Provided by: smartmontools_5.38-2ubuntu2_i386 bug

NAME

       smartctl - Control and Monitor Utility for SMART Disks

SYNOPSIS

       smartctl [options] device

FULL PATH

       /usr/sbin/smartctl

PACKAGE VERSION

       smartmontools-5.38 released 2008/03/10 at 10:44:07 GMT

DESCRIPTION

       smartctl   controls   the   Self-Monitoring,   Analysis  and  Reporting
       Technology (SMART) system built into many ATA-3 and later ATA, IDE  and
       SCSI-3  hard drives. The purpose of SMART is to monitor the reliability
       of the hard  drive  and  predict  drive  failures,  and  to  carry  out
       different  types  of  drive  self-tests.   This  version of smartctl is
       compatible with  ATA/ATAPI-7  and  earlier  standards  (see  REFERENCES
       below)

       smartctl is a command line utility designed to perform SMART tasks such
       as printing the SMART self-test and error logs, enabling and  disabling
       SMART automatic testing, and initiating device self-tests. Note: if the
       user issues a SMART command that is (apparently) not implemented by the
       device,  smartctl  will  print  a warning message but issue the command
       anyway (see the -T, --tolerance option below).  This should  not  cause
       problems:  on  most  devices,  unimplemented SMART commands issued to a
       drive are ignored and/or return an error.

       smartctl also provides support for polling TapeAlert messages from SCSI
       tape drives and changers.

       The  user  must  specify the device to be controlled or interrogated as
       the final argument to smartctl.  Device paths are as follows:

       LINUX:   Use  the  forms  "/dev/hd[a-t]"  for  IDE/ATA   devices,   and
                "/dev/sd[a-z]"  for  SCSI  devices.  For  SCSI Tape Drives and
                Changers with TapeAlert support use  the  devices  "/dev/nst*"
                and  "/dev/sg*".   For  SATA  disks  accessed with libata, use
                "/dev/sd[a-z]" and append "-d ata".  For  disks  behind  3ware
                controllers  you may need "/dev/sd[a-z]" or "/dev/twe[0-9]" or
                "/dev/twa[0-9]": see details below. For disks behind HighPoint
                RocketRAID  controllers  you  may  need  "/dev/sd[a-z]".  More
                general paths (such as devfs ones) may also be specified.

       DARWIN:  Use the forms  /dev/disk[0-9]  or  equivalently  disk[0-9]  or
                equivalently  /dev/rdisk[0-9].  Long forms are also available:
                please use ´-h´ to see  some  examples.  Note  that  there  is
                currently no Darwin SCSI support.

       FREEBSD: Use   the   forms  "/dev/ad[0-9]+"  for  IDE/ATA  devices  and
                "/dev/da[0-9]+" for SCSI devices.

       NETBSD/OPENBSD:
                Use the form "/dev/wd[0-9]+c" for IDE/ATA devices.   For  SCSI
                disk  and  tape devices, use the device names "/dev/sd[0-9]+c"
                and "/dev/st[0-9]+c" respectively.  Be  sure  to  specify  the
                correct "whole disk" partition letter for your architecture.

       SOLARIS: Use  the  forms "/dev/rdsk/c?t?d?s?" for IDE/ATA and SCSI disk
                devices, and "/dev/rmt/*" for SCSI tape devices.

       WINDOWS 9x/ME:
                Use the forms  "/dev/hd[a-d]"  for  standard  IDE/ATA  devices
                accessed  via  SMARTVSD.VXD, and "/dev/hd[e-h]" for additional
                devices accessed via a patched SMARTVSE.VXD (see INSTALL  file
                for  details).   Use  the  form "/dev/scsi[0-9][0-f]" for SCSI
                devices via an aspi dll on ASPI  adapter  0-9,  ID  0-15.  The
                prefix "/dev/" is optional.

       WINDOWS NT4/2000/XP/2003/Vista:
                Use  the  forms  "/dev/sd[a-z]"  for IDE/(S)ATA and SCSI disks
                "\\.\PhysicalDrive[0-25]" (where  "a"  maps  to  "0").   These
                disks   can  also  be  referred  to  as  "/dev/pd[0-255]"  for
                "\\.\PhysicalDrive[0-255]".  ATA disks can also be referred to
                as  "/dev/hd[a-z]" for "\\.\PhysicalDrive[0-25]".  Use one the
                forms      "/dev/tape[0-255]",      "/dev/st[0-255]",       or
                "/dev/nst[0-255]" for SCSI tape drives "\\.\Tape[0-255]".

                Alternatively,  drive  letters  "X:"  or  "X:\" may be used to
                specify the physical drive behind a mounted partition.

                For disks behind 3ware 9000 controllers  use  "/dev/sd[a-z],N"
                where  N  specifies  the disk number (3ware ´port´) behind the
                controller providing the logical drive (´unit´)  specified  by
                "/dev/sd[a-z]".   Alternatively,  use  "/dev/tw_cli/cx/py" for
                controller x, port y to run the ´tw_cli´ tool  and  parse  the
                output.  This  provides  limited  monitoring (´-i´, ´-c´, ´-A´
                below)  if  SMART  support  is  missing  in  the  driver.  Use
                "/dev/tw_cli/stdin"  or "/dev/tw_cli/clip" to parse CLI or 3DM
                output from standard  input  or  clipboard.   The  option  ´-d
                3ware,N´  is  not necessary on Windows.  The prefix "/dev/" is
                optional.

       CYGWIN:  See "WINDOWS NT4/2000/XP/2003/Vista" above.

       OS/2,eComStation:
                Use the form "/dev/hd[a-z]" for IDE/ATA devices.

       if ´-´ is specified as the device path, smartctl reads  and  interprets
       it’s own debug output from standard input.  See ´-r ataioctl´ below for
       details.

       Based on the device path, smartctl will guess the device type  (ATA  or
       SCSI).   If  necessary,  the  ´-d´ option can be used to over-ride this
       guess

       Note that the printed output of smartctl displays most numerical values
       in  base  10  (decimal),  but  some  values  are  displayed  in base 16
       (hexadecimal).  To distinguish them, the  base  16  values  are  always
       displayed  with  a  leading  "0x",  for  example: "0xff". This man page
       follows the same convention.

OPTIONS

       The options are grouped below into several categories.   smartctl  will
       execute   the   corresponding   commands  in  the  order:  INFORMATION,
       ENABLE/DISABLE, DISPLAY DATA, RUN/ABORT TESTS.

       SCSI devices only accept the options -h, -V, -i, -a, -A, -d, -s, -S,-H,
       -t,  -C,  -l  background, -l error, -l selftest, -r, and -X.  TapeAlert
       devices only accept the options -h, -V, -i, -a, -A, -d, -s, -S, -t,  -l
       error, -l selftest, -r, and -H.

       Long  options   are   not  supported  on  all  systems.   Use ´smartctl
       -h´ to see the available options.

       SHOW INFORMATION OPTIONS:

       -h, --help, --usage
              Prints a usage message to STDOUT and exits.

       -V, --version, --copyright, --license
              Prints  version,  copyright,  license,  home  page  and   CVS-id
              information  for your copy of smartctl to STDOUT and then exits.
              Please include this information if you  are  reporting  bugs  or
              problems.

       -i, --info
              Prints the device model number, serial number, firmware version,
              and ATA Standard  version/revision  information.   Says  if  the
              device  supports  SMART,  and  if  so,  whether SMART support is
              currently enabled or disabled.  If the device  supports  Logical
              Block  Address mode (LBA mode) print current user drive capacity
              in bytes. (If drive is has a user protected area reserved, or is
              "clipped",  this may be smaller than the potential maximum drive
              capacity.)  Indicates if  the  drive  is  in  the  smartmontools
              database  (see  ´-v´  options  below).   If  so, the drive model
              family may also be printed. If ´-n´ (see  below)  is  specified,
              the power mode of the drive is printed.

       -a, --all
              Prints  all  SMART  information  about  the  disk,  or TapeAlert
              information about the tape drive or changer.   For  ATA  devices
              this is equivalent to
              ´-H -i -c -A -l error -l selftest -l selective´
              and for SCSI, this is equivalent to
              ´-H -i -A -l error -l selftest´.
              Note  that for ATA disks this does not enable the ´-l directory´
              option.

