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NAME

       locale - Description of multi-language support

SYNOPSIS

       #include <locale.h>

DESCRIPTION

       A  locale is a set of language and cultural rules.  These cover aspects
       such as language for messages, different character sets,  lexicographic
       conventions,  etc.   A program needs to be able to determine its locale
       and act accordingly to be portable to different cultures.

       The header <locale.h> declares data types, functions and  macros  which
       are useful in this task.

       The  functions  it declares are setlocale(3) to set the current locale,
       and localeconv(3) to get information about number formatting.

       There are different categories for local information  a  program  might
       need; they are declared as macros.  Using them as the first argument to
       the setlocale(3) function, it is possible to set one of  these  to  the
       desired locale:

       LC_COLLATE
              This  is used to change the behavior of the functions strcoll(3)
              and strxfrm(3), which are used to compare strings in  the  local
              alphabet.  For example, the German sharp s is sorted as "ss".

       LC_CTYPE
              This   changes  the  behavior  of  the  character  handling  and
              classification functions, such as isupper(3) and toupper(3), and
              the   multi-byte   character   functions  such  as  mblen(3)  or
              wctomb(3).

       LC_MONETARY
              changes  the  information  returned   by   localeconv(3)   which
              describes the way numbers are usually printed, with details such
              as decimal point versus  decimal  comma.   This  information  is
              internally used by the function strfmon(3).

       LC_MESSAGES
              changes  the  language  messages  are  displayed  in and what an
              affirmative or negative answer looks like.   The  GNU  C-library
              contains  the  gettext(3), ngettext(3), and rpmatch(3) functions
              to ease the use of these information.  The GNU gettext family of
              functions   also   obey   the   environment   variable  LANGUAGE
              (containing a colon-separated list of locales) if  the  category
              is set to a valid locale other than "C".

       LC_NUMERIC
              changes  the  information  used  by  the  printf(3) and scanf(3)
              family of functions, when they are advised to  use  the  locale-
              settings.    This   information   can  also  be  read  with  the
              localeconv(3) function.

       LC_TIME
              changes the behavior of the strftime(3) function to display  the
              current  time in a locally acceptable form; for example, most of
              Europe uses a 24-hour clock versus the 12-hour clock used in the
              United States.

       LC_ALL All of the above.

       If  the  second  argument  to setlocale(3) is empty string, "", for the
       default locale, it is determined using the following steps:

       1.     If there is a non-null environment variable LC_ALL, the value of
              LC_ALL is used.

       2.     If  an  environment  variable  with  the same name as one of the
              categories above exists and is non-null, its value is  used  for
              that category.

       3.     If  there  is a non-null environment variable LANG, the value of
              LANG is used.

       Values about local numeric formatting is made  available  in  a  struct
       lconv  returned  by the localeconv(3) function, which has the following
       declaration:

         struct lconv {

             /* Numeric (non-monetary) information */

             char *decimal_point;     /* Radix character */
             char *thousands_sep;     /* Separator for digit groups to left
                                         of radix character */
             char *grouping; /* Each element is the number of digits in a
                                group; elements with higher indices are
                                further left.  An element with value CHAR_MAX
                                means that no further grouping is done.  An
                                element with value 0 means that the previous
                                element is used for all groups further left. */

             /* Remaining fields are for monetary information */

             char *int_curr_symbol;   /* First three chars are a currency symbol
                                         from ISO 4217.  Fourth char is the
                                         separator.  Fifth char is '\0'. */
             char *currency_symbol;   /* Local currency symbol */
             char *mon_decimal_point; /* Radix character */
             char *mon_thousands_sep; /* Like thousands_sep above */
             char *mon_grouping;      /* Like grouping above */
             char *positive_sign;     /* Sign for positive values */
             char *negative_sign;     /* Sign for negative values */
             char  int_frac_digits;   /* International fractional digits */
             char  frac_digits;       /* Local fractional digits */
             char  p_cs_precedes;     /* 1 if currency_symbol precedes a
                                         positive value, 0 if succeeds */
             char  p_sep_by_space;    /* 1 if a space separates currency_symbol
                                         from a positive value */
             char  n_cs_precedes;     /* 1 if currency_symbol precedes a
                                         negative value, 0 if succeeds */
             char  n_sep_by_space;    /* 1 if a space separates currency_symbol
                                         from a negative value */
             /* Positive and negative sign positions:
                0 Parentheses surround the quantity and currency_symbol.
                1 The sign string precedes the quantity and currency_symbol.
                2 The sign string succeeds the quantity and currency_symbol.
                3 The sign string immediately precedes the currency_symbol.
                4 The sign string immediately succeeds the currency_symbol. */
             char  p_sign_posn;
             char  n_sign_posn;
         };

CONFORMING TO

       POSIX.1-2001.

       The GNU gettext functions are specified in LI18NUX2000.

SEE ALSO

       locale(1),  localedef(1),   gettext(3),   localeconv(3),   ngettext(3),
       nl_langinfo(3),   rpmatch(3),   setlocale(3),  strcoll(3),  strfmon(3),
       strftime(3), strxfrm(3)

COLOPHON

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