encoding value is used
              as the relatif value.

       Operators

              == -> Boolean (Relatif|Integer)
              The == operator returns true if the calling object is  equal  to
              the relatif or integer argument.

              != -> Boolean (Relatif|Integer)
              The  == operator returns true if the calling object is not equal
              to the relatif or integer argument.

              + -> Relatif (Relatif|Integer)
              The + operator returns the sum of the calling  relatif  with  an
              relatif or a integer object.

              - -> Relatif (Relatif|Integer)
              The  -  operator  returns the subtraction of the calling relatif
              with an relatif or a integer object.

              * -> Relatif (Relatif|Integer)
              The * operator returns the multiplication of the calling relatif
              with an relatif or a integer object.

              / -> Relatif (Relatif|Integer)
              The  / operator returns the division of the calling relatif with
              an relatif or a integer object.

              < -> Boolean (Relatif|Integer)
              The < operator returns true if the calling relatif is less  than
              the relatif or integer object.

              <= -> Boolean (Relatif|Integer)
              The  <=  operator  returns  true  if the calling relatif is less
              equal than the relatif or integer object.

              > -> Boolean (Relatif|Integer)
              The > operator returns true if the calling  relatif  is  greater
              than the relatif or integer object.

              >= -> Boolean (Relatif|Integer)
              The  >=  operator returns true if the calling relatif is greater
              equal than the relatif or integer object.

              ++ -> Relatif (Relatif|Integer)
              The ++ operator increments the calling relatif by 1.

              -- -> Relatif (Relatif|Integer)
              The -- operator decrements the calling relatif by 1.

              += -> Relatif (Relatif|Integer)
              The += operator add and  assign  the  calling  relatif  with  an
              relatif or integer argument object.

              -= -> Relatif (Relatif|Integer)
              The -= operator subtracts and assign the calling relatif with an
              relatif or integer argument object.

              *= -> Relatif (Relatif|Integer)
              The *= operator multiply and assign the calling relatif with  an
              relatif or integer argument object.

              /= -> Relatif (Relatif|Integer)
              The  +=  operator  divide and assign the calling relatif with an
              relatif or integer argument object.

       Methods

              or -> Relatif (Relatif)
              The or method returns the binary or between the relatif and  the
              relatif argument.

              abs -> Relatif (none)
              The abs method returns the absolute value of the calling relatif
              instance.

              not -> Relatif (none)
              The not method  returns  the  binary  negation  of  the  calling
              relatif instance.

              shl -> Relatif (Integer)
              The  shl  method  returns  a  new  relatif  corresponding to the
              calling relatif instance shifted left by the integer argument.

              shr -> Relatif (Integer)
              The shr method  returns  a  new  relatif  corresponding  to  the
              calling  relatif instance shifted right by the integer argument.

              and -> Relatif (Relatif)
              The and method returns a new relatif corresponding to the binary
              and  between  the  calling  relatif  instance  and  the  relatif
              argument.

              xor -> Relatif (Relatif)
              The xor method returns a new relatif corresponding to the binary
              xor  between  the  calling  relatif  instance  and  the  relatif
              argument.

              mod -> Relatif (Relatif|Integer)
              The mod method returns the modulo between the  relatif  instance
              and  the  relatif or integer argument. A type-error exception is
              raised if the argument is invalid.

              odd-p -> Boolean (none)
              The odd-p method returns true if the relatif  instance  is  odd,
              false otherwise.

              even-p -> Boolean (none)
              The  even-p method returns true if the relatif instance is even,
              false otherwise.

              zero-p -> Boolean (none)
              The zero-p method returns true if the relatif instance is  null,
              false otherwise.

       Real
       The  Real  reserved object implements the behavior of a double floating
       point number type. Standard decimal dot notation or scientific notation
       is  used  to  construct real object from a literal. The real object can
       also be constructed from an integer, a character or a string.

       Predicate

              real-p

       Inheritance

              Literal

       Constructors

              Real (none)
              The Real constructor create an real object those  default  value
              is 0.0.

              Real (Real)
              The  Real constructor create an real object with the real object
              argument.

              Real (Integer)
              The Real constructor create an  real  object  with  the  integer
              object argument.

              Real (Character)
              The  Real  constructor  create an real object with the character
              object argument. The character encoding value  is  used  as  the
              integer value.

       Operators

              == -> Boolean (Integer|Real)
              The  ==  operator returns true if the calling object is equal to
              the integer or real argument.

              != -> Boolean (Integer|Real)
              The == operator returns true if the calling object is not  equal
              to the integer or real argument.

              + -> Real (Integer|Real)
              The  +  operator  returns  the  sum  of the calling real with an
              integer or a real object.

              - -> Real (Integer|Real)
              The - operator returns the subtraction of the calling real  with
              an integer or a real object.

              * -> Real (Integer|Real)
              The  *  operator  returns the multiplication of the calling real
              with an integer or a real object.

              / -> Real (Integer|Real)
              The / operator returns the division of the calling real with  an
              integer or a real object.

              < -> Boolean (Integer|Real)
              The < operator returns true if the calling real is less than the
              integer or real object.

              <= -> Boolean (Integer|Real)
              The <= operator returns true if the calling real is  less  equal
              than the integer or real object.

              > -> Boolean (Integer|Real)
              The  > operator returns true if the calling real is greater than
              the integer or real object.

              >= -> Boolean (Integer|Real)
              The >= operator returns true if  the  calling  real  is  greater
              equal than the integer or real object.

              ++ -> Real (Integer|Real)
              The ++ operator increments the calling real by 1.

              -- -> Real (Integer|Real)
              The -- operator decrements the calling real by 1.

              += -> Real (Integer|Real)
              The  += operator add and assign the calling real with an integer
              or real argument object.

              -= -> Real (Integer|Real)
              The -= operator subtracts and assign the calling  real  with  an
              integer or real argument object.

              *= -> Real (Integer|Real)
              The  *=  operator  multiply  and assign the calling real with an
              integer or real argument object.

              /= -> Real (Integer|Real)
              The += operator divide and  assign  the  calling  real  with  an
              integer or real argument object.

       Methods

              nan-p -> Boolean (none)
              The  nan-p  method  returns  true  if  the  calling  real number
              instance is not-a-number (nan).

              ceiling -> Real (none)
              The ceiling method returns  the  ceiling  of  the  calling  real
              number instance.

              floor -> Real (none)
              The  floor  method  returns the floor of the calling real number
              instance.

              abs -> Real (none)
              The abs method returns the absolute value of  the  calling  real
              number instance.

              pow -> Real (Real|Integer)
              The  pow  method  returns the power of the calling real with the
              argument. The exponent argument can be either an  integer  or  a
              real number.

              sqrt -> Real (none)
              The  sqrt  method  returns  the  square root of the calling real
              number instance.

              log -> Real (none)
              The log method returns the natural logarithm of the calling real
              number instance.

              exp -> Real (none)
              The  exp  method  returns  the  exponential  of the calling real
              number instance.

              sin -> Real (none)
              The sin method returns the sine of the  calling  floating  point
              instance. The angle is expressed in radian.

              cos -> Real (none)
              The  cos method returns the cosine of the calling floating point
              instance. The angle is expressed in radian.

              tan -> Real (none)
              The tan method returns the tangent of the calling floating point
              instance. The angle is expressed in radian.

              asin -> Real (none)
              The  asin  method  returns  the arc sine of the calling floating
              point instance. The result is in radian.

              acos -> Real (none)
              The acos method returns the arc cosine of the  calling  floating
              point instance. The result is in radian.

              atan -> Real (none)
              The  atan method returns the arc tangent of the calling floating
              point instance. The result is in radian.

              sinh -> Real (none)
              The sinh method returns the hyperbolic sine of the calling  real
              number instance.

              cosh -> Real (none)
              The  cosh  method  returns  the hyperbolic cosine of the calling
              real number instance.

              tanh -> Real (none)
              The atan method returns the hyperbolic tangent  of  the  calling
              real number instance.

              asinh -> Real (none)
              The  asinh method returns the hyperbolic arc sine of the calling
              real number instance.

              acosh -> Real (none)
              The acosh method  returns  the  hyperbolic  arc  cosine  of  the
              calling real number instance.

              atanh -> Real (none)
              The  atanh  method  returns  the  hyperbolic  arc tangent of the
              calling real number instance.

              zero-p -> Boolean (none)
              The zero-p method returns true if the calling real  instance  is
              null, false otherwise.

              format -> String (Integer)
              The format method format the calling real instance with n digits
              after the decimal point. The number  of  digits  is  the  format
              argument.

