Provided by: git-core_1.6.3.3-2_i386 bug

NAME

       git-pull - Fetch from and merge with another repository or a local
       branch

SYNOPSIS

       git pull <options> <repository> <refspec>...

DESCRIPTION

       Runs git-fetch with the given parameters, and calls git-merge to merge
       the retrieved head(s) into the current branch. With --rebase, calls
       git-rebase instead of git-merge.

       Note that you can use . (current directory) as the <repository> to pull
       from the local repository — this is useful when merging local branches
       into the current branch.

       Also note that options meant for git-pull itself and underlying
       git-merge must be given before the options meant for git-fetch.

OPTIONS

       -q, --quiet
           Operate quietly.

       -v, --verbose
           Be verbose.

       --stat
           Show a diffstat at the end of the merge. The diffstat is also
           controlled by the configuration option merge.stat.

       -n, --no-stat
           Do not show a diffstat at the end of the merge.

       --summary, --no-summary
           Synonyms to --stat and --no-stat; these are deprecated and will be
           removed in the future.

       --log
           In addition to branch names, populate the log message with one-line
           descriptions from the actual commits that are being merged.

       --no-log
           Do not list one-line descriptions from the actual commits being
           merged.

       --no-commit
           Perform the merge but pretend the merge failed and do not
           autocommit, to give the user a chance to inspect and further tweak
           the merge result before committing.

       --commit
           Perform the merge and commit the result. This option can be used to
           override --no-commit.

       --squash
           Produce the working tree and index state as if a real merge
           happened (except for the merge information), but do not actually
           make a commit or move the HEAD, nor record $GIT_DIR/MERGE_HEAD to
           cause the next git commit command to create a merge commit. This
           allows you to create a single commit on top of the current branch
           whose effect is the same as merging another branch (or more in case
           of an octopus).

       --no-squash
           Perform the merge and commit the result. This option can be used to
           override --squash.

       --no-ff
           Generate a merge commit even if the merge resolved as a
           fast-forward.

       --ff
           Do not generate a merge commit if the merge resolved as a
           fast-forward, only update the branch pointer. This is the default
           behavior of git-merge.

       -s <strategy>, --strategy=<strategy>
           Use the given merge strategy; can be supplied more than once to
           specify them in the order they should be tried. If there is no -s
           option, a built-in list of strategies is used instead
           (git-merge-recursive when merging a single head, git-merge-octopus
           otherwise).

       --rebase
           Instead of a merge, perform a rebase after fetching. If there is a
           remote ref for the upstream branch, and this branch was rebased
           since last fetched, the rebase uses that information to avoid
           rebasing non-local changes. To make this the default for branch
           <name>, set configuration branch.<name>.rebase to true.

               Note
               This is a potentially dangerous mode of operation. It rewrites
               history, which does not bode well when you published that
               history already. Do not use this option unless you have read
               git-rebase(1) carefully.

       --no-rebase
           Override earlier --rebase.

       -q, --quiet
           Pass --quiet to git-fetch-pack and silence any other internally
           used programs.

       -v, --verbose
           Be verbose.

       -a, --append
           Append ref names and object names of fetched refs to the existing
           contents of .git/FETCH_HEAD. Without this option old data in
           .git/FETCH_HEAD will be overwritten.

       --upload-pack <upload-pack>
           When given, and the repository to fetch from is handled by
           git-fetch-pack, --exec=<upload-pack> is passed to the command to
           specify non-default path for the command run on the other end.

       -f, --force
           When git-fetch is used with <rbranch>:<lbranch> refspec, it refuses
           to update the local branch <lbranch> unless the remote branch
           <rbranch> it fetches is a descendant of <lbranch>. This option
           overrides that check.

       --no-tags
           By default, tags that point at objects that are downloaded from the
           remote repository are fetched and stored locally. This option
           disables this automatic tag following.

       -t, --tags
           Most of the tags are fetched automatically as branch heads are
           downloaded, but tags that do not point at objects reachable from
           the branch heads that are being tracked will not be fetched by this
           mechanism. This flag lets all tags and their associated objects be
           downloaded.