       RUN-TIME BEHAVIOR OPTIONS:

       -q TYPE, --quietmode=TYPE
              Specifies that smartctl should run in one of the two quiet modes
              described here.  The valid arguments to this option are:

              errorsonly  - only print: For the ´-l error´ option, if nonzero,
              the number of errors recorded in the SMART  error  log  and  the
              power-on  time when they occurred; For the ´-l selftest´ option,
              errors recorded in  the  device  self-test  log;  For  the  ´-H´
              option,   SMART  "disk  failing"  status  or  device  Attributes
              (pre-failure or usage) which failed either now or in  the  past;
              For  the  ´-A´  option, device Attributes (pre-failure or usage)
              which failed either now or in the past.

              silent - print no output.  The only way to learn about what  was
              found  is  to use the exit status of smartctl (see RETURN VALUES
              below).

              noserial - Do not print the serial number of the device.

       -d TYPE, --device=TYPE
              Specifies the type of the device.  The valid arguments  to  this
              option  are  ata,  scsi,  sat,  marvell,  3ware,N,  and hpt,L/M,
              cciss,N or hpt,L/M/N.  If this option is not used then  smartctl
              will attempt to guess the device type from the device name.

              The  ´sat´  device type is for ATA disks that have a SCSI to ATA
              Translation  (SAT)  Layer  (SATL)  between  the  disk  and   the
              operating  system.   SAT  defines  two  ATA  PASS  THROUGH  SCSI
              commands, one 12 bytes long and the other  16  bytes  long  that
              smartctl  will  utilize  when  this device type is selected. The
              default is the 16 byte variant  which  can  be  overridden  with
              either ´-d sat,12´ or ´-d sat,16´.

              Under   Linux,  to  look  at  SATA  disks  behind  Marvell  SATA
              controllers  (using  Marvell’s  ´linuxIAL´  driver  rather  than
              libata  driver)  use  ´-d  marvell´. Such controllers show up as
              Marvell Technology Group Ltd. SATA I  or  II  controllers  using
              lspci, or using lspci -n show a vendor ID 0x11ab and a device ID
              of either 0x5040, 0x5041, 0x5080, 0x5081, 0x6041 or 0x6081.  The
              ´linuxIAL´ driver seems not (yet?) available in the Linux kernel
              source  tree,  but  should  be  available  from  system  vendors
              (ftp://ftp.aslab.com/  is  known  to  provide  a  patch with the
              driver).

              Under Linux and FreeBSD, to look at ATA disks behind 3ware  SCSI
              RAID controllers, use syntax such as:
              smartctl -a -d 3ware,2 /dev/sda
              smartctl -a -d 3ware,0 /dev/twe0
              smartctl -a -d 3ware,1 /dev/twa0
              where  in the argument 3ware,N, the integer N is the disk number
              (3ware ´port´)  within  the  3ware  ATA  RAID  controller.   The
              allowed  values  of N are from 0 to 31 inclusive.  The first two
              forms, which refer to devices /dev/sda-z and  /dev/twe0-15,  may
              be   used   with  3ware  series  6000,  7000,  and  8000  series
              controllers  that  use  the  3x-xxxx  driver.   Note  that   the
              /dev/sda-z form is deprecated starting with the Linux 2.6 kernel
              series and may not be supported by the Linux kernel in the  near
              future.  The  final  form, which refers to devices /dev/twa0-15,
              must be used with 3ware 9000 series controllers, which  use  the
              3w-9xxx driver.

              Note  that  if  the special character device nodes /dev/twa? and
              /dev/twe? do not exist, or exist with  the  incorrect  major  or
              minor   numbers,   smartctl  will  recreate  them  on  the  fly.
              Typically /dev/twa0 refers to the first 9000-series  controller,
              /dev/twa1  refers  to  the second 9000 series controller, and so
              on. Likewise  /dev/twe0  refers  to  the  first  6/7/8000-series
              controller,  /dev/twa1  refers  to  the  second  6/7/8000 series
              controller, and so on.

              Note that for the 6/7/8000  controllers,  any  of  the  physical
              disks  can  be queried or examined using any of the 3ware’s SCSI
              logical device  /dev/sd?   entries.   Thus,  if  logical  device
              /dev/sda  is made up of two physical disks (3ware ports zero and
              one) and logical  device  /dev/sdb  is  made  up  of  two  other
              physical  disks (3ware ports two and three) then you can examine
              the SMART data on any of the four physical  disks  using  either
              SCSI  device  /dev/sda  or  /dev/sdb.  If you need to know which
              logical SCSI device a particular physical disk (3ware  port)  is
              associated  with,  use  the dmesg or SYSLOG output to show which
              SCSI ID corresponds to a particular 3ware unit, and then use the
              3ware  CLI or 3dm tool to determine which ports (physical disks)
              correspond to particular 3ware units.

              If the value of N corresponds to a port that does not  exist  on
              the 3ware controller, or to a port that does not physically have
              a disk attached to it, the behavior of smartctl depends upon the
              specific  controller model, firmware, Linux kernel and platform.
              In some cases you will get a warning  message  that  the  device
              does not exist. In other cases you will be presented with ´void´
              data for a non-existent device.

              Note that if the /dev/sd? addressing form is  used,  then  older
              3w-xxxx  drivers do not pass the "Enable Autosave" (´-S on´) and
              "Enable Automatic Offline" (´-o on´) commands to the  disk,  and
              produce  these  types of harmless syslog error messages instead:
              "3w-xxxx: tw_ioctl(): Passthru size (123392) too big". This  can
              be  fixed  by  upgrading  to version 1.02.00.037 or later of the
              3w-xxxx driver, or by applying a patch to  older  versions.  See
              http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net/      for     instructions.
              Alternatively, use the character device /dev/twe0-15  interface.

              The  selective  self-test  functions  (´-t select,A-B´) are only
              supported using the character device interface /dev/twa0-15  and
              /dev/twe0-15.   The  necessary  WRITE  LOG  commands  can not be
              passed through the SCSI interface.

              3ware  controllers  are  supported  under  Linux,  FreeBSD   and
              Windows.

              To look at (S)ATA disks behind HighPoint RocketRAID controllers,
              use syntax such as:
              smartctl -a -d hpt,1/3 /dev/sda
              or
              smartctl -a -d hpt,1/2/3 /dev/sda
              where in the argument hpt,L/M or hpt,L/M/N, the integer L is the
              controller  id,  the  integer  M  is the channel number, and the
              integer N is the PMPort number if it is available.  The  allowed
              values  of  L  are  from  1  to  4  inclusive, M are from 1 to 8
              inclusive and N from 1 to 4 if PMPort available.  Note that  the
              /dev/sda-z  form  should be the device node which stands for the
              disks derived from the HighPoint  RocketRAID  controllers.   And
              also  these  values  are  limited  by the model of the HighPoint
              RocketRAID controller.

              HighPoint RocketRAID controllers are  currently  ONLY  supported
              under Linux.

              cciss controllers are currently ONLY supported under Linux.

       -T TYPE, --tolerance=TYPE
              Specifies  how  tolerant  smartctl  should  be  of ATA and SMART
              command failures.

              The behavior of smartctl depends upon  whether  the  command  is
              "optional"  or  "mandatory". Here "mandatory" means "required by
              the ATA/ATAPI-5 Specification if the device implements the SMART
              command   set"   and  "optional"  means  "not  required  by  the
              ATA/ATAPI-5 Specification even  if  the  device  implements  the
              SMART command set."  The "mandatory" ATA and SMART commands are:
              (1) ATA IDENTIFY  DEVICE,  (2)  SMART  ENABLE/DISABLE  ATTRIBUTE
              AUTOSAVE, (3) SMART ENABLE/DISABLE, and (4) SMART RETURN STATUS.