       Character
       The  Character  reserved  object  implements the behavior of an Unicode
       character type. A character can be constructed from  a  literal  quoted
       notation,  with  a  string  or  with  the  U+ hexadecimal notation. The
       character class is designed to handle the full  range  of  the  Unicode
       character space by using an internal 32 bit quad representation with 31
       bit valid.  The  Character  class  conform  also  with  the  ISO  10646
       character representation.

       Predicate

              character-p

       Inheritance

              Literal

       Constructors

              Character (none)
              The  Character  constructor  create  a  character  object  those
              default value is the null character.

              Character (String)
              The Character constructor create a  character  object  with  the
              string object argument.

              Character (Integer)
              The  Character  constructor  create  a character object with the
              integer object argument.

              Character (Character)
              The Character constructor create a  character  object  with  the
              character object argument.

       Operators

              == -> Boolean (Character)
              The  ==  operator returns true if the calling object is equal to
              the character argument.

              != -> Boolean (Character)
              The != operator returns true if the calling object is not  equal
              to the character argument.

              < -> Boolean (Character)
              The  <  operator  returns  true if the calling character is less
              than the character object.

              <= -> Boolean (Character)
              The <= operator returns true if the calling  character  is  less
              equal than the character object.

              > -> Boolean (Character)
              The  > operator returns true if the calling character is greater
              than the character object.

              >= -> Boolean (Character)
              The >= operator returns true if the calling character is greater
              equal than the character object.

              ++ -> Character (Character)
              The ++ operator increments the calling character by the next one
              in lexicographic order.

              -- -> Character (Character)
              The -- operator decrements the calling character by the previous
              one in lexicographic order.

              += -> Character (Integer)
              The  +=  operator  add  the  integer  argument  to  the  calling
              character.

              -= -> Character (Integer)
              The -= operator subtracts the integer argument  to  the  calling
              character.

       Methods

              letter-p -> Boolean (none)
              The  letter-p  method  returns  true  if  character  is a letter
              character, false otherwise.

              digit-p -> Boolean (none)
              The  digit-p  method  returns  true  if  character  is  a  digit
              character, false otherwise.

              alpha-p -> Boolean (none)
              The  alpha-p method returns true if character is an alphanumeric
              character, false otherwise.

              blank-p -> Boolean (none)
              The blank-p method returns true if character is a blank  or  tab
              character, false otherwise.

              eol-p -> Boolean (none)
              The  eol-p  method  returns  true if character is an end of line
              character, false otherwise.

              eof-p -> Boolean (none)
              The eof-p method returns true if character is  an  end  of  file
              character, false otherwise.

              nil-p -> Boolean (none)
              The nil-p method returns true if character is the nil character,
              false otherwise.

              to-integer -> Integer (none)
              The to-integer method returns an integer representation  of  the
              character.

       Byte
       The  Byte reserved object implements the behavior of an 8 bit character
       type. A byte can be constructed from a integer or  from  another  byte.
       The  Byte  class is similar to the Character class but is not a literal
       object because it does not have a literal representation. Most  of  the
       time,  a  byte  object is created by another object like a stream, when
       using the read method for example.

       Predicate

              byte-p

       Inheritance

              Serial

       Constructors

              Byte (none)
              The Byte constructor create a byte object those default value is
              the null byte.

              Byte (Integer)
              The  Byte  constructor  create  a  byte  object with the integer
              object argument. The integer value must be in the range of  0x00
              to 0xFF.

              Byte (Byte)
              The  Byte  constructor create a byte object with the byte object
              argument.

       Operators

              == -> Boolean (Byte)
              The == operator returns true if the calling object is  equal  to
              the byte argument.

              != -> Boolean (Byte)
              The  != operator returns true if the calling object is not equal
              to the byte argument.

              < -> Boolean (Byte)
              The < operator returns true if the calling byte is less than the
              byte object.

              <= -> Boolean (Byte)
              The  <=  operator returns true if the calling byte is less equal
              than the byte object.

              > -> Boolean (Byte)
              The > operator returns true if the calling byte is greater  than
              the byte object.

              >= -> Boolean (Byte)
              The  >=  operator  returns  true  if the calling byte is greater
              equal than the byte object.

              ++ -> Byte (Byte)
              The ++ operator increments the calling byte by one.

              -- -> Byte (Byte)
              The -- operator decrements the calling byte by one.

              += -> Byte (Integer)
              The += operator adds the integer argument to the calling byte.

              -= -> Byte (Integer)
              The -= operator subtracts the integer argument  to  the  calling
              byte.

       Methods

              eof-p -> Boolean (none)
              The  eof-p  method  returns  true  if the byte is an end of file
              byte, false otherwise.

              nil-p -> Boolean (none)
              The nil-p method returns true if the byte is the nil byte, false
              otherwise.

              to-integer -> Integer (none)
              The  to-integer  method returns an integer representation of the
              byte.

              to-char -> Character (none)
              The to-char method returns a character representing the byte.

       String
       The String reserved object  implements  the  behavior  of  an  internal
       character  array. The double quote notation is the literal notation for
       a string. A string can also be constructed  from  the  standard   AFNIX
       objects.  Strings  can  be  compared, transformed or extracted with the
       help of the methods listed below. Internally, the string is represented
       as an array of Unicode characters.

       Predicate

              string-p

       Inheritance

              Literal

       Constructors

              String (none)
              The  String  constructor  create  a  string object those default
              value is the null string.

              String (Literal)
              The String constructor create a string object with  the  literal
              object argument.

       Operators

              == -> Boolean (String)
              The  ==  operator returns true if the calling object is equal to
              the string argument.

              != -> Boolean (String)
              The != operator returns true if the calling object is not  equal
              to the string argument.

              < -> Boolean (String)
              The  <  operator returns true if the calling string is less than
              the string argument.

              <= -> Boolean (String)
              The <= operator returns true if the calling string is less equal
              than the string argument.

              > -> Boolean (String)
              The  >  operator  returns  true if the calling string is greater
              than the string argument.

              >= -> Boolean (String)
              The >= operator returns true if the calling  string  is  greater
              equal than the string argument.

              + -> String (String)
              The  +  operator  returns  the sum of the calling string with an
              string object.

              += -> String (String)
              The += operator add and  assign  the  calling  string  with  the
              string argument.