       -k, --keep
           Keep downloaded pack.

       -u, --update-head-ok
           By default git-fetch refuses to update the head which corresponds
           to the current branch. This flag disables the check. This is purely
           for the internal use for git-pull to communicate with git-fetch,
           and unless you are implementing your own Porcelain you are not
           supposed to use it.

       --depth=<depth>
           Deepen the history of a shallow repository created by git clone
           with --depth=<depth> option (see git-clone(1)) by the specified
           number of commits.

       <repository>
           The "remote" repository that is the source of a fetch or pull
           operation. This parameter can be either a URL (see the section GIT
           URLS below) or the name of a remote (see the section REMOTES
           below).

       <refspec>
           The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus {plus},
           followed by the source ref <src>, followed by a colon :, followed
           by the destination ref <dst>.

           The remote ref that matches <src> is fetched, and if <dst> is not
           empty string, the local ref that matches it is fast forwarded using
           <src>. If the optional plus + is used, the local ref is updated
           even if it does not result in a fast forward update.

               Note
               If the remote branch from which you want to pull is modified in
               non-linear ways such as being rewound and rebased frequently,
               then a pull will attempt a merge with an older version of
               itself, likely conflict, and fail. It is under these conditions
               that you would want to use the + sign to indicate
               non-fast-forward updates will be needed. There is currently no
               easy way to determine or declare that a branch will be made
               available in a repository with this behavior; the pulling user
               simply must know this is the expected usage pattern for a
               branch.

               Note
               You never do your own development on branches that appear on
               the right hand side of a <refspec> colon on Pull: lines; they
               are to be updated by git-fetch. If you intend to do development
               derived from a remote branch B, have a Pull: line to track it
               (i.e.  Pull: B:remote-B), and have a separate branch my-B to do
               your development on top of it. The latter is created by git
               branch my-B remote-B (or its equivalent git checkout -b my-B
               remote-B). Run git fetch to keep track of the progress of the
               remote side, and when you see something new on the remote
               branch, merge it into your development branch with git pull .
               remote-B, while you are on my-B branch.

               Note
               There is a difference between listing multiple <refspec>
               directly on git-pull command line and having multiple Pull:
               <refspec> lines for a <repository> and running git-pull command
               without any explicit <refspec> parameters. <refspec> listed
               explicitly on the command line are always merged into the
               current branch after fetching. In other words, if you list more
               than one remote refs, you would be making an Octopus. While
               git-pull run without any explicit <refspec> parameter takes
               default <refspec>s from Pull: lines, it merges only the first
               <refspec> found into the current branch, after fetching all the
               remote refs. This is because making an Octopus from remote refs
               is rarely done, while keeping track of multiple remote heads in
               one-go by fetching more than one is often useful.
           Some short-cut notations are also supported.

           ·    tag <tag> means the same as refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>;
               it requests fetching everything up to the given tag.

           ·   A parameter <ref> without a colon is equivalent to <ref>: when
               pulling/fetching, so it merges <ref> into the current branch
               without storing the remote branch anywhere locally

GIT URLS

       One of the following notations can be used to name the remote
       repository:

       ·   rsync://host.xz/path/to/repo.git/

       ·    http://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       ·    https://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       ·   git://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       ·   git://host.xz[:port]/~user/path/to/repo.git/

       ·   ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       ·   ssh://[user@]host.xz/path/to/repo.git/

       ·   ssh://[user@]host.xz/~user/path/to/repo.git/

       ·   ssh://[user@]host.xz/~/path/to/repo.git

       SSH is the default transport protocol over the network. You can
       optionally specify which user to log-in as, and an alternate, scp-like
       syntax is also supported. Both syntaxes support username expansion, as
       does the native git protocol, but only the former supports port
       specification. The following three are identical to the last three
       above, respectively:

       ·   [user@]host.xz:/path/to/repo.git/

       ·   [user@]host.xz:~user/path/to/repo.git/

       ·   [user@]host.xz:path/to/repo.git

       To sync with a local directory, you can use:

       ·   /path/to/repo.git/

       ·    file:///path/to/repo.git/

       They are mostly equivalent, except when cloning. See git-clone(1) for
       details.