              The valid arguments to this option are:

              normal - exit on failure of any  mandatory  SMART  command,  and
              ignore  all  failures  of  optional SMART commands.  This is the
              default.  Note  that  on  some  devices,  issuing  unimplemented
              optional SMART commands doesn´t cause an error.  This can result
              in  misleading  smartctl  messages  such  as  "Feature   X   not
              implemented", followed shortly by "Feature X: enabled".  In most
              such cases, contrary to the final  message,  Feature  X  is  not
              enabled.

              conservative - exit on failure of any optional SMART command.

              permissive  -  ignore  failure(s)  of  mandatory SMART commands.
              This option may be given more than once.  Each additional use of
              this  option  will  cause  one  more  additional  failure  to be
              ignored.  Note that the use of this option can lead to  messages
              like  "Feature  X  not implemented", followed shortly by "Error:
              unable to enable Feature X".  In a few such cases,  contrary  to
              the final message, Feature X is enabled.

              verypermissive  -  equivalent  to  giving  a large number of ´-T
              permissive´ options: ignore failures of any number of  mandatory
              SMART commands.  Please see the note above.

       -b TYPE, --badsum=TYPE
              Specifies the action smartctl should take if a checksum error is
              detected in  the:  (1)  Device  Identity  Structure,  (2)  SMART
              Self-Test  Log  Structure,  (3) SMART Attribute Value Structure,
              (4) SMART Attribute Threshold Structure, or (5)  ATA  Error  Log
              Structure.

              The valid arguments to this option are:

              warn  -  report  the incorrect checksum but carry on in spite of
              it.  This is the default.

              exit - exit smartctl.

              ignore - continue silently without issuing a warning.

       -r TYPE, --report=TYPE
              Intended primarily to help smartmontools  developers  understand
              the  behavior  of  smartmontools  on  non-conforming  or  poorly
              conforming hardware.  This option reports  details  of  smartctl
              transactions  with  the device.  The option can be used multiple
              times.  When used just once, it shows a record  of  the  ioctl()
              transactions  with  the  device.   When used more than once, the
              detail of these ioctl() transactions  are  reported  in  greater
              detail.  The valid arguments to this option are:

              ioctl - report all ioctl() transactions.

              ataioctl - report only ioctl() transactions with ATA devices.

              scsiioctl  - report only ioctl() transactions with SCSI devices.
              Invoking this once shows  the  SCSI  commands  in  hex  and  the
              corresponding  status.  Invoking  it  a  second  time adds a hex
              listing of the first 64 bytes of data send to, or received  from
              the device.

              Any argument may include a positive integer to specify the level
              of detail that should  be  reported.   The  argument  should  be
              followed  by  a  comma  then  the  integer  with no spaces.  For
              example, ataioctl,2 The default level is 1, so  ´-r  ataioctl,1´
              and ´-r ataioctl´ are equivalent.

              For testing purposes, the output of ´-r ataioctl,2´ can later be
              parsed by  smartctl  itself  if  ´-´  is  used  as  device  path
              argument.   The  ATA  command  input parameters, sector data and
              return values are reconstructed from the debug report read  from
              stdin.   Then  smartctl  internally simulates an ATA device with
              the same behaviour. This is does not work for SCSI devices  yet.

       -n POWERMODE, --nocheck=POWERMODE
              Specifieds  if smartctl should exit before performing any checks
              when the device is in a  low-power  mode.  It  may  be  used  to
              prevent a disk from being spun-up by smartctl. The power mode is
              ignored by default. The allowed values of POWERMODE are:

              never - check the device always, but print  the  power  mode  if
              ´-i´ is specified.

              sleep - check the device unless it is in SLEEP mode.

              standby  -  check  the  device  unless it is in SLEEP or STANDBY
              mode.  In these modes most disks are not  spinning,  so  if  you
              want  to  prevent a disk from spinning up, this is probably what
              you want.

              idle - check the device unless it is in SLEEP, STANDBY  or  IDLE
              mode.  In the IDLE state, most disks are still spinning, so this
              is probably not what you want.

       SMART FEATURE ENABLE/DISABLE COMMANDS:

              Note: if multiple options are used to both enable and disable  a
              feature,  then  both  the  enable  and  disable commands will be
              issued.  The enable command will always  be  issued  before  the
              corresponding disable command.

       -s VALUE, --smart=VALUE
              Enables  or  disables  SMART  on device.  The valid arguments to
              this option are on and off.   Note  that  the  command  ´-s  on´
              (perhaps  used with with the ´-o on´ and ´-S on´ options) should
              be placed in a start-up script for your machine, for example  in
              rc.local or rc.sysinit.  In principle the SMART feature settings
              are preserved over power-cycling, but  it  doesn´t  hurt  to  be
              sure. It is not necessary (or useful) to enable SMART to see the
              TapeAlert messages.

       -o VALUE, --offlineauto=VALUE
              Enables or disables SMART automatic offline  test,  which  scans
              the drive every four hours for disk defects. This command can be
              given during normal system operation.  The  valid  arguments  to
              this option are on and off.

              Note  that the SMART automatic offline test command is listed as
              "Obsolete"  in  every  version  of   the   ATA   and   ATA/ATAPI
              Specifications.    It  was  originally  part  of  the  SFF-8035i
              Revision 2.0 specification,  but  was  never  part  of  any  ATA
              specification.   However  it  is  implemented  and  used by many
              vendors. [Good documentation can  be  found  in  IBM´s  Official
              Published  Disk  Specifications.  For example the IBM Travelstar
              40GNX Hard Disk Drive Specifications  (Revision  1.1,  22  April
              2002,  Publication  # 1541, Document S07N-7715-02) page 164. You
              can also read the  SFF-8035i  Specification  --  see  REFERENCES
              below.]   You can tell if automatic offline testing is supported
              by seeing if this command enables and disables it, as  indicated
              by  the  ´Auto  Offline  Data  Collection´  part  of  the  SMART
              capabilities report (displayed with ´-c´).

              SMART provides three basic categories  of  testing.   The  first
              category,   called  "online"  testing,  has  no  effect  on  the
              performance of the device.  It is  turned  on  by  the  ´-s  on´
              option.

              The second category of testing is called "offline" testing. This
              type of test can, in principle, degrade the device  performance.
              The  ´-o  on´  option  causes this offline testing to be carried
              out, automatically, on a regular scheduled basis.  Normally, the
              disk will suspend offline testing while disk accesses are taking
              place, and then automatically resume  it  when  the  disk  would
              otherwise  be  idle,  so in practice it has little effect.  Note
              that a one-time offline test can also be carried out immediately
              upon  receipt  of  a  user command.  See the ´-t offline´ option
              below, which causes a one-time offline test to  be  carried  out
              immediately.

              The choice (made by the SFF-8035i and ATA specification authors)
              of  the  word  testing  for  these  first  two   categories   is
              unfortunate,  and often leads to confusion.  In fact these first
              two categories of online and offline  testing  could  have  been
              more accurately described as online and offline data collection.

              The results of this automatic or immediate offline testing (data
              collection) are reflected in the values of the SMART Attributes.
              Thus, if problems or errors are detected, the  values  of  these
              Attributes will go below their failure thresholds; some types of
              errors may also appear in the SMART error log. These are visible
              with the ´-A´ and ´-l error´ options respectively.

              Some  SMART  attribute  values  are updated only during off-line
              data collection activities; the rest are updated  during  normal
              operation  of  the  device  or  during both normal operation and
              off-line testing.  The Attribute value  table  produced  by  the
              ´-A´ option indicates this in the UPDATED column.  Attributes of
              the first type are  labeled  "Offline"  and  Attributes  of  the
              second type are labeled "Always".

              The  third  category of testing (and the only category for which
              the word ´testing´ is really an appropriate  choice)  is  "self"
              testing.    This   third   type   of   test  is  only  performed
              (immediately) when a command to run it is issued.  The ´-t´  and
              ´-X´ options can be used to carry out and abort such self-tests;
              please see below for further details.

              Any errors detected in the self testing will  be  shown  in  the
              SMART  self-test  log,  which  can  be  examined  using  the ´-l
              selftest´ option.

              Note: in this manual page, the word "Test" is used in connection
              with  the second category just described, e.g. for the "offline"
              testing.  The words "Self-test" are used in connection with  the
              third category.

       -S VALUE, --saveauto=VALUE
              Enables  or  disables  SMART  autosave of device vendor-specific
              Attributes. The valid arguments to this option are on  and  off.
              Note that this feature is preserved across disk power cycles, so
              you should only need to issue it once.