       Methods

              length -> Integer (none)
              The length method returns the length of the string.

              first -> Character (none)
              The first method returns the first character in the string.

              last -> Character (none)
              The last method returns the last character in the string.

              strip-left -> String (none|String)
              The  strip-left  method  removes the leading blanks and tabs and
              returns a new string. With a string argument, each character  in
              the  string  is  taken  as  a character separator that should be
              stripped.

              strip-right -> String (none|String)
              The strip-right method removes the trailing blanks and tabs  and
              returns  a  new string.With a string argument, each character in
              the string is taken as a  character  separator  that  should  be
              stripped.

              strip -> String (none|String)
              The  strip  method removes the leading, trailing blanks and tabs
              and returns a new string. With a string argument, each character
              in  the  string is taken as a character separator that should be
              stripped.

              split -> Vector (none|String)
              The split method split  the  string  into  one  or  more  string
              according  to  break  sequence.  If no argument is passed to the
              call, the break sequence is assumed to be a blank, tab  and  eol
              characters.

              extract -> Vector (Character)
              The  extract  method  extracts  one  or  more  string  which are
              enclosed by a control  character  passed  as  an  argument.  The
              method returns a vector of strings.

              to-upper -> String (none)
              The  to-upper  converts  all string characters to upper case and
              returns a new string.

              to-lower -> String (none)
              The to-lower method converts all string characters to lower case
              and returns a new string.

              get -> Character (Integer)
              The  get  method  returns a the string character at the position
              given by the argument. If the index is invalid, an exception  is
              raised.

              sub-left -> String (Integer)
              The  sub-left  method returns the left sub string of the calling
              string up-to the argument index. If the index is out  of  range,
              the string is returned.

              sub-right -> String (Integer)
              The sub-right method returns the right sub string of the calling
              string starting at the argument index. If the index  is  out  of
              range, the string is returned.

              fill-left -> String (Character Integer)
              The  fill-left  method  returns a string filled on the left with
              the character argument.  The  second  argument  is  the  desired
              length  of the resulting string. If the calling is too long, the
              string is returned.

              fill-right -> String (Character Integer)
              The fill-left method returns a string filled on the  right  with
              the  character  argument.  The  second  argument  is the desired
              length of the resulting string. If the calling is too long,  the
              string is returned.

              substr -> String (Integer Integer)
              The  substr  method  returns  a  string  starting  at  the first
              argument index and ending at the second argument index.  If  the
              indexes are out of range, an exception is raised.

       Regex
       The   Regex   object   is  a  special  object  which  is  automatically
       instantiated by the interpreter when using the  delimiter  character  [
       and  ].  The regex syntax involves the use of standard characters, meta
       characters and control characters. Additionally, a string can be use to
       specify  a  series  of  characters.  In  its  first  form,  the [ and ]
       characters  are  used  as  syntax  delimiters.  The  lexical   analyzer
       automatically recognizes this token as a regex and built the equivalent
       Regex object. The second form is the explicit construction of the Regex
       object.  Note  also  that the [ and ] characters are also used as regex
       block delimiters. Any character, except the one used as  operators  can
       be  used  in a regex. The $ character is used as a meta-character -- or
       control character -- to represent a particular set of  characters.  For
       example,  [hello  world]  is a regex which match only the "hello world"
       string. The [$d+] regex matches  one  or  more  digits.  The  following
       control characters are builtin in the regex engine.

       Character   Description
       $a          matches any letter or digit
       $b          matches any blank characters
       $d          matches any digit
       $e          matches eol, cr and eof
       $l          matches any lower case letter
       $n          matches eol or cr
       $s          matches any letter
       $u          matches any upper case letter
       $v          matches any valid afnix constituent
       $w          matches any word constituent
       $x          matches any hexadecimal characters

       The  uppercase version is the complement of the corresponding lowercase
       character set. A character which follows a $ character and that is  not
       a  meta  character  is treated as a normal character. For example $[ is
       the [ character. A quoted  string  can  be  used  to  define  character
       matching  which could otherwise be interpreted as control characters or
       operator. A quoted string also interprets  standard  escaped  sequences
       but not meta characters.

       Character   Description
       $A          any character except letter or digit
       $B          any character except blank characters
       $D          any character except digit
       $E          any character except eol, cr and eof
       $L          any character except lower case letter
       $N          any character except eol or cr
       $S          any character except letter
       $U          any character except upper case letter
       $V          any character except afnix constituent
       $W          any character except word constituent
       $X          any character except hex characters

       A  character  set  is defined with the < and > characters. Any enclosed
       character defines a character set. Note that meta characters  are  also
       interpreted  inside a character set. For example, <$d+-> represents any
       digit or a plus or minus. If the first character is the ^ character  in
       the  character  set,  the character set is complemented with regards to
       its definition. The following unary operators can be used  with  single
       character, control characters and sub-expressions.

       Operator   Description
       *          match 0 or more times
       +          match 1 or more times
       ?          match 0 or 1 time
       |          alternation

       Alternation is an operator which work with a secondary expression. Care
       should be taken when writing the right sub-expression. For example  the
       following  regex  [$d|hello]  is  equivalent  to [[$d|h]ello]. In other
       word, the minimal first  sub-expression  is  used  when  compiling  the
       regex.

       Predicate

              regex-p

       Inheritance

              Literal

       Constructors

              Regex (none)
              The  Regex constructor create a regex object those default value
              is the null regex.

              Regex (String)
              The Regex constructor create a  regex  object  with  the  string
              object argument. The string argument is the regex specification.

       Operators

              == -> Boolean (String)
              The == operator returns true if the argument is matched  by  the
              regex.

              != -> Boolean (String)
              The  !=  operator returns true if the argument is not matched by
              the regex.

              < -> Boolean (String)
              The < operator returns true if the argument is partially matched
              by the regex.

       Methods

              length -> Integer (none)
              The  length method returns the length of the group vector when a
              regex match has been successful.

              get -> String (Integer)
              The get method returns by index  the  group  sub-string  when  a
              regex match has been successful.

              match -> String (String)
              The  match  method  returns  the  first  matching  string of the
              argument string.

              replace -> String (String String)
              The replace method returns a string constructed by replacing all
              matching  sub-string  --  from  the  first  argument -- with the
              second argument string.

CONTAINER OBJECTS

       This chapter is a reference of the  AFNIX  reserved  container  objects
       with  their respective builtin methods. Some of these container objects
       are  iterable  objects.  When  an  object  is  iterable,  an   iterator
       constructor  constructor  is provided. The iterable-p predicate returns
       true if the container is an iterable object.  The  get-iterator  method
       can  be used to construct an object iterator. For a given iterator, the
       predicates end-p and valid-p can be used to check  for  the  end  or  a
       valid  iterator position. The next method move the iterator to its next
       position. The prev method move the iterator -- if possible  --  to  its
       previous  position.  The  get-object  method  returns the object at the
       current iterator position.

       Cons
       A Cons instance or simply a cons cell is a simple element used to build
       linked  list.  The  cons cell holds an object and a pointer to the next
       cons cell. The cons cell object is called car and the next cons cell is
       called  the  cdr.  Historically, car means Current Address Register and
       cdr means Current Data Register. We retain in  AFNIX  this notation for
       the sake of tradition.

       Predicate

              cons-p

       Inheritance

              SerialIterable

       Constructors

              Cons (none)
              The Cons constructor create a default cons cell with the car and
              cdr set to nil.

              Cons (Objects...)
              The Cons constructor create a list of cons cells with the object
              arguments.  Each  argument  object is assigned to the car of the
              cons cell while the cdr is used to link the cell together.

       Methods

              get-car -> Object (none)
              The get-car method returns the car of the calling cons cell.

              get-cdr -> Cons (none)
              The get-cdr method returns the cdr of the calling cons cell.

              get-cadr -> Object (none)
              The get-cadr method returns the car of the cdr  of  the  calling
              cons cell or nil if the cdr is nil.

              get-caddr -> Object (none)
              The  get-caddr  method  returns the car of the cdr of the cdr of
              the calling cons cell or nil if the cdr is nil.

              get-cadddr -> Object (none)
              The get-cadddr method returns the car of the cdr of the  cdr  of
              the cdr of the calling cons cell or nil if the cdr is nil.

              length -> Integer (none)
              The  length  method  returns  the  length  of the cons cell. The
              minimum length returned is always 1.

              nil-p -> Boolean (none)
              The nil-p predicate returns true if the car of the calling  cons
              cell is nil, false otherwise.

              block-p -> Boolean (none)
              The  block-p  predicate returns true if the cons cell is of type
              block, false otherwise.

              get-iterator -> Iterator (none)
              The get-iterator returns a forward iterator for this cons  cell.
              No backward methods are supported for this object.

              set-car -> Object (Object)
              The  set-car  set  the  car of the calling cons cell. The object
              argument is returned by the method.

              set-cdr -> Cons (Cons)
              The set-cdr set the cdr of the calling cons cell. The cons  cell
              argument is returned by the method.

              append -> Object (Object)
              The  append method appends an object at the end of the cons cell
              chain by creating a new cons cell and linking it with  the  last
              cdr. The object argument is returned by this method.

              link -> Object (Object)
              The  link method is similar to the append except that a new cons
              cell is not created if the car is nil. Instead the  car  is  set
              with the calling object. The object argument is returned by this
              method.

              get -> Object (Integer)
              The get method returns the car of  the  cons  cell  chain  at  a
              certain position specified by the integer index argument.