       If there are a large number of similarly-named remote repositories and
       you want to use a different format for them (such that the URLs you use
       will be rewritten into URLs that work), you can create a configuration
       section of the form:

                   [url "<actual url base>"]
                           insteadOf = <other url base>

       For example, with this:

                   [url "git://git.host.xz/"]
                           insteadOf = host.xz:/path/to/
                           insteadOf = work:

       a URL like "work:repo.git" or like "host.xz:/path/to/repo.git" will be
       rewritten in any context that takes a URL to be
       "git://git.host.xz/repo.git".

REMOTES

       The name of one of the following can be used instead of a URL as
       <repository> argument:

       ·   a remote in the git configuration file: $GIT_DIR/config,

       ·   a file in the $GIT_DIR/remotes directory, or

       ·   a file in the $GIT_DIR/branches directory.

       All of these also allow you to omit the refspec from the command line
       because they each contain a refspec which git will use by default.

   Named remote in configuration file
       You can choose to provide the name of a remote which you had previously
       configured using git-remote(1), git-config(1) or even by a manual edit
       to the $GIT_DIR/config file. The URL of this remote will be used to
       access the repository. The refspec of this remote will be used by
       default when you do not provide a refspec on the command line. The
       entry in the config file would appear like this:

                   [remote "<name>"]
                           url = <url>
                           push = <refspec>
                           fetch = <refspec>

   Named file in $GIT_DIR/remotes
       You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/remotes. The
       URL in this file will be used to access the repository. The refspec in
       this file will be used as default when you do not provide a refspec on
       the command line. This file should have the following format:

                   URL: one of the above URL format
                   Push: <refspec>
                   Pull: <refspec>

       Push: lines are used by git-push and Pull: lines are used by git-pull
       and git-fetch. Multiple Push: and Pull: lines may be specified for
       additional branch mappings.

   Named file in $GIT_DIR/branches
       You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/branches. The
       URL in this file will be used to access the repository. This file
       should have the following format:

                   <url>#<head>

       <url> is required; #<head> is optional.

       Depending on the operation, git will use one of the following refspecs,
       if you don’t provide one on the command line. <branch> is the name of
       this file in $GIT_DIR/branches and <head> defaults to master.

       git fetch uses:

                   refs/heads/<head>:refs/heads/<branch>

       git push uses:

                   HEAD:refs/heads/<head>

MERGE STRATEGIES

       resolve
           This can only resolve two heads (i.e. the current branch and
           another branch you pulled from) using a 3-way merge algorithm. It
           tries to carefully detect criss-cross merge ambiguities and is
           considered generally safe and fast.

       recursive
           This can only resolve two heads using a 3-way merge algorithm. When
           there is more than one common ancestor that can be used for 3-way
           merge, it creates a merged tree of the common ancestors and uses
           that as the reference tree for the 3-way merge. This has been
           reported to result in fewer merge conflicts without causing
           mis-merges by tests done on actual merge commits taken from Linux
           2.6 kernel development history. Additionally this can detect and
           handle merges involving renames. This is the default merge strategy
           when pulling or merging one branch.

       octopus
           This resolves cases with more than two heads, but refuses to do a
           complex merge that needs manual resolution. It is primarily meant
           to be used for bundling topic branch heads together. This is the
           default merge strategy when pulling or merging more than one
           branch.

       ours
           This resolves any number of heads, but the result of the merge is
           always the current branch head. It is meant to be used to supersede
           old development history of side branches.

       subtree
           This is a modified recursive strategy. When merging trees A and B,
           if B corresponds to a subtree of A, B is first adjusted to match
           the tree structure of A, instead of reading the trees at the same
           level. This adjustment is also done to the common ancestor tree.

