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        strtol - convert a string to a long integer.


        #include <stdlib.h>
        long int strtol(const char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);


        The  strtol()  function  converts  the string in nptr to a long integer
        value according to the given base, which  must  be  between  2  and  36
        inclusive, or be the special value 0.
        The  string  must  begin  with  an  arbitrary amount of white space (as
        determined by isspace(3)) followed by a  single  optional  ‘+’  or  ‘-’
        sign.   If  base is zero or 16, the string may then include a ‘0x’ pre‐
        fix, and the number will be read in base 16; otherwise, a zero base  is
        taken  as  10 (decimal) unless the next character is ‘0’, in which case
        it is taken as 8 (octal).
        The remainder of the string is converted to a long  int  value  in  the
        obvious  manner,  stopping  at the first character which is not a valid
        digit in the given base.  (In bases above 10, the letter ‘A’ in  either
        upper  or  lower  case  represents 10, ‘B’ represents 11, and so forth,
        with ‘Z’ representing 35.)
        If endptr is not NULL, strtol() stores the address of the first invalid
        character  in *endptr.  If there were no digits at all, strtol() stores
        the original value of nptr in *endptr.  (Thus, if *nptr is not ‘\0’ but
        **endptr is ‘\0’ on return, the entire string is valid.)
        The  strtol() function returns the result of the conversion, unless the
        value would underflow or overflow.  If an  underflow  occurs,  strtol()
        returns  LONG_MIN.   If  an overflow occurs, strtol() returns LONG_MAX.
        In both cases, errno is set to ERANGE.


        ERANGE The given string was out of range; the value converted has  been
        SVID 3, BSD 4.3, ISO 9899
        atof(3), atoi(3), atol(3), strtod(3), strtoul(3)


        Ignores the current locale.