       Enum
       The  Enum  builtin  object is an enumeration object. The enumeration is
       constructed with the reserved keyword enum and a list of literals or by
       string name with a constructor.

       Predicate

              enum-p

       Inheritance

              Object

       Constructors

              Enum (none)
              The Enum constructor create an empty enumeration.

              Enum (String...)
              The Enum constructor create an enumeration from a list of string
              arguments.

       Methods

              reset -> none (none)
              The reset method resets the enumeration and makes it empty.

              length -> Integer (none)
              The  length  method  returns  the  number  of   items   in   the
              enumeration.

              exists-p -> Boolean (String)
              The  exists-p predicate returns true if the name argument exists
              as an item. The name argument must  be  a  lexical  name  or  an
              exception is thrown.

              add -> none (String)
              The  add method adds a new item to the enumeration by name. This
              method returns nil.

              get -> String (Integer)
              The get method returns an item string representation  by  index.
              The integer argument is the item index.

       List
       The  List  builtin  object provides the facility of a double-link list.
       The List object is another example of iterable object. The List  object
       provides support for forward and backward iteration.

       Predicate

              list-p

       Inheritance

              Iterable

       Constructors

              List (none)
              The List constructor create an empty list.

              List (Object...)
              The  List  constructor  create  a  list  from  a  list of object
              arguments.

       Methods

              length -> Integer (none)
              The length method returns the length of the  list.  The  minimum
              length is 0 for an empty list.

              get-iterator -> Iterator (none)
              The  get-iterator  returns  a forward/backward iterator for this
              list.

              append -> Object (Object)
              The append method appends an object at the end of the list.  The
              object argument is returned by this method.

              insert -> Object (Object)
              The  insert  method  inserts  an  object at the beginning of the
              list. The object argument is returned by this method.

              get -> Object (Integer)
              The get method returns the object  in  the  list  at  a  certain
              position specified by the integer index argument.

       Vector
       The  Vector  builtin  object provides the facility of an index array of
       objects. The Vector object is another example of iterable  object.  The
       Vector object provides support for forward and backward iteration.

       Predicate

              vector-p

       Inheritance

              SerialIterable

       Constructors

              Vector (none)
              The Vector constructor create an empty vector.

              Vector (Object...)
              The  Vector  constructor  create  a vector from a list of object
              arguments.

       Methods

              reset -> none (none)
              The reset method reset the vector. When the method is  complete,
              the vector is empty.

              length -> Integer (none)
              The  length method returns the length of the vector. The minimum
              length is 0 for an empty vector.

              empty-p -> Boolean (none)
              The empty-p predicate returns true if the vector is empty.

              get -> Object (Integer)
              The get method returns the object in the  vector  at  a  certain
              position specified by the integer index argument.

              set -> Object (Integer Object)
              The  set  method set a vector position with an object. The first
              argument is the vector index. The second argument is the  object
              to set. The method returns the object to set.

              first -> Object (none)
              The first method returns the first element in the vector.

              last -> Object (none)
              The first method returns the last element in the vector.

              back-track -> Object (none)
              The back-track method removes the last element in the vector and
              returns it.

              pop -> Object (none)
              The pop method removes the  first  element  in  the  vector  and
              returns it.

              find -> Integer (Object)
              The  find  method  try  to  find an object in the vector. If the
              object is found, the vector index  is  returned  as  an  Integer
              object, else nilp is returned.

              append -> Object (Object|Object Integer)
              The  append method appends an object at the end of the vector or
              at a certain index. In the first form, the  object  argument  is
              added  at  the end of the vector. In the second form, the object
              argument is inserted in the vector at the  specified  index.  In
              both cases, the object argument is returned by this method.

              exists-p -> Boolean (Object)
              The  exists-p  method returns true if the object argument exists
              in the vector. This method is useful to make sure that only  one
              occurrence of an object is added to a vector.

              clean -> none (Integer)
              The  clean method removes an object from the vector by index and
              repack the vector.

              remove -> none (Object)
              The remove method removes an object from the vector  and  repack
              the  vector.  If  duplicate  exists  in  the  file,  only one is
              removed.

              get-iterator -> Iterator (none)
              The get-iterator returns a forward/backward  iterator  for  this
              vector.

       HashTable
       The HashTable builtin object is a container object which maps an object
       with a name. The hash table is dynamic and  get  resized  automatically
       when  needed.  The  lookup method throw an exception if the name is not
       found. The get method returns nilp if the object is not found.

       Predicate

              hashtable-p

       Inheritance

              Object

       Constructors

              HashTable (none)
              The HashTable constructor create an empty table.

              HashTable (Integer)
              The HashTable constructor create a table with a specific size.

       Methods

              add -> none (String Object)
              The add method adds a new object in the table by key. The  first
              argument  is  the key used to associate the object in the table.
              The second argument is the object to add.

              length -> Object (none)
              The length returns the number of objects in the table.

              empty-p -> Boolean (none)
              The empty-p predicate returns true if the table is empty.

              reset -> none (none)
              The reset method resets the table so that it becomes empty.

              get -> Object (String)
              The get method returns the object associated with a key. If  the
              key is not found, nil is returned.

              lookup -> Object (String)
              The  lookup  method returns the object associated with a key. If
              the key is not found, an exception is raised.

              get-key -> String (Integer)
              The get-key method returns the key associated with an  entry  in
              the  table  by index. If the index is out of range, an exception
              is raised.

              get-object -> Object (Integer)
              The get-object method returns  the  object  associated  with  an
              entry  in  the  table by index. If the index is out of range, an
              exception is raised.

       Set
       The Set builtin object provides  the  facility  of  a  uniform  set  of
       objects.  The Set object is another example of iterable object. The Set
       object provides support for forward and backward iteration.

       Predicate

              set-p

       Inheritance

              SerialIterable

       Constructors

              Set (none)
              The Set constructor create an empty set.

              Set (Object...)
              The  Set  constructor  create  a  set  from  a  list  of  object
              arguments.

       Methods

              reset -> none (none)
              The reset method reset the set. When the method is complete, the
              set is empty.

              length -> Integer (none)
              The length method returns the number of elements in the set. The
              minimum length is 0 for an empty set.

              add -> Object (Object)
              The  append  method  appends an object in the set. If the object
              already exists in the set, it is not added twice.  This  is  the
              main  difference between a set and a vector. The object argument
              is returned by this method.

              get -> Object (Integer)
              The get method return object by index.

              exists -> Boolean (Object)
              The exists method returns true if the object argument exists  in
              the set.

              merge -> none (Set)
              The  merge  method merges the set argument into the calling set.
              If an element already exists in the set, it is not added.

              remix -> none (Integer)
              The remix method mixes the set  by  randomly  swapping  all  the
              elements.  This  method  is  useful when the set has been filled
              with a certain order by the access must be done randomly.

              remove -> Boolean (Object)
              The remove method removes the object argument from the  set.  if
              the object is removed, the method returns true. If the object is
              not in the set, the method returns false.

              get-random-subset -> Set (Integer)
              The get-random-subset method returns a subset those cardinal  is
              at  least  the  size  argument  with  a  set  of randomly chosen
              elements. The result set might have a  cardinal  less  than  the
              requested  size  if  the  calling  set cardinal is less than the
              requested size.

              get-iterator -> Iterator (none)
              The get-iterator returns an iterator for this set. The  iterator
              supports forward and backward iteration.

       Queue
       The  Queue  builtin  object  is  a  container used to queue and dequeue
       objects. The order of entry in the queue defines the order of exit from
       the  queue.  The  queue  is  constructed  either empty or with a set of
       objects.

