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strtol - convert a string to a long integer.
long int strtol(const char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);
The strtol() function converts the string in nptr to a long integer
value according to the given base, which must be between 2 and 36
inclusive, or be the special value 0.
The string must begin with an arbitrary amount of white space (as
determined by isspace(3)) followed by a single optional ‘+’ or ‘-’
sign. If base is zero or 16, the string may then include a ‘0x’ pre‐
fix, and the number will be read in base 16; otherwise, a zero base is
taken as 10 (decimal) unless the next character is ‘0’, in which case
it is taken as 8 (octal).
The remainder of the string is converted to a long int value in the
obvious manner, stopping at the first character which is not a valid
digit in the given base. (In bases above 10, the letter ‘A’ in either
upper or lower case represents 10, ‘B’ represents 11, and so forth,
with ‘Z’ representing 35.)
If endptr is not NULL, strtol() stores the address of the first invalid
character in *endptr. If there were no digits at all, strtol() stores
the original value of nptr in *endptr. (Thus, if *nptr is not ‘\0’ but
**endptr is ‘\0’ on return, the entire string is valid.)
The strtol() function returns the result of the conversion, unless the
value would underflow or overflow. If an underflow occurs, strtol()
returns LONG_MIN. If an overflow occurs, strtol() returns LONG_MAX.
In both cases, errno is set to ERANGE.
ERANGE The given string was out of range; the value converted has been
SVID 3, BSD 4.3, ISO 9899
atof(3), atoi(3), atol(3), strtod(3), strtoul(3)
Ignores the current locale.