              For SCSI devices this toggles the value of  the  Global  Logging
              Target  Save Disabled (GLTSD) bit in the Control Mode Page. Some
              disk manufacturers set this bit by default. This prevents  error
              counters, power-up hours and other useful data from being placed
              in non-volatile storage, so these values may be  reset  to  zero
              the  next  time the device is power-cycled.  If the GLTSD bit is
              set then ´smartctl -a´ will issue a warning. Use on to clear the
              GLTSD  bit  and  thus  enable  saving  counters  to non-volatile
              storage. For extreme streaming-video type applications you might
              consider using off to set the GLTSD bit.

       SMART READ AND DISPLAY DATA OPTIONS:

       -H, --health
              Check:  Ask  the  device  to  report  its SMART health status or
              pending  TapeAlert  messages.   SMART   status   is   based   on
              information  that it has gathered from online and offline tests,
              which were used to determine/update  its  SMART  vendor-specific
              Attribute  values.  TapeAlert  status is obtained by reading the
              TapeAlert log page.

              If the device reports failing health status, this  means  either
              that the device has already failed, or that it is predicting its
              own failure within the next 24 hours.  If this happens, use  the
              ´-a´  option  to get more information, and get your data off the
              disk and to someplace safe as soon as you can.

       -c, --capabilities
              Prints only the generic SMART  capabilities.   These  show  what
              SMART  features  are implemented and how the device will respond
              to some of the different SMART commands.  For example  it  shows
              if  the  device  logs  errors,  if  it  supports offline surface
              scanning, and so on.  If the device can  carry  out  self-tests,
              this  option also shows the estimated time required to run those
              tests.

              Note that the time required to run  the  Self-tests  (listed  in
              minutes)  are  fixed.   However  the  time  required  to run the
              Immediate Offline Test (listed in seconds)  is  variable.   This
              means  that  if  you  issue  a  command  to perform an Immediate
              Offline test with the ´-t offline´ option,  then  the  time  may
              jump  to  a  larger  value  and then count down as the Immediate
              Offline Test is carried out.  Please see  REFERENCES  below  for
              further   information  about  the  the  flags  and  capabilities
              described by this option.

       -A, --attributes
              Prints  only  the  vendor  specific   SMART   Attributes.    The
              Attributes  are  numbered  from 1 to 253 and have specific names
              and ID numbers. For example Attribute 12 is "power cycle count":
              how many times has the disk been powered up.

              Each  Attribute  has  a  "Raw"  value, printed under the heading
              "RAW_VALUE", and a "Normalized" value printed under the  heading
              "VALUE".   [Note:  smartctl prints these values in base-10.]  In
              the example just given, the "Raw Value" for Attribute  12  would
              be   the   actual  number  of  times  that  the  disk  has  been
              power-cycled, for example 365 if the disk  has  been  turned  on
              once  per  day for exactly one year.  Each vendor uses their own
              algorithm to convert this "Raw" value to a "Normalized" value in
              the range from 1 to 254.  Please keep in mind that smartctl only
              reports the different Attribute types, values, and thresholds as
              read  from  the  device.   It  does not carry out the conversion
              between "Raw" and "Normalized"  values:  this  is  done  by  the
              disk´s firmware.

              The  conversion from Raw value to a quantity with physical units
              is not specified by the  SMART  standard.  In  most  cases,  the
              values  printed  by  smartctl  are  sensible.   For  example the
              temperature Attribute generally has its raw value equal  to  the
              temperature  in  Celsius.   However  in  some  cases vendors use
              unusual conventions.  For example the Hitachi disk on my  laptop
              reports its power-on hours in minutes, not hours. Some IBM disks
              track three temperatures rather than one, in their  raw  values.
              And so on.

              Each  Attribute  also has a Threshold value (whose range is 0 to
              255) which is  printed  under  the  heading  "THRESH".   If  the
              Normalized  value  is less than or equal to the Threshold value,
              then the Attribute is said to have failed.  If the Attribute  is
              a pre-failure Attribute, then disk failure is imminent.

              Each  Attribute also has a "Worst" value shown under the heading
              "WORST".  This is the smallest (closest to failure)  value  that
              the disk has recorded at any time during its lifetime when SMART
              was enabled.  [Note  however  that  some  vendors  firmware  may
              actually   increase  the  "Worst"  value  for  some  "rate-type"
              Attributes.]

              The Attribute table printed  out  by  smartctl  also  shows  the
              "TYPE"  of  the  Attribute.  Attributes  are one of two possible
              types: Pre-failure or Old age.  Pre-failure Attributes are  ones
              which, if less than or equal to their threshold values, indicate
              pending disk failure.  Old age, or usage  Attributes,  are  ones
              which  indicate end-of-product life from old-age or normal aging
              and wearout, if the Attribute value is less than or equal to the
              threshold.   Please  note: the fact that an Attribute is of type
              ’Pre-fail’ does not mean that your disk is about  to  fail!   It
              only  has  this  meaning  if  the Attribute´s current Normalized
              value is less than or equal to the threshold value.

              If the Attribute´s current Normalized  value  is  less  than  or
              equal to the threshold value, then the "WHEN_FAILED" column will
              display "FAILING_NOW". If not, but the worst recorded  value  is
              less than or equal to the threshold value, then this column will
              display "In_the_past".  If the "WHEN_FAILED" column has no entry
              (indicated  by  a  dash: ´-´) then this Attribute is OK now (not
              failing) and has also never failed in the past.

              The table column labeled "UPDATED" shows if the SMART  Attribute
              values  are  updated  during  both normal operation and off-line
              testing, or only during offline testing.  The former are labeled
              "Always" and the latter are labeled "Offline".

              So  to  summarize:  the  Raw  Attribute values are the ones that
              might have a real physical interpretation, such as  "Temperature
              Celsius",  "Hours",  or  "Start-Stop Cycles".  Each manufacturer
              converts these, using their detailed  knowledge  of  the  disk´s
              operations  and failure modes, to Normalized Attribute values in
              the range 1-254.  The current and  worst  (lowest  measured)  of
              these  Normalized Attribute values are stored on the disk, along
              with a Threshold value that the manufacturer has determined will
              indicate that the disk is going to fail, or that it has exceeded
              its design age or aging limit.  smartctl does not calculate  any
              of the Attribute values, thresholds, or types, it merely reports
              them from the SMART data on the device.

              Note that starting with ATA/ATAPI-4, revision 4, the meaning  of
              these  Attribute  fields has been made entirely vendor-specific.
              However most ATA/ATAPI-5 disks seem to respect their meaning, so
              we have retained the option of printing the Attribute values.

              For   SCSI  devices  the  "attributes"  are  obtained  from  the
              temperature and start-stop  cycle  counter  log  pages.  Certain
              vendor   specific  attributes  are  listed  if  recognised.  The
              attributes are output in a relatively free format (compared with
              ATA disk attributes).

       -l TYPE, --log=TYPE
              Prints  either the SMART Error Log, the SMART Self-Test Log, the
              SMART Selective Self-Test Log [ATA only], the Log Directory [ATA
              only],  or  the  Background  Scan  Results Log [SCSI only].  The
              valid arguments to this option are:

              error - prints only the SMART error log.  SMART disks maintain a
              log  of  the  most  recent  five non-trivial errors. For each of
              these errors, the disk power-on  lifetime  at  which  the  error
              occurred  is  recorded,  as is the device status (idle, standby,
              etc) at the time of the error.  For some common types of errors,
              the  Error  Register  (ER)  and  Status Register (SR) values are
              decoded and printed as text. The meanings of these are:
                 ABRT:  Command ABoRTed
                 AMNF:  Address Mark Not Found
                 CCTO:  Command Completion Timed Out
                 EOM:   End Of Media
                 ICRC:  Interface Cyclic Redundancy Code (CRC) error
                 IDNF:  IDentity Not Found
                 ILI:   (packet command-set specific)
                 MC:    Media Changed
                 MCR:   Media Change Request
                 NM:    No Media
                 obs:   obsolete
                 TK0NF: TracK 0 Not Found
                 UNC:   UNCorrectable Error in Data
                 WP:    Media is Write Protected
              In addition, up to the last  five  commands  that  preceded  the
              error are listed, along with a timestamp measured from the start
              of the corresponding power cycle. This is displayed in the  form
              Dd+HH:MM:SS.msec  where D is the number of days, HH is hours, MM
              is minutes, SS is seconds and msec is milliseconds.  [Note: this
              time  stamp wraps after 2^32 milliseconds, or 49 days 17 hours 2
              minutes and 47.296 seconds.]  The key  ATA  disk  registers  are
              also  recorded in the log.  The final column of the error log is
              a text-string description of the  ATA  command  defined  by  the
              Command   Register   (CR)  and  Feature  Register  (FR)  values.
              Commands that are obsolete in the most current (ATA-7) spec  are
              listed  like this: READ LONG (w/ retry) [OBS-4], indicating that
              the command became obsolete with or in the ATA-4  specification.
              Similarly,  the  notation  [RET-N]  is  used  to indicate that a
              command was retired in the ATA-N specification.   Some  commands
              are  not defined in any version of the ATA specification but are
              in common  use  nonetheless;  these  are  marked  [NS],  meaning
              non-standard.