       Predicate

              queue-p

       Inheritance

              Object

       Constructors

              Queue (none)
              The Queue constructor create an empty queue.

              Queue (Object...)
              The Queue constructor create a  queue  with  a  list  of  object
              arguments

       Methods

              enqueue -> Object (Object)
              The  enqueue  adds an object in the queue and returns the queued
              object.

              dequeue -> Object (none)
              The dequeue dequeue an object in the order it was queued.

              length -> Object (none)
              The length returns the number of queued objects.

              empty-p -> Boolean (none)
              The empty-p method returns true if the queue is empty.

              flush -> none (none)
              The flush method flushes the queue so that it is empty.

       Heap
       The Heap builtin object is an object based heap  class  that  organizes
       object  with  respect  to a key. The heap is organized as a binary tree
       those root element is either the object with the highest or the  lowest
       key.  A  flag  controls  whether  the heap is operating in ascending or
       descending mode. By default, the heap operates in ascending mode, which
       means that the root node is the lowest one. The heap is self-resizable.
       The object insertion is also controlled by a minimum and  maximum  key.
       if  the  key  is  below  the  minimum key or above the maximum key, the
       object is not inserted.

       Predicate

              heap-p

       Inheritance

              Object

       Constructors

              Heap (none)
              The Heap constructor create an empty heap. By default  the  heap
              operates in ascending mode.

              Heap (Integer)
              The  Heap  constructor  create  a  heap with a specific size. By
              default the heap operates in ascending mode.

              Heap (Boolean)
              The Heap constructor create a heap with a specific mode. If  the
              mode  is true, the heap operates in ascending order. If the mode
              is false, the heap operates in descending  order.  In  ascending
              order, the first object is the object with the lowest key.

              Heap (Integer Boolean)
              The  Heap  constructor  create  a  heap with a specific size and
              mode. The first argument is the heap size. The  second  argument
              is  the  heap  mode.  If  the mode is true, the heap operates in
              ascending order. If the mode is  false,  the  heap  operates  in
              descending  order.  In  ascending order, the first object is the
              object with the lowest key.

       Methods

              add -> none (Integer Object)
              The add method adds a new object in the heap by key.  The  first
              argument is the key used to set the object position in the heap.
              The second argument is the object to add.

              pop -> Object (none)
              The pop pops the first available in the heap.  If  the  heap  is
              empty, an exception is raised.

              length -> Object (none)
              The length returns the number of objects in the heap.

              empty-p -> Boolean (none)
              The empty-p method returns true if the heap is empty.

              reset -> none (none)
              The reset method reset the heap so that it becomes empty.

              get-key -> Integer (Integer)
              The  get-key  method returns the key associated with an entry in
              the heap by index. If the index is out of range, an exception is
              raised.

              get-object -> Object (Integer)
              The  get-object  method  returns  the  object associated with an
              entry in the heap by index. If the index is  out  of  range,  an
              exception is raised.

              get-mode -> Boolean (none)
              The get-mode method returns the heap operating mode. If the mode
              is true, the heap operates in ascending order. If  the  mode  is
              false,  the  heap  operates  in  descending  order. In ascending
              order, the first object is the object with the lowest key.

              min-key-p -> Boolean (none)
              The min-key-p predicate returns true if a minimum key  has  been
              set.  The get-min-key method can be used to retrieve the minimum
              key value.

              max-key-p -> Boolean (none)
              The max-key-p predicate returns true if a maximum key  has  been
              set.  The get-max-key method can be used to retrieve the maximum
              key value.

              reset-min-key -> none (none)
              The reset-min-key method resets the minimum key flag and  value.

              reset-max-key -> none (none)
              The  reset-max-key method resets the maximum key flag and value.

              set-min-key -> none (Integer)
              The set-min-key method sets the minimum key value.

              get-min-key -> Integer (none)
              The get-min-key method returns the minimum key value.

              set-max-key -> none (Integer)
              The set-max-key method sets the maximum key value.

              get-max-key -> Integer (none)
              The get-max-key method returns the maximum key value.

              resize -> none (none)
              The resize method resize the heap with a new size. if  the  size
              is  lower  than  the  number  of  elements,  the  procedure does
              nothing.

       BitSet
       The BitSet builtin object is a container for  multi  bit  storage.  The
       size  of  the  bitset is determined at construction. With the use of an
       index, a particular bit can be set, cleared and tested.

       Predicate

              bitset-p

       Inheritance

              Object

       Constructors

              BitSet (none)
              The BitSet constructor create an empty bitset.

              BitSet (Integer)
              The Bitset constructor create a bitset those size  is  given  by
              the integer argument.

       Methods

              get -> Boolean (Integer)
              The get method returns the bit value by the index argument.

              set -> none (Integer Boolean)
              The  set method set the bit value by the index argument with the
              boolean second argument.

              mark -> none (Integer)
              The mark method marks a bit by the index argument.

              clear -> none (Integer)
              The clear method clears a bit by the index argument.

              length -> Integer (none)
              The length method returns the length of the bitset.

       Buffer
       The Buffer builtin object is a byte buffer that is widely used with i/o
       operations.  The  buffer  can  be  constructed  with or without literal
       arguments. The standard methods to add or push-back byte or  characters
       are  available.  One  attractive  method  is the write method which can
       write a complete buffer to an output stream specified as  an  argument.
       By  default,  the  buffer  operates  in  resize  mode. If the buffer is
       configured to operate in non-resize mode, an exception is  raised  when
       trying to add a character when the buffer is full.

       Predicate

              buffer-p

       Inheritance

              Object

       Constructors

              Buffer (none)
              The  Buffer  constructor  create  an empty buffer. The buffer is
              configured to operate in resize mode.

              Buffer (Literal...)
              The Buffer constructor create a buffer with a  list  of  literal
              object  arguments.  Each  literal  argument is used to produce a
              byte representation which is added into the buffer.

       Methods

              add -> none (Byte|Literal|Buffer)
              The add method adds a byte, a literal object or a buffer to  the
              calling  buffer.  The object argument is automatically converted
              to a sequence of bytes. For a  buffer,  the  entire  content  is
              copied into the buffer.

              get -> Byte (none)
              The get method returns the next available byte in the buffer but
              do not remove it.

              read -> Byte (none)
              The read method returns the next available character and  remove
              it from the buffer.

              reset -> none (none)
              The  reset  method  reset  the  entire  buffer  and  destroy its
              contents.

              length -> Integer (none)
              The length method returns the length of the buffer.

              write -> none (Output)
              The write method writes the buffer contents to the output stream
              argument.

              full-p -> Boolean (none)
              The  full-p  predicate return true if the buffer is full. If the
              buffer is re-sizeable, the method always return false.

              empty-p -> Boolean (none)
              The empty-p predicate return true if the buffer is empty.

              resize-p -> Boolean (none)
              The resize-p predicate return true if the buffer is re-sizeable.

              to-string -> String (none)
              The  to-string  method  returns  a  string representation of the
              buffer.

              pushback -> none (Byte|Literal|Buffer)
              The pushback method push back a byte,  a  literal  object  or  a
              buffer   in   the   calling   buffer.  The  object  argument  is
              automatically converted to a sequence of bytes.  For  a  buffer,
              the entire content is copied into the buffer.

              get-word -> Integer (none)
              The  get-word method reads a word from the buffer and convert it
              to an integer. The word is assumed to be in network  byte  order
              and  is converted to the host format before becoming an integer.

              get-quad -> Integer (none)
              The get-quad method reads a quad from the buffer and convert  it
              to  an  integer. The quad is assumed to be in network byte order
              and is converted to the host format before becoming an  integer.

              get-octa -> Integer (none)
              The get-quad method reads an octa from the buffer and convert it
              to an integer. The octa is assumed to be in network  byte  order
              and  is converted to the host format before becoming an integer.

              set-resize -> none (Boolean)
              The set-resize method set  the  resize  flag  for  a  particular
              buffer. This method can be used at any time.

       Property
       The  Property  builtin  object  is  container  for  a  name/value pair.
       Generally, the property object is used within a property list.