DEFAULT BEHAVIOUR

       Often people use git pull without giving any parameter. Traditionally,
       this has been equivalent to saying git pull origin. However, when
       configuration branch.<name>.remote is present while on branch <name>,
       that value is used instead of origin.

       In order to determine what URL to use to fetch from, the value of the
       configuration remote.<origin>.url is consulted and if there is not any
       such variable, the value on URL: ‘ line in ‘$GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin>
       file is used.

       In order to determine what remote branches to fetch (and optionally
       store in the tracking branches) when the command is run without any
       refspec parameters on the command line, values of the configuration
       variable remote.<origin>.fetch are consulted, and if there aren’t any,
       $GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin> file is consulted and its ‘Pull: ‘ lines are
       used. In addition to the refspec formats described in the OPTIONS
       section, you can have a globbing refspec that looks like this:

           refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*

       A globbing refspec must have a non-empty RHS (i.e. must store what were
       fetched in tracking branches), and its LHS and RHS must end with /*.
       The above specifies that all remote branches are tracked using tracking
       branches in refs/remotes/origin/ hierarchy under the same name.

       The rule to determine which remote branch to merge after fetching is a
       bit involved, in order not to break backward compatibility.

       If explicit refspecs were given on the command line of git pull, they
       are all merged.

       When no refspec was given on the command line, then git pull uses the
       refspec from the configuration or $GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin>. In such
       cases, the following rules apply:

        1. If branch.<name>.merge configuration for the current branch <name>
           exists, that is the name of the branch at the remote site that is
           merged.

        2. If the refspec is a globbing one, nothing is merged.

        3. Otherwise the remote branch of the first refspec is merged.

EXAMPLES

       ·   Update the remote-tracking branches for the repository you cloned
           from, then merge one of them into your current branch:

               $ git pull, git pull origin

           Normally the branch merged in is the HEAD of the remote repository,
           but the choice is determined by the branch.<name>.remote and
           branch.<name>.merge options; see git-config(1) for details.

       ·   Merge into the current branch the remote branch next:

               $ git pull origin next

           This leaves a copy of next temporarily in FETCH_HEAD, but does not
           update any remote-tracking branches.

       ·   Bundle local branch fixes and enhancements on top of the current
           branch, making an Octopus merge:

               $ git pull . fixes enhancements

           This git pull .  syntax is equivalent to git merge.

       ·   Merge local branch obsolete into the current branch, using ours
           merge strategy:

               $ git pull -s ours . obsolete

       ·   Merge local branch maint into the current branch, but do not make a
           commit automatically:

               $ git pull --no-commit . maint

           This can be used when you want to include further changes to the
           merge, or want to write your own merge commit message.

           You should refrain from abusing this option to sneak substantial
           changes into a merge commit. Small fixups like bumping
           release/version name would be acceptable.

       ·   Command line pull of multiple branches from one repository:

               $ git checkout master
               $ git fetch origin +pu:pu maint:tmp
               $ git pull . tmp

           This updates (or creates, as necessary) branches pu and tmp in the
           local repository by fetching from the branches (respectively) pu
           and maint from the remote repository.

           The pu branch will be updated even if it is does not fast-forward;
           the others will not be.

           The final command then merges the newly fetched tmp into master.

       If you tried a pull which resulted in a complex conflicts and would
       want to start over, you can recover with git-reset.

SEE ALSO

       git-fetch(1), git-merge(1), git-config(1)

AUTHOR

       Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org[1]> and Junio C Hamano
       <gitster@pobox.com[2]>

DOCUMENTATION

       Documentation by Jon Loeliger, David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the
       git-list <git@vger.kernel.org[3]>.

GIT

       Part of the git(1) suite

NOTES

        1. torvalds@osdl.org
           mailto:torvalds@osdl.org

        2. gitster@pobox.com
           mailto:gitster@pobox.com

        3. git@vger.kernel.org
           mailto:git@vger.kernel.org