              The  ATA  Specification  (ATA-5 Revision 1c, Section 8.41.6.8.2)
              says: "Error log  structures  shall  include  UNC  errors,  IDNF
              errors  for which the address requested was valid, servo errors,
              write fault errors, etc.  Error log data  structures  shall  not
              include errors attributed to the receipt of faulty commands such
              as command codes not implemented by the device or requests  with
              invalid  parameters  or  invalid  addresses." The definitions of
              these terms are:
              UNC (UNCorrectable): data is uncorrectable.  This refers to data
              which  has  been  read  from  the  disk, but for which the Error
              Checking  and  Correction  (ECC)  codes  are  inconsistent.   In
              effect, this means that the data can not be read.
              IDNF (ID Not Found): user-accessible address could not be found.
              For READ LOG type commands, IDNF can also indicate that a device
              data log structure checksum was incorrect.

              If  the  command  that  caused  the  error  was  a READ or WRITE
              command, then the Logical Block Address (LBA) at which the error
              occurred  will  be printed in base 10 and base 16.  The LBA is a
              linear address, which  counts  512-byte  sectors  on  the  disk,
              starting  from  zero.   (Because of the limitations of the SMART
              error log, if the LBA is greater than 0xfffffff, then either  no
              error  log  entry will be made, or the error log entry will have
              an incorrect LBA. This may happen for  drives  with  a  capacity
              greater   than  128  GiB  or  137  GB.)  On  Linux  systems  the
              smartmontools web page has instructions about how to convert the
              LBA  address  to  the  name  of  the  disk  file  containing the
              erroneous disk sector.

              Please   note   that   some   manufacturers   ignore   the   ATA
              specifications,  and make entries in the error log if the device
              receives a command which is not implemented or is not valid.

              error [SCSI] - prints the error counter  log  pages  for  reads,
              write  and verifies.  The verify row is only output if it has an
              element other than zero.

              selftest - prints the SMART self-test log.  The disk maintains a
              self-test  log  showing the results of the self tests, which can
              be run using the ´-t´ option described below.  For each  of  the
              most  recent  twenty-one  self-tests,  the log shows the type of
              test (short or extended, off-line  or  captive)  and  the  final
              status  of the test.  If the test did not complete successfully,
              then the percentage of the test remaining is shown.  The time at
              which  the  test took place, measured in hours of disk lifetime,
              is also printed.  If any errors were detected, the Logical Block
              Address (LBA) of the first error is printed in decimal notation.
              On Linux systems the smartmontools  web  page  has  instructions
              about  how  to  convert this LBA address to the name of the disk
              file containing the erroneous block.

              selftest [SCSI] - the self-test log for  a  SCSI  device  has  a
              slightly  different  format than for an ATA device.  For each of
              the most recent twenty self-tests, it shows the type of test and
              the  status  (final  or in progress) of the test. SCSI standards
              use the terms "foreground" and "background" (rather  than  ATA´s
              corresponding  "captive"  and "off-line") and "short" and "long"
              (rather than ATA´s  corresponding  "short"  and  "extended")  to
              describe  the  type  of the test.  The printed segment number is
              only relevant when a test fails  in  the  third  or  later  test
              segment.   It  identifies  the  test that failed and consists of
              either the number of the segment that failed during the test, or
              the number of the test that failed and the number of the segment
              in which the test was run, using  a  vendor-specific  method  of
              putting  both  numbers  into  a  single byte.  The Logical Block
              Address (LBA) of the  first  error  is  printed  in  hexadecimal
              notation.   On  Linux  systems  the  smartmontools  web page has
              instructions about how to convert this LBA address to  the  name
              of  the  disk file containing the erroneous block.  If provided,
              the SCSI  Sense  Key  (SK),  Additional  Sense  Code  (ASC)  and
              Additional Sense Code Qualifier (ASQ) are also printed. The self
              tests can be run using the ´-t´ option  described  below  (using
              the ATA test terminology).

              selective  [ATA]  -  Some  ATA-7  disks  (example:  Maxtor) also
              maintain a selective self-test log.  Please see the ´-t  select´
              option  below  for  a  description of selective self-tests.  The
              selective  self-test  log  shows  the  start/end  Logical  Block
              Addresses  (LBA)  of  each  of  the  five  test spans, and their
              current test status.   If  the  span  is  being  tested  or  the
              remainder  of  the  disk  is  being  read-scanned,  the  current
              65536-sector block of LBAs being tested is also displayed.   The
              selective  self-test  log  also  shows  if  a  read-scan  of the
              remainder of the disk will be carried out  after  the  selective
              self-test  has  completed  (see ´-t afterselect´ option) and the
              time delay before restarting this read-scan if it is interrupted
              (see  ´-t pending´ option). This is a new smartmontools feature;
              please   report   unusual   or   incorrect   behavior   to   the
              smartmontools-support mailing list.

              directory  -  if the device supports the General Purpose Logging
              feature set (ATA-6 and ATA-7 only)  then  this  prints  the  Log
              Directory  (the log at address 0).  The Log Directory shows what
              logs are available and their length in sectors (512 bytes).  The
              contents  of the logs at address 1 [Summary SMART error log] and
              at address 6 [SMART self-test log]  may  be  printed  using  the
              previously-described   error  and  selftest  arguments  to  this
              option. [Please note: this is a new, experimental  feature.   We
              would  like to add support for printing the contents of extended
              and comprehensive SMART self-test and error logs.  If your  disk
              supports these, and you would like to assist, please contact the
              smartmontools developers.]

              background [SCSI] - the  background  scan  results  log  outputs
              information derived from Background Media Scans (BMS) done after
              power up and/or periodocally (e.g.  every 24  hours)  on  recent
              SCSI  disks.  If  supported,  the  BMS  status  is output first,
              indicating whether a background scan is currently underway  (and
              if  so  a  progress percentage), the amount of time the disk has
              been powered up and the number of scans already completed.  Then
              there  is  a header and a line for each background scan "event".
              These  will  typically  be  either  recovered  or  unrecoverable
              errors.  That  latter  group may need some attention. There is a
              description of the background scan mechansim in section 4.18  of
              SBC-3 revision 6 (see www.t10.org ).

              scttemp,  scttempsts,  scttemphist  [ATA]  -  [NEW  EXPERIMENTAL
              SMARTCTL  FEATURE]  prints  the  disk  temperature   information
              provided  by  the  SMART  Command Transport (SCT) commands.  The
              option ´scttempsts´ prints current temperature  and  temperature
              ranges  returned by the SCT Status command, ´scttemphist´ prints
              temperature limits and the temperature history table returned by
              the  SCT  Data  Table  command,  and ´scttemp´ prints both.  The
              temperature values  are  preserved  across  power  cycles.   The
              default  temperature  logging  interval  is  1 minute and can be
              configured with the ´-t  scttempint,N[,p]´  option,  see  below.
              The SCT commands are specified in the proposed ATA-8 Command Set
              (ACS), and are already implemented in some recent ATA-7 disks.

       -v N,OPTION, --vendorattribute=N,OPTION
              Sets a vendor-specific display OPTION  for  Attribute  N.   This
              option  may  be  used  multiple  times.  Valid arguments to this
              option are:

              help - Prints (to STDOUT) a list of all valid arguments to  this
              option, then exits.