       Predicate

              property-p

       Inheritance

              Serial

       Constructors

              Property (none)
              The Property constructor create an empty property.

              Property (String)
              The Property constructor create a property by  name.  The  first
              argument is the property name.

              Property (String Literal)
              The  Property  constructor  create a property by name and value.
              The first argument is the property name. The second argument  is
              the  property  value, which is a literal converted to its string
              representation.

       Methods

              set -> none (String Literal)
              The set method sets the  property  name  and  value.  The  first
              argument  is  the  property  name.  The  second  argument is the
              property value, which is  a  literal  converted  to  its  string
              representation.

              set-name -> none (String)
              The set-name method sets the property name.

              get-name -> String (none)
              The get-name method returns the property name.

              set-value -> none (Literal)
              The  set-value  method  sets  the  property  value.  The literal
              argument is converted to its string representation.

              get-value -> String (none)
              The get-value method returns the property value.

       Plist
       The Plist builtin object is a  base  container  class  used  to  manage
       property  objects  in  an  ordered  way.  The property list operates by
       maintaining a vector of property object along with a  hash  table  that
       permits to find the object quickly.

       Predicate

              plist-p

       Inheritance

              SerialIterable

       Constructors

              Plist (none)
              The Plist constructor create an empty property list.

       Methods

              add -> none (Property | String Literal)
              The add method add a property by object or name and value in the
              property list. In its  first  form  the  object  is  a  property
              object.  In  the second form, the first argument is the property
              name and the second argument is the property value, which  is  a
              literal  converted to its string representation. If the property
              already exists an exception is raised.

              set -> none (String Literal)
              The set method add or sets the property name and  value  in  the
              property  list.  The  first  argument  is the property name. The
              second argument is  the  property  value,  which  is  a  literal
              converted  to its string representation. If the property already
              exists, the property value is changed.

              get -> Property (Integer)
              The get method returns a property by index.

              reset -> none (none)
              The reset method resets the property lists

              empty-p -> Boolean (none)
              The emptyp- predicate returns  true  if  the  property  list  is
              empty.

              length -> Integer (none)
              The  length  method  returns  the  number  of  properties in the
              property list.

              exists-p -> Boolean (String)
              The exists-p method returns  true  if  a  property  exists.  The
              string argument is the property name.

              find -> Property (String)
              The find method finds a property by name. The string argument is
              the property name. If the  property  does  not  exists,  nil  is
              returned.

              lookup -> Property (String)
              The  lookup method finds a property by name. The string argument
              is the property name.  If  the  property  does  not  exists,  an
              exception is raised.

              get-value -> String (String)
              The  get-value  method  returns  the  property value. The string
              argument is the property name. If the property does  not  exist,
              an exception is raised.

SPECIAL OBJECTS

       This  chapter  is  a  reference of the  AFNIX  reserved special objects
       with their respective  built-in  methods.  Special  objects  are  those
       objects which interact with the interpreter.

       Object
       The base object Object provides several methods which are common to all
       objects.

       Methods

              repr -> String (none)
              The repr method returns the object name in the form of a string.
              The result string is called the representation string.

              rdlock -> none (none)
              The  rdlock  method try to acquire the object in read-lock mode.
              If the object is currently  locked  in  write  mode  by  another
              thread,  the  calling  thread  is  suspended  until  the lock is
              released.

              wrlock -> none (none)
              The wrlock method try to acquire the object in write-lock  mode.
              If the object is currently locked by another thread, the calling
              thread is suspended until the lock is released.

              unlock -> none (none)
              The unlock method try to unlock an object.  An  object  will  be
              unlocked  if  and  only  if  the  calling  thread is the one who
              acquired the lock.

              shared-p -> Boolean (none)
              The shared-p method returns true if the object is shared,  false
              otherwise.

              clone -> Object (none)
              The  clone  method returns a clone of the calling object. If the
              object cannot be cloned, an exception is raised.

       Interp
       The Interp is the interpreter object which is automatically bounded for
       each  executable  program. There is no constructor for this object. The
       current interpreter is bounded to the interp reserved symbol.

       Predicate

              interp-p

       Inheritance

              Runnable

       Constants

              argv
              The argv data member holds the interpreter argument vector.  The
              vector  is  initialized  when  the  interpreter is created. Each
              argument is stored as a string object.

              os-name
              The os-name data member holds the  operating  system  name.  The
              data member evaluates as a string.

              os-type
              The  os-type  data  member  holds the operating system type. The
              data member evaluates as a string.

              version
              The version data member holds the full version. The data  member
              evaluates as a string.

              program-name
              The program-name data member holds the interpreter program name.
              The data member evaluates as a string.

              major-version
              The  major-version  data  member  holds  the  interpreter  major
              revision number. The data member evaluates as an integer.

              minor-version
              The  minor-version  data  member  holds  the  interpreter  minor
              revision number. The data member evaluates as an integer.

              patch-version
              The  patch-version  data  member  holds  the  interpreter  patch
              revision number. The data member evaluates as an integer.

              afnix-uri
              The  afnix-uri  data  member  holds  the  official uri. The data
              member evaluates as a string.

       Methods

              load -> Boolean (String)
              The load method opens a file those name is the  method  argument
              and  executes  each  form in the file by doing a read-eval loop.
              When all forms have been executed, the file is  closed  and  the
              method  returns  true.  In case of exception, the file is closed
              and the method returns false.

              library -> Library (String)
              The library method opens a shared library and a returns a shared
              library object.

              launch -> Thread (form)
              The launch method executes the form argument in a normal thread.
              The normal thread is created by cloning the current interpreter.

              daemon -> Thread (form)
              The daemon method executes the form argument in a daemon thread.
              The normal thread is created by cloning the current interpreter.

              set-epsilon -> none (Real)
              The  set-epsilon  method  sets  the  interpreter  epsilon  which
              corresponds to the real precision. The real precision is used by
              the ?= operator to compare real values.

              get-epsilon -> Real (none)
              The  get-real  precision  method returns the interpreter epsilon
              which correspond to the real precision.  The  real-precision  is
              used by the ?= operator to compare real values.

              dup -> Interp (none|Terminal)
              The  dup  method  returns  a clone of the current interpreter by
              binding the terminal steam argument.  Without  argument,  a  new
              terminal  object is automatically created and bound to the newly
              created interpreter.

              loop -> Boolean (none)
              The loop method executes the interpreter main  loop  by  reading
              the interpreter input stream. The loop is finished when the end-
              of-stream is reached with the input stream. The method returns a
              boolean flag to indicate whether or not the loop was successful.

              set-primary-prompt -> none (String)
              The set-primary-prompt  method  sets  the  interpreter  terminal
              primary prompt which is used during the interpreter main loop.

              set-secondary-prompt -> none (String)
              The  set-secondary-prompt  method  sets the interpreter terminal
              secondary prompt which is used during the interpreter main loop.

              get-primary-prompt -> String (none)
              The  get-primary-prompt  method returns the interpreter terminal
              primary prompt.

              get-secondary -> String (none)
              The get-secondary-prompt method returns the interpreter terminal
              secondary prompt.

       Thread
       The  Thread  object  is  a  special  object  which  acts  as  a  thread
       descriptor. Such object is created with the launch or  daemon  reserved
       keywords. Note that the thread object does not have a constructor.

       Predicate

              thread-p

       Inheritance

              Object

       Constants

              result
              The  result  data member holds the thread result which is set at
              the thread termination. The data member evaluates as an  object.

       Methods

              wait -> none (none)
              The  wait  method  suspends  the calling thread until the thread
              argument as completed. The wait method is the primary  mechanism
              to detect a thread completion.

              normal-p -> Boolean (none)
              The  normal-p  method  returns  true if the thread argument is a
              normal thread.

              daemon-p -> Boolean (none)
              The daemon-p method returns true if the  thread  argument  is  a
              normal thread.

