Provided by: coreutils_7.4-2ubuntu1_i386 bug

NAME

       ls - list directory contents

SYNOPSIS

       ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...

DESCRIPTION

       List  information  about  the FILEs (the current directory by default).
       Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor --sort.

       Mandatory arguments to long options are  mandatory  for  short  options
       too.

       -a, --all
              do not ignore entries starting with .

       -A, --almost-all
              do not list implied . and ..

       --author
              with -l, print the author of each file

       -b, --escape
              print octal escapes for nongraphic characters

       --block-size=SIZE
              use SIZE-byte blocks

       -B, --ignore-backups
              do not list implied entries ending with ~

       -c     with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of
              file status information) with -l: show ctime and  sort  by  name
              otherwise: sort by ctime

       -C     list entries by columns

       --color[=WHEN]
              control  whether  color is used to distinguish file types.  WHEN
              may be ‘never’, ‘always’, or ‘auto’

       -d, --directory
              list  directory  entries  instead  of  contents,  and   do   not
              dereference symbolic links

       -D, --dired
              generate output designed for Emacs’ dired mode

       -f     do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls --color

       -F, --classify
              append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries

       --file-type
              likewise, except do not append ‘*’

       --format=WORD
              across  -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1,
              verbose -l, vertical -C

       --full-time
              like -l --time-style=full-iso

       -g     like -l, but do not list owner

       --group-directories-first
              group directories before files.

              augment with a --sort option, but any use  of  --sort=none  (-U)
              disables grouping

       -G, --no-group
              in a long listing, don’t print group names

       -h, --human-readable
              with -l, print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

       --si   likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

       -H, --dereference-command-line
              follow symbolic links listed on the command line

       --dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir
              follow  each  command  line  symbolic  link  that  points  to  a
              directory

       --hide=PATTERN
              do  not  list implied entries matching shell PATTERN (overridden
              by -a or -A)

       --indicator-style=WORD
              append indicator with style WORD to entry names: none (default),
              slash (-p), file-type (--file-type), classify (-F)

       -i, --inode
              print the index number of each file

       -I, --ignore=PATTERN
              do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

       -k     like --block-size=1K

       -l     use a long listing format

       -L, --dereference
              when   showing  file  information  for  a  symbolic  link,  show
              information for the file the link references rather than for the
              link itself

       -m     fill width with a comma separated list of entries

       -n, --numeric-uid-gid
              like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs

       -N, --literal
              print  raw  entry  names  (don’t  treat  e.g. control characters
              specially)

       -o     like -l, but do not list group information

       -p, --indicator-style=slash
              append / indicator to directories

       -q, --hide-control-chars
              print ? instead of non graphic characters

       --show-control-chars
              show non graphic characters as-is  (default  unless  program  is
              ‘ls’ and output is a terminal)

       -Q, --quote-name
              enclose entry names in double quotes

       --quoting-style=WORD
              use  quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale, shell,
              shell-always, c, escape

       -r, --reverse
              reverse order while sorting

       -R, --recursive
              list subdirectories recursively

       -s, --size
              print the allocated size of each file, in blocks

       -S     sort by file size

       --sort=WORD
              sort by WORD instead of name: none -U, extension  -X,  size  -S,
              time -t, version -v

       --time=WORD
              with  -l,  show time as WORD instead of modification time: atime
              -u, access -u, use -u, ctime -c, or  status  -c;  use  specified
              time as sort key if --sort=time

       --time-style=STYLE
              with  -l, show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso, iso,
              locale, +FORMAT.  FORMAT is interpreted like ‘date’;  if  FORMAT
              is  FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2, FORMAT1 applies to non-recent files
              and FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE is prefixed with ‘posix-’,
              STYLE takes effect only outside the POSIX locale

       -t     sort by modification time

       -T, --tabsize=COLS
              assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

       -u     with  -lt:  sort  by, and show, access time with -l: show access
              time and sort by name otherwise: sort by access time

       -U     do not sort; list entries in directory order

       -v     natural sort of (version) numbers within text

       -w, --width=COLS
              assume screen width instead of current value

       -x     list entries by lines instead of by columns

       -X     sort alphabetically by entry extension

       -Z, --context
              print any SELinux security context of each file

       -1     list one file per line

       --help display this help and exit

       --version
              output version information and exit

       SIZE may be (or may be  an  integer  optionally  followed  by)  one  of
       following: kB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, and so on for G,
       T, P, E, Z, Y.

       By default, color is not used to distinguish types of files.   That  is
       equivalent to using --color=none.  Using the --color option without the
       optional WHEN argument is equivalent  to  using  --color=always.   With
       --color=auto,  color  codes  are  output  only  if  standard  output is
       connected to a terminal (tty).  The environment variable LS_COLORS  can
       influence the colors, and can be set easily by the dircolors command.

   Exit status:
       0      if OK,

       1      if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),

       2      if  serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line argument).

AUTHOR

       Written by Richard M. Stallman and David MacKenzie.

REPORTING BUGS

       Report ls bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
       GNU coreutils home page: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>
       General help using GNU software: <http://www.gnu.org/gethelp/>

COPYRIGHT

       Copyright © 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.   License  GPLv3+:  GNU
       GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
       This  is  free  software:  you  are free to change and redistribute it.
       There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

SEE ALSO

       The full documentation for ls is maintained as a  Texinfo  manual.   If
       the  info  and  ls  programs  are  properly installed at your site, the
       command

              info coreutils 'ls invocation'

       should give you access to the complete manual.