              9,minutes  - Raw Attribute number 9 is power-on time in minutes.
              Its raw value will be displayed in the form "Xh+Ym".  Here X  is
              hours,  and  Y  is  minutes  in  the range 0-59 inclusive.  Y is
              always printed with two digits, for  example  "06"  or  "31"  or
              "00".

              9,seconds  - Raw Attribute number 9 is power-on time in seconds.
              Its raw value will be displayed in the form "Xh+Ym+Zs".  Here  X
              is  hours,  Y  is  minutes in the range 0-59 inclusive, and Z is
              seconds in the range 0-59 inclusive.  Y and Z are always printed
              with two digits, for example "06" or "31" or "00".

              9,halfminutes  -  Raw  Attribute  number  9  is  power-on  time,
              measured in units of 30 seconds.  This format is  used  by  some
              Samsung  disks.   Its  raw  value  will be displayed in the form
              "Xh+Ym".  Here X is hours, and Y is minutes in  the  range  0-59
              inclusive.   Y  is  always  printed with two digits, for example
              "06" or "31" or "00".

              9,temp - Raw Attribute number  9  is  the  disk  temperature  in
              Celsius.

              192,emergencyretractcyclect  -  Raw  Attribute number 192 is the
              Emergency Retract Cycle Count.

              193,loadunload - Raw Attribute number 193 contains  two  values.
              The  first  is  the  number  of  load cycles.  The second is the
              number of unload  cycles.   The  difference  between  these  two
              values  is  the  number of times that the drive was unexpectedly
              powered off (also called an emergency  unload).  As  a  rule  of
              thumb,  the mechanical stress created by one emergency unload is
              equivalent to that created by one hundred normal unloads.

              194,10xCelsius - Raw Attribute number 194 is ten times the  disk
              temperature  in  Celsius.   This  is  used by some Samsung disks
              (example: model SV1204H with RK100-13 firmware).

              194,unknown  -  Raw  Attribute  number  194  is  NOT  the   disk
              temperature,   and   its  interpretation  is  unknown.  This  is
              primarily useful for the -P (presets) option.

              198,offlinescanuncsectorct - Raw Attribute  number  198  is  the
              Offline Scan UNC Sector Count.

              200,writeerrorcount  -  Raw  Attribute  number  200 is the Write
              Error Count.

              201,detectedtacount - Raw Attribute number 201 is  the  Detected
              TA Count.

              220,temp  -  Raw Attribute number 220 is the disk temperature in
              Celsius.

              Note: a table of hard  drive  models,  listing  which  Attribute
              corresponds     to     temperature,    can    be    found    at:
              http://www.guzu.net/linux/hddtemp.db

              N,raw8 - Print the  Raw  value  of  Attribute  N  as  six  8-bit
              unsigned  base-10 integers.  This may be useful for decoding the
              meaning of the Raw value.  The form ´N,raw8´ prints  Raw  values
              for  ALL  Attributes  in  this  form.   The  form  (for example)
              ´123,raw8´ only prints the Raw value for Attribute 123  in  this
              form.

              N,raw16  -  Print  the  Raw value of Attribute N as three 16-bit
              unsigned base-10 integers.  This may be useful for decoding  the
              meaning  of the Raw value.  The form ´N,raw16´ prints Raw values
              for ALL  Attributes  in  this  form.   The  form  (for  example)
              ´123,raw16´  only prints the Raw value for Attribute 123 in this
              form.

              N,raw48 - Print the  Raw  value  of  Attribute  N  as  a  48-bit
              unsigned  base-10  integer.  This may be useful for decoding the
              meaning of the Raw value.  The form ´N,raw48´ prints Raw  values
              for  ALL  Attributes  in  this  form.   The  form  (for example)
              ´123,raw48´ only prints the Raw value for Attribute 123 in  this
              form.

       -F TYPE, --firmwarebug=TYPE
              Modifies  the  behavior of smartctl to compensate for some known
              and understood device firmware or driver bug.  Except  ´swapid´,
              the  arguments  to  this  option are exclusive, so that only the
              final option given is used.  The valid values are:

              none  -  Assume  that  the  device  firmware   obeys   the   ATA
              specifications.   This  is  the  default,  unless the device has
              presets for ´-F´ in the device database (see note below).

              samsung - In some Samsung disks (example: model SV4012H Firmware
              Version:  RM100-08) some of the two- and four-byte quantities in
              the SMART data structures are byte-swapped (relative to the  ATA
              specification).  Enabling this option tells smartctl to evaluate
              these quantities in byte-reversed order.  Some signs  that  your
              disk  needs  this  option are (1) no self-test log printed, even
              though you have run self-tests; (2) very large  numbers  of  ATA
              errors reported in the ATA error log; (3) strange and impossible
              values for the ATA error log timestamps.

              samsung2 - In more  recent  Samsung  disks  (firmware  revisions
              ending  in  "-23")  the  number  of  ATA errors reported is byte
              swapped.  Enabling this option tells smartctl to  evaluate  this
              quantity in byte-reversed order. An indication that your Samsung
              disk needs this option is that  the  self-test  log  is  printed
              correctly,  but  there  are a very large number of errors in the
              SMART error log.  This  is  because  the  error  count  is  byte
              swapped.   Thus  a disk with five errors (0x0005) will appear to
              have 20480 errors (0x5000).

              samsung3 - Some Samsung disks (at least  SP2514N  with  Firmware
              VF100-37) report a self-test still in progress with 0% remaining
              when the  test  was  already  completed.  Enabling  this  option
              modifies  the  output  of  the  self-test  execution status (see
              options ´-c´ or ´-a´ above) accordingly.

              Note that an explicit ´-F´  option  on  the  command  line  will
              over-ride  any  preset  values  for  ´-F´  (see  the ´-P´ option
              below).

              swapid - Fixes byte swapped ATA identify strings  (device  name,
              serial  number,  firmware version) returned by some buggy device
              drivers.

       -P TYPE, --presets=TYPE
              Specifies whether smartctl should use any  preset  options  that
              are  available  for  this  drive.  By  default,  if the drive is
              recognized in the smartmontools database, then the  presets  are
              used.

              smartctl  can  automatically  set  appropriate options for known
              drives.  For example, the Maxtor 4D080H4  uses  Attribute  9  to
              stores  power-on  time  in  minutes whereas most drives use that
              Attribute to store the power-on time in hours.  The command-line
              option ´-v 9,minutes´ ensures that smartctl correctly interprets
              Attribute 9 in this case, but that  option  is  preset  for  the
              Maxtor  4D080H4  and so need not be specified by the user on the
              smartctl command line.

              The argument show will show any preset options  for  your  drive
              and  the  argument  showall  will  show  all known drives in the
              smartmontools database, along with  their  preset  options.   If
              there  are  no presets for your drive and you think there should
              be (for example, a -v or -F option is needed to get smartctl  to
              display  correct  values)  then please contact the smartmontools
              developers  so  that  this  information  can  be  added  to  the
              smartmontools  database.   Contact  information is at the end of
              this man page.

              The valid arguments to this option are:

              use - if a drive is recognized, then use the stored presets  for
              it.   This  is the default. Note that presets will NOT over-ride
              additional   Attribute   interpretation    (´-v    N,something´)
              command-line options or explicit ´-F´ command-line options..

              ignore - do not use presets.

              show  -  show if the drive is recognized in the database, and if
              so, its presets, then exit.

              showall - list all recognized drives, and the presets  that  are
              set for them, then exit.

              The  ´-P  showall´  option takes up to two optional arguments to
              match a specific drive type and firmware version. The command:
                smartctl -P showall
              lists all entries, the command:
                smartctl -P showall ´MODEL´
              lists all entries matching MODEL, and the command:
                smartctl -P showall ´MODEL´ ´FIRMWARE´
              lists all  entries  for  this  MODEL  and  a  specific  FIRMWARE
              version.

       SMART RUN/ABORT OFFLINE TEST AND SELF-TEST OPTIONS:

       -t TEST, --test=TEST
              Executes  TEST  immediately.   The  ´-C´  option  can be used in
              conjunction with this option to run the short or long (and  also
              for  ATA devices, selective or conveyance) self-tests in captive
              mode (known as "foreground mode" for SCSI devices).   Note  that
              only  one  test type can be run at a time, so only one test type
              should be specified per command  line.   Note  also  that  if  a
              computer is shutdown or power cycled during a self-test, no harm
              should result.  The self-test will either  be  aborted  or  will
              resume automatically.