       Condvar
       The  condition  variable  Condvar  object  is  a  special  object which
       provides a mean of synchronization between one and several threads. The
       condition  is  said  to  be  false  unless  it  has been marked. When a
       condition is marked, all threads waiting for that condition  to  become
       true are notified and one thread is activated with that condition.

       Predicate

              condvar-p

       Inheritance

              Object

       Constructors

              Condvar (none)
              The Condvar constructor creates a default condition variable.

       Methods

              lock -> none (none)
              The lock method locks the condition variable mutex. If the mutex
              is already locked, the calling thread  is  suspended  until  the
              lock  is  released.  When the method returns, the resumed thread
              owns  the  condition   variable   lock.   It   is   the   thread
              responsibility to reset the condition variable and unlock it.

              mark -> none (none)
              The  mark  method  marks  the  condition variable and notify all
              pending threads of such change. The mark  method  is  the  basic
              notification mechanism.

              wait -> none (none)
              The  wait  method  waits  for a condition variable to be marked.
              When such condition occurs, the suspended thread  is  run.  When
              the  method  returns,  the  resumed  thread  owns  the condition
              variable lock. It is the  thread  responsibility  to  reset  the
              condition variable and unlock it.

              reset -> none (none)
              The  reset  method  acquires the condition variable mutex, reset
              the mark, and unlock it. If the lock has been taken, the calling
              thread is suspended.

              unlock -> none (none)
              The  unlock  method  unlock  the  condition variable mutex. This
              method should be used after a call to lock or wait.

              wait-unlock -> none (none)
              The wait-unlock  method  wait  until  a  condition  variable  is
              marked. When such condition occurs, the suspended thread is run.
              Before the method returns, the condition variable is  reset  and
              the mutex unlocked. With two threads to synchronize, this is the
              preferred method compared to wait.

       Lexical
       The Lexical object is a special object built by the  AFNIX   reader.  A
       lexical  name is also a literal object. Although the best way to create
       a lexical name  is  with  a  form,  the  lexical  object  can  also  be
       constructed  with  a  string  name.  A  lexical name can be mapped to a
       symbol by using the map method.

       Predicate

              lexical-p

       Inheritance

              Literal

       Constructors

              Lexical (none)
              The Lexical constructor create an  empty  lexical  object  which
              evaluates to nil.

              Lexical (String)
              The Lexical constructor create a lexical object using the string
              argument as the lexical name.

       Methods

              map -> Object (none)
              The map method returns the object that is mapped by the  lexical
              name.  Most of the time, a symbol object is returned since it is
              the kind of object stored in a nameset. Eventually  the  mapping
              might returns an argument object if used inside a closure.

       Qualified
       The Qualified object is a special object built by the  AFNIX  reader. A
       qualified object is similar to a lexical object. It is also  a  literal
       object.  Like  a  lexical  name, a qualified name can be created with a
       form or by direct construction with a name. Like a  lexical  name,  the
       map  method  can  be  used  to retrieve the symbol associated with that
       name.

       Predicate

              qualified-p

       Inheritance

              Literal

       Constructors

              Qualified (none)
              The Qualifed constructor create an empty qualified  name  object
              which evaluates to nil.

              Qualified (String)
              The  Qualified  constructor create a qualified name object using
              the string argument as the qualified name. The name is parse for
              qualified name syntax adherence.

       Methods

              map -> Object (none)
              The  map  method  returns  the  object  that  is  mapped  by the
              qualified name. Most of the time, a symbol  object  is  returned
              since  it  is the kind of object stored in a nameset. Eventually
              the mapping might returns an argument object if  used  inside  a
              closure.

       Symbol
       The  Symbol  object  is  a special object used by nameset to map a name
       with an object. Generally a symbol is obtained by mapping a lexical  or
       qualified  name. As an object, the symbol holds a name, an object and a
       constant flag. The  symbol  name  cannot  be  changed  since  it  might
       introduce inconsistencies in the containing nameset. On the other hand,
       the constant flag and the object can be changed. A symbol is a  literal
       object.  A  symbol  that is not bounded to a nameset can be constructed
       dynamically. Such symbol is said to be not interned.

       Predicate

              symbol-p

       Inheritance

              Literal

       Constructors

              Symbol (String)
              The Symbol constructor create a symbol by name.  The  associated
              object is marked as nil.

              Symbol (String Object)
              The  Symbol  constructor  create  a  symbol by name and bind the
              object argument to the symbol.

       Methods

              get-const -> Boolean (none)
              The get-const method returns the symbol const flag. If the  flag
              is  true,  the symbol object cannot be changed unless that flags
              is reset with the set-const method.

              set-const -> none (Boolean)
              The set-const method set the symbol const flag. This  method  is
              useful  to  mark  a  symbol  as  const or to make a const symbol
              mutable.

              get-object -> Object (none)
              The get-object method returns the symbol object.

              set-object -> none (Object)
              The set-object method set the symbol object. The object  can  be
              obtained by evaluating the symbol.

       Closure
       The  Closure  object  is  a  special object that represents a lambda or
       gamma expression. A closure is represented by a set of arguments, a set
       of  closed  variables  and a form to execute. A boolean flag determines
       the type of closure. The closure predicate lambda-p returns true if the
       closure  is  a  lambda  expression. Closed variables can be defines and
       evaluated with  the  use  of  the  qualified  name  mechanism.  Closure
       mutation  is  achieved  with  the  add-argument and set-form method. An
       empty closure can be defined at construction as well.

       Predicate

              closure-p

       Inheritance

              Object

       Constructors

              Closure (none)
              The Closure constructor  create  a  default  closure.  When  the
              closure  is  created,  a  local  set  of  arguments  and  closed
              variables is generated. Note that such  local  set  is  dynamic.
              There  is  no  restriction to reconfigure a particular lambda at
              run-time. The difference between a lambda and a gamma expression
              resides  in the nameset binding when the closure is called. With
              a lambda, the closure nameset parent  is  the  calling  nameset.
              With  a  gamma expression, the parent nameset is always the top-
              level interpreter nameset. Note also, that the  symbol  self  is
              automatically bounded for this closure.

              Closure (Boolean)
              The  Closure  constructor  create a closure which acts as lambda
              expression if the boolean  argument  is  true.  If  the  boolean
              argument  is  false,  the  closure  will  behave  like  a  gamma
              expression.

       Methods

              gamma-p -> Boolean (none)
              The gamma-p predicate returns true if the  closure  is  a  gamma
              expression.  The predicate returns true for a lambda expression.

              lambda-p -> Boolean (none)
              The lambda-p predicate returns true if the closure is  a  lambda
              expression.  The predicate returns false for a gamma expression.

              get-form -> Object (none)
              The get-form method returns the closure form object.

              set-form -> none (Object)
              The set-form method sets the closure form object.

              add-argument -> none (String|Lexical|form)
              The add-argument method adds an argument  to  the  closure.  The
              argument  object  can  be either a string, a lexical object of a
              simple form that defines a constant lexical name.

       Librarian
       The Librarian  object  is  a  special  object  that  read  or  write  a
       librarian.  Without  argument,  a  librarian  is  created  for  writing
       purpose. With one file name argument,  the  librarian  is  created  for
       reading.

       Predicate

              librarian-p

       Inheritance

              Nameable

       Constructors

              Librarian (none)
              The  Librarian  constructor  creates  a  librarian  for writing.
              Initially, the librarian is empty and files must be  added  with
              the add method.

              Librarian (String)
              The  Librarian constructor creates a librarian for reading using
              the name as the librarian file name.

       Methods

              add -> none (String)
              The add method adds a file into  the  librarian.  The  librarian
              must have been opened in write mode.

              write -> none (String)
              The  write method writes a librarian to a file those name is the
              argument.

              length -> Integer (none)
              The length method returns the number of file in  the  librarian.
              This method work, no matter how the librarian has been opened.

              exists-p -> Boolean (String)
              The  exists-p predicate returns true if the file argument exists
              in the librarian.

              extract -> InputMapped (String)
              The extract method returns an input stream mapped  to  the  file
              name argument.

       Resolver
       The  Resolver object is a special object that gives the ability to open
       a file based on a file path resolver. The resolver maintains a list  of
       valid path and returns an input stream for a file on demand.

       Predicate

              resolver-p

       Inheritance

              Object

       Constructors

              Resolver (none)
              The  Resolver  constructor  creates  a  default  resolver.  Once
              created, the add method can be used to add path to the resolver.

       Methods

              add -> none (String)
              The  add  method  adds  a  path  into the resolver. The path can
              points either to a directory or a librarian.

              lookup -> Input (String)
              The lookup method resolves the file name argument and returns an
              input stream for that file.

              valid-p -> Boolean (String)
              The valid-p predicate returns true if the file name argument can
              be resolved. If the file name can be resolved, the lookup method
              can be called to get an input stream.

       PrintTable
       The  PrintTable  class  is  a formatting class for tables. The table is
       constructed with  the  number  of  columns  --  default  to  1  --  and
       eventually  the  number of rows. Once the table is created, element are
       added to the table with the add method. Specific table element  can  be
       set  with  the  set  method.  The  class  provide a format method those
       default is to print the table on the interpreter standard output.  With
       an  output stream argument or a buffer, the table is formatted to these
       objects. The table formatting includes  an  optional  column  width,  a
       filling  character and a filling direction flag. By default, the column
       width is 0. This means that the column width is computed as the maximum
       length of all column elements. If the column width is set with the set-
       column-size method, the string element might be truncated to  the  left
       or right -- depending on the filling flag -- to fit the column width.

       Predicate

              print-table-p

       Inheritance

              Object

       Constructors

              PrintTable (none)
              The  PrintTable  constructor  creates  a  default table with one
              column.

              PrintTable (Integer)
              The PrintTable constructor creates a table  with  a  pre-defined
              number of columns specified in the constructor argument.

              PrintTable (Integer Integer)
              The  PrintTable  constructor  creates a table with a pre-defined
              number  of  columns  and  rows  specified  in  the   constructor
              arguments.

       Methods

              head-p -> Boolean (none)
              The  head-p  predicate  returns  true  if  the  table  header is
              defined.

              add-head -> none ([String+])
              The  add-head  method  add  to  the  table  header  the   string
              arguments.  The  number of arguments must be equal to the number
              of columns.

              get-head -> String (Integer)
              The get-head method returns a table  header  element  by  column
              index. The integer argument is the header row index.

              set-head -> none (Integer String)
              The set-head method sets a table header element by column index.
              The first argument is the header column index and the second  is
              the header string value to set.

              add -> Integer (none|[Literal...])
              The  add method serves several purposes. Without argument, a new
              row is added and the row index is returned. The row index can be
              later  used  with  the  set  method  to  set  a particular table
              element. With one or several  literal  arguments,  those  length
              must match the number of columns, a new row is created and those
              arguments added to the table. The row number is also returned.

              get -> String (Integer Integer)
              The get method returns a particular table  element  by  row  and
              column. The first argument is the table row index and the second
              is the table column index.

              set -> none (Integer Integer Literal)
              The set method sets  a  particular  table  element  by  row  and
              column. The first argument is the table row index and the second
              is the table column index. The last argument is a literal object
              that is converted to a string prior its insertion.

              dump -> none|String (none|Integer|Output|Buffer)
              The dump method dumps the table to an output stream or a buffer.
              Without argument, the default interpreter output stream is used.
              With an integer argument, the specified row is used and a string
              is returned. With a buffer or an output stream, the whole  table
              is written and nothing is returned.

              format -> none|String (none|Integer|Output|Buffer)
              The format method writes the formatted table to an output stream
              or a buffer. Without argument, the  default  interpreter  output
              stream  is  used. With an integer argument, the specified row is
              used and a string is  returned.  With  a  buffer  or  an  output
              stream, the whole table is written and nothing is returned.

              get-rows -> Integer (none)
              The get-rows method returns the number of rows in the table.

              get-columns -> Integer (none)
              The  get-columns  method  returns  the  number of columns in the
              table.

              set-column-size -> none (Integer Integer)
              The  set-column-size  method  sets  the  desired  width  for   a
              particular  column.  The  first argument is the column index and
              the second argument is the  column  width.If  0  is  given,  the
              column  width is computed as the maximum of the column elements.

              get-column-size -> Integer (Integer)
              The get-column-size method  returns  the  desired  width  for  a
              particular column.

              set-column-fill -> none (Integer Character)
              The  set-column-fill  method  sets  the  filling character for a
              particular column. The first argument is the  column  index  and
              the  second  argument  is  a  character  to  use  when filling a
              particular column element. The default filling character is  the
              blank character.

              get-column-fill -> Character (Integer)
              The  get-column-fill  method returns the filling character for a
              particular column.

              set-column-direction -> none (Integer Boolean)
              The set-column-direction method sets the direction  flag  for  a
              particular  column.  The  first argument is the column index and
              the second argument is a boolean.  A  false  value  indicates  a
              filling  by  the  left while a true value indicates a filling by
              the right.  The  column  filling  character  is  used  for  this
              operation.

              get-column-direction -> Boolean (Integer)
              The get-column-direction method returns the direction flag for a
              particular column.

       Logger
       The Looger class is a message logger that stores messages in  a  buffer
       with  a  level.  The  default  level  is  the level 0. A negative level
       generally indicates a warning or an error message but this  is  just  a
       convention  which  is not enforced by the class. A high level generally
       indicates a less important  message.  The  messages  are  stored  in  a
       circular  buffer.  When  the  logger is full, a new message replace the
       oldest one. By default, the logger is initialized with a  256  messages
       capacity that can be resized.

       Predicate

              logger-p

       Inheritance

              Object

       Constructors

              Logger (none)
              The Logger constructor creates a default logger.

              Logger (Integer)
              The  Logger  constructor  creates  a logger with a specific size
              specified as the constructor argument.

              Logger (String)
              The Logger constructor creates  a  logger  with  an  information
              argument.  The  information  string  is later used to format the
              logged messages.

              Logger (Integer String)
              The Logger constructor creates a logger with a specific size and
              an  information argument. The first argument is the logger size.
              The second argument is the information string.  The  information
              string is later used to format the logged messages.

       Methods

              add -> none (String|String Integer)
              The  add method adds a message in the logger. With one argument,
              the method take a single string message. with two arguments, the
              first  arguments  is  the message and the second argument is the
              message level.

              reset -> none (none)
              The  reset  method  reset  the  logger  class  by  removing  all
              messages.

              length -> Integer (none)
              The  length  method returns the number of messages stored in the
              logger object.

              resize -> none (Integer)
              The resize method resize the logger class by increasing the size
              of  the  message  buffer.  The  old messages are kept during the
              resizing operation.

              set-info -> none (String)
              The set-info method sets  the  logger  information  string.  The
              information string is used by the derived classes when a message
              is printed.

              get-info -> String (none)
              The get-info method returns the logger information  string.  The
              information string is used by the derived classes when a message
              is printed.

              set-default-level -> none (Integer)
              The set-default-level method sets  the  default  level  use  for
              storing  message.  This parameter is used with the add method in
              conjunction with the message argument. When the message level is
              specified, the default message level is ignored.

              get-default-level -> Integer (none)
              The  get-default-level  method returns the default message level
              used by the logger. The default message level is used by the add
              method when the message level is not specified directly.

              get-message -> String (Integer)
              The  get-message  method  returns a logger message by index. The
              integer argument is the message index.

              get-full-message -> String (Integer)
              The get-full-message method returns  a  fully  formatted  logger
              message by index. The integer argument is the message index. The
              message includes the time and contents.

              get-message-time -> Integer (Integer)
              The get-message-time method returns the logger message  time  by
              index. The integer argument is the message index.

              get-message-level -> Integer (Integer)
              The get-message-level method returns the logger message level by
              index. The integer argument is the message index.

              set-output-stream -> none (Output|String)
              The set-output-stream method set the logger output  stream.  The
              output  stream  can be either an output stream or an output file
              name.