              The valid arguments to this option are:

              offline  -  runs SMART Immediate Offline Test.  This immediately
              starts the test described above.   This  command  can  be  given
              during  normal  system  operation.  The effects of this test are
              visible only in that it updates the SMART Attribute values,  and
              if  errors  are  found  they will appear in the SMART error log,
              visible with the ´-l error´ option. [In the case of SCSI devices
              runs  the default self test in foreground. No entry is placed in
              the self test log.]

              If the ´-c´ option to smartctl shows that  the  device  has  the
              "Suspend  Offline  collection  upon new command" capability then
              you can track the progress of the Immediate Offline  test  using
              the  ´-c´  option to smartctl.  If the ´-c´ option show that the
              device has the  "Abort  Offline  collection  upon  new  command"
              capability  then  most commands will abort the Immediate Offline
              Test, so you should not try to track the progress  of  the  test
              with ´-c´, as it will abort the test.

              short  - runs SMART Short Self Test (usually under ten minutes).
              [Note: in the case of SCSI devices, this command option runs the
              "Background short" self-test.]  This command can be given during
              normal system operation (unless run in captive mode  -  see  the
              ´-C´ option below).  This is a test in a different category than
              the immediate or automatic  offline  tests.   The  "Self"  tests
              check  the  electrical and mechanical performance as well as the
              read performance of the disk.  Their results are reported in the
              Self  Test  Error  Log,  readable with the ´-l selftest´ option.
              Note that on some disks the progress of  the  self-test  can  be
              monitored  by watching this log during the self-test; with other
              disks use the ´-c´ option to monitor progress.

              long - runs SMART Extended Self Test (tens of minutes).   [Note:
              in  the  case  of  SCSI  devices,  this  command option runs the
              "Background  long"  self-test.]   This  is  a  longer  and  more
              thorough  version  of the Short Self Test described above.  Note
              that this command can be given during  normal  system  operation
              (unless run in captive mode - see the ´-C´ option below).

              conveyance  -  [ATA  ONLY]  runs  a  SMART  Conveyance Self Test
              (minutes).  This  self-test  routine  is  intended  to  identify
              damage   incurred   during  transporting  of  the  device.  This
              self-test routine  should  take  on  the  order  of  minutes  to
              complete.   Note  that  this  command can be given during normal
              system operation (unless run in captive  mode  -  see  the  ´-C´
              option below).

              select,N-M,  select,N+SIZE  -  [ATA ONLY] [EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL
              FEATURE] runs a SMART Selective Self Test, to test  a  range  of
              disk  Logical  Block  Addresses  (LBAs),  rather than the entire
              disk.  Each range of LBAs that is checked is called a "span" and
              is  specified by a starting LBA (N) and an ending LBA (M) with N
              less than or equal to M. The range  can  also  be  specified  as
              N+SIZE. A span at the end of a disk can be specified by N-max.

              For example the commands:
                smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,10+11 /dev/hda
              both  runs  a  self  test  on one span consisting of LBAs ten to
              twenty (inclusive). The command:
                smartctl -t select,100000000-max /dev/hda
              run a self test from LBA 100000000 up to the end  of  the  disk.
              The  ´-t´  option  can  be given up to five times, to test up to
              five spans.  For example the command:
                smartctl -t select,0-100 -t select,1000-2000 /dev/hda
              runs a self test on two spans.  The first span consists  of  101
              LBAs  and  the second span consists of 1001 LBAs.  Note that the
              spans can overlap partially or completely, for example:
                smartctl -t select,0-10 -t select,5-15 -t select,10-20 /dev/hda
              The results of the selective self-test  can  be  obtained  (both
              during  and after the test) by printing the SMART self-test log,
              using the ´-l selftest´ option to smartctl.

              Selective self tests are particularly useful as disk  capacities
              increase:  an  extended  self  test  (smartctl -t long) can take
              several hours.  Selective self-tests are helpful  if  (based  on
              SYSLOG  error  messages,  previous  failed  self-tests, or SMART
              error log entries) you suspect that a disk is having problems at
              a particular range of Logical Block Addresses (LBAs).

              Selective  self-tests  can be run during normal system operation
              (unless done in captive mode - see the ´-C´ option below).

              [Note: To use this feature on Linux, the kernel must be compiled
              with  the  configuration  option CONFIG_IDE_TASKFILE_IO enabled.
              Please   report   unusual   or   incorrect   behavior   to   the
              smartmontools-support mailing list.]

              The  following  variants  of the selective self-test command use
              spans based on the ranges from past tests already stored on  the
              disk:

              select,redo[+SIZE]  -  [ATA  ONLY]  [NEW  EXPERIMENTAL  SMARTCTL
              FEATURE] redo the last SMART Selective Self Test using the  same
              LBA range. The starting LBA is identical to the LBA used by last
              test, same for ending LBA unless a new span size is specified by
              optional +SIZE argument.

              For example the commands:
                smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,redo /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,redo+20 /dev/hda
              have the same effect as:
                smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,10-29 /dev/hda

              select,next[+SIZE]  -  [ATA  ONLY]  [NEW  EXPERIMENTAL  SMARTCTL
              FEATURE] runs a SMART Selective Self Test on the LBA range which
              follows  the  range of the last test. The starting LBA is set to
              (ending LBA +1) of the  last  test.  A  new  span  size  may  be
              specified by the optional +SIZE argument.

              For example the commands:
                smartctl -t select,0-999 /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,next /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,next+2000 /dev/hda
              have the same effect as:
                smartctl -t select,0-999 /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,1000-1999 /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,2000-3999 /dev/hda

              If  the  last  test  ended  at the last LBA of the disk, the new
              range starts at LBA 0. The span size of the last span of a  disk
              is  adjusted  such  that  the total number of spans to check the
              full  disk  will  not  be  changed  by  future   uses   of   ´-t
              select,next´.

              select,cont[+SIZE]  -  [ATA  ONLY]  [NEW  EXPERIMENTAL  SMARTCTL
              FEATURE] performs a ´redo´  (above)  if  the  self  test  status
              reports that the last test was aborted by the host. Otherwise it
              run the ´next´ (above) test.

              afterselect,on - [ATA ONLY] perform an offline read scan after a
              Selective  Self-test  has  completed.  This  option must be used
              together with one or more of the select,N-M  options  above.  If
              the  LBAs  that  have  been specified in the Selective self-test
              pass the test with no errors found, then read scan the remainder
              of  the  disk.   If the device is powered-cycled while this read
              scan is in progress, the read scan will be automatically resumed
              after  a  time  specified by the pending timer (see below).  The
              value of this option is preserved between selective  self-tests.

              afterselect,off  -  [ATA ONLY] do not read scan the remainder of
              the disk after a Selective self-test has completed.  This option
              must  be use together with one or more of the select,N-M options
              above.  The value of this option is preserved between  selective
              self-tests.

              pending,N  -  [ATA ONLY] set the pending offline read scan timer
              to N minutes.  Here N is an integer in the range from 0 to 65535
              inclusive.   If  the  device  is  powered off during a read scan
              after a Selective self-test, then resume the test  automatically
              N minutes after power-up.  This option must be use together with
              one or more of the select,N-M options above. The value  of  this
              option is preserved between selective self-tests.

              scttempint,N[,p]   -   [ATA  ONLY]  [NEW  EXPERIMENTAL  SMARTCTL
              FEATURE] set the time interval for SCT temperature logging to  N
              minutes.  If  ´,p´ is specified, the setting is preserved across
              power cycles. Otherwise, the setting is  volatile  and  will  be
              reverted  to default (1 minute), or last non-volatile setting by
              the next hard reset. This command also  clears  the  temperature
              history table. See ´-l scttemp´ above for more information about
              SCT temperature logging.

       -C, --captive
              Runs self-tests in captive mode.  This has no  effect  with  ´-t
              offline´  or  if the ´-t´ option is not used. [Note: in the case
              of SCSI devices, this  command  option  runs  the  self-test  in
              "Foreground" mode.]

              WARNING:  Tests  run  in captive mode may busy out the drive for
              the length of the  test.   Only  run  captive  tests  on  drives
              without any mounted partitions!

       -X, --abort
              Aborts  non-captive  SMART  Self  Tests.  Note that this command
              will abort the Offline Immediate Test routine only if your  disk
              has  the "Abort Offline collection upon new command" capability.

EXAMPLES

       smartctl -a /dev/hda
       Print all SMART information for drive /dev/hda (Primary Master).

       smartctl -s off /dev/hdd
       Disable SMART on drive /dev/hdd (Secondary Slave).

       smartctl --smart=on --offlineauto=on --saveauto=on /dev/hda
       Enable SMART on drive /dev/hda, enable automatic offline testing  every
       four  hours, and enable autosaving of SMART Attributes.  This is a good
       start-up line for your system´s init files.  You can issue this command
       on a running system.

       smartctl -t long /dev/hdc
       Begin  an  extended  self-test  of  drive /dev/hdc.  You can issue this
       command on a running system.  The results can be seen in the  self-test
       log visible with the ´-l selftest´ option after it has completed.

       smartctl -s on -t offline /dev/hda
       Enable  SMART on the disk, and begin an immediate offline test of drive
       /dev/hda.  You can issue this command on a running system.  The results
       are  only  used  to  update the SMART Attributes, visible with the ´-A´
       option.  If any device errors occur, they are logged to the SMART error
       log, which can be seen with the ´-l error´ option.

       smartctl -A -v 9,minutes /dev/hda
       Shows  the  vendor  Attributes,  when the disk stores its power-on time
       internally in minutes rather than hours.

       smartctl -q errorsonly -H -l selftest /dev/hda
       Produces output only if the device returns failing SMART status, or  if
       some of the logged self-tests ended with errors.

       smartctl -q silent -a /dev/hda
       Examine  all  SMART  data  for  device /dev/hda, but produce no printed
       output.  You must use the exit status (the $?  shell variable) to learn
       if  any Attributes are out of bound, if the SMART status is failing, if
       there are errors recorded in the self-test log, or if there are  errors
       recorded in the disk error log.

       smartctl -a -d 3ware,0 /dev/sda
       Examine all SMART data for the first ATA disk connected to a 3ware RAID
       controller card.

       smartctl -a -d 3ware,0 /dev/twe0
       Examine all SMART data for the first ATA disk connected to a 3ware RAID
       6000/7000/8000 controller card.

       smartctl -a -d 3ware,0 /dev/twa0
       Examine all SMART data for the first ATA disk connected to a 3ware RAID
       9000 controller card.

       smartctl -t short -d 3ware,3 /dev/sdb
       Start a short self-test on the fourth ATA disk connected to  the  3ware
       RAID controller card which is the second SCSI device /dev/sdb.

       smartctl -a -d hpt,1/3 /dev/sda
       Examine  all  SMART  data for the (S)ATA disk directly connected to the
       third channel of the first HighPoint RocketRAID controller card.

       smartctl -t short -d hpt,1/1/2 /dev/sda
       Start a short self-test on the (S)ATA disk connected to  second  pmport
       on the first channel of the first HighPoint RocketRAID controller card.

       smartctl -t select,10-100 -t select,30-300 -t afterselect,on -t pending,45 /dev/hda
       Run a selective self-test on LBAs 10 to 100 and 30 to 300.   After  the
       these  LBAs  have been tested, read-scan the remainder of the disk.  If
       the disk is power-cycled during  the  read-scan,  resume  the  scan  45
       minutes after power to the device is restored.

       smartctl -a -d cciss,0 /dev/cciss/c0d0
       Examine  all  SMART  data  for the first SCSI disk connected to a cciss
       RAID controller card.

RETURN VALUES

       The return values of smartctl are defined by a bitmask.  If all is well
       with  the  disk,  the  return value (exit status) of smartctl is 0 (all
       bits turned off).  If a problem occurs, or an error,  potential  error,
       or  fault  is  detected,  then  a non-zero status is returned.  In this
       case, the eight different bits in the return value have  the  following
       meanings  for  ATA disks; some of these values may also be returned for
       SCSI disks.

       Bit 0: Command line did not parse.

       Bit 1: Device open failed, or device did not return an IDENTIFY  DEVICE
              structure.

       Bit 2: Some  SMART  command to the disk failed, or there was a checksum
              error in a SMART data structure (see ´-b´ option above).

       Bit 3: SMART status check returned "DISK FAILING".

       Bit 4: We found prefail Attributes <= threshold.

       Bit 5: SMART status check returned "DISK OK" but  we  found  that  some
              (usage  or  prefail)  Attributes  have been <= threshold at some
              time in the past.

       Bit 6: The device error log contains records of errors.

       Bit 7: The device self-test log contains records of errors.

              To test within the shell for whether or not the  different  bits
              are  turned  on  or  off,  you  can  use  the  following type of
              construction (this is bash syntax):
              smartstat=$(($? & 8))
              This looks at only at bit  3  of  the  exit  status  $?   (since
              8=2^3).   The shell variable $smartstat will be nonzero if SMART
              status check returned "disk failing" and zero otherwise.

NOTES

       The TapeAlert log page flags are cleared for  the  initiator  when  the
       page  is  read.  This  means that each alert condition is reported only
       once by  smartctl  for  each  initiator  for  each  activation  of  the
       condition.

AUTHOR

       Bruce Allen smartmontools-support@lists.sourceforge.net
       University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee Physics Department

CONTRIBUTORS

       The following have made large contributions to smartmontools:
       Casper Dik (Solaris SCSI interface)
       Christian Franke (Windows interface and Cygwin package)
       Douglas Gilbert (SCSI subsystem)
       Guido Guenther (Autoconf/Automake packaging)
       Geoffrey Keating (Darwin ATA interface)
       Eduard Martinescu (FreeBSD interface)
       Frederic L. W. Meunier (Web site and Mailing list)
       Keiji Sawada (Solaris ATA interface)
       Sergey Svishchev (NetBSD interface)
       David Snyder and Sergey Svishchev (OpenBSD interface)
       Phil Williams (User interface and drive database)
       Yuri Dario (OS/2, eComStation interface)
       Shengfeng Zhou (Linux Highpoint RocketRaid interface)
       Many other individuals have made smaller contributions and corrections.

CREDITS

       This code was derived from the smartsuite package, written  by  Michael
       Cornwell,  and  from  the previous UCSC smartsuite package.  It extends
       these to cover ATA-5 disks.  This code was originally  developed  as  a
       Senior  Thesis by Michael Cornwell at the Concurrent Systems Laboratory
       (now part of the Storage Systems Research Center), Jack  Baskin  School
       of    Engineering,    University    of    California,    Santa    Cruz.
       http://ssrc.soe.ucsc.edu/ .

HOME PAGE FOR SMARTMONTOOLS:

       Please see the following web site for updates,  further  documentation,
       bug reports and patches: http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net/

SEE ALSO:

       smartd(8), badblocks(8), ide-smart(8).

REFERENCES FOR SMART

       An  introductory  article  about smartmontools is Monitoring Hard Disks
       with SMART, by Bruce Allen, Linux Journal, January 2004,  pages  74-77.
       This is http://www.linuxjournal.com/article.php?sid=6983 online.

       If  you  would  like  to understand better how SMART works, and what it
       does, a good place to start is with Sections 4.8 and 6.54 of the  first
       volume  of  the  ´AT  Attachment with Packet Interface-7´ (ATA/ATAPI-7)
       specification.   This  documents  the  SMART  functionality  which  the
       smartmontools utilities provide access to.  You can find Revision 4b of
       this document at http://www.t13.org/docs2004/d1532v1r4b-ATA-ATAPI-7.pdf
       .   Earlier and later versions of this Specification are available from
       the T13 web site http://www.t13.org/ .

       The functioning of  SMART  was  originally  defined  by  the  SFF-8035i
       revision  2  and  the SFF-8055i revision 1.4 specifications.  These are
       publications of the Small Form Factors (SFF) Committee.  Links to these
       documents  may  be found in the References section of the smartmontools
       home page at http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net/ .

CVS ID OF THIS PAGE:

       $Id: smartctl.8.in,v 1.105 2008/03/04 22:09:47 ballen4705 Exp $