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NAME

       python  -  an  interpreted,  interactive,  object-oriented  programming
       language

SYNOPSIS

       python [ -d ] [ -E ] [ -h ] [ -i ] [ -m module-name ] [ -O ]
              [ -Q argument ] [ -S ] [ -t ] [ -u ]
              [ -v ] [ -V ] [ -W argument ] [ -x ] [ -3 ]
              [ -c command | script | - ] [ arguments ]

DESCRIPTION

       Python is  an  interpreted,  interactive,  object-oriented  programming
       language that combines remarkable power with very clear syntax.  For an
       introduction to programming in Python you are referred  to  the  Python
       Tutorial.  The Python Library Reference documents built-in and standard
       types, constants, functions and modules.  Finally, the Python Reference
       Manual  describes  the  syntax  and  semantics  of the core language in
       (perhaps too) much detail.  (These documents may  be  located  via  the
       INTERNET  RESOURCES  below;  they  may  be  installed on your system as
       well.)

       Python’s basic power can be extended with your own modules written in C
       or  C++.   On  most  systems  such  modules  may be dynamically loaded.
       Python  is  also  adaptable  as  an  extension  language  for  existing
       applications.  See the internal documentation for hints.

       Documentation  for  installed Python modules and packages can be viewed
       by running the pydoc program.

COMMAND LINE OPTIONS

       -c command
              Specify  the  command  to  execute  (see  next  section).   This
              terminates  the  option  list  (following  options are passed as
              arguments to the command).

       -d     Turn on parser debugging output (for wizards only, depending  on
              compilation options).

       -E     Ignore environment variables like PYTHONPATH and PYTHONHOME that
              modify the behavior of the interpreter.

       -h     Prints the usage for the interpreter executable and exits.

       -i     When a script is passed as first argument or the  -c  option  is
              used,  enter  interactive mode after executing the script or the
              command.  It does not read the $PYTHONSTARTUP file.  This can be
              useful  to  inspect  global  variables  or  a stack trace when a
              script raises an exception.

       -m module-name
              Searches  sys.path  for  the   named   module   and   runs   the
              corresponding .py file as a script.

       -O     Turn   on   basic  optimizations.   This  changes  the  filename
              extension for compiled  (bytecode)  files  from  .pyc  to  .pyo.
              Given twice, causes docstrings to be discarded.

       -Q argument
              Division  control;  see  PEP  238.   The argument must be one of
              "old" (the default, int/int  and  long/long  return  an  int  or
              long), "new" (new division semantics, i.e. int/int and long/long
              returns a float), "warn" (old division semantics with a  warning
              for int/int and long/long), or "warnall" (old division semantics
              with a warning for all use of the division operator).  For a use
              of "warnall", see the Tools/scripts/fixdiv.py script.

       -S     Disable  the  import  of  the module site and the site-dependent
              manipulations of sys.path that it entails.

       -t     Issue a warning when a source file mixes  tabs  and  spaces  for
              indentation  in a way that makes it depend on the worth of a tab
              expressed in spaces.  Issue an error when the  option  is  given
              twice.

       -u     Force  stdin,  stdout  and  stderr to be totally unbuffered.  On
              systems where it matters, also put stdin, stdout and  stderr  in
              binary   mode.    Note  that  there  is  internal  buffering  in
              xreadlines(), readlines() and file-object iterators  ("for  line
              in  sys.stdin") which is not influenced by this option.  To work
              around this, you will want to use "sys.stdin.readline()"  inside
              a "while 1:" loop.

       -v     Print  a  message each time a module is initialized, showing the
              place (filename or built-in module) from  which  it  is  loaded.
              When  given twice, print a message for each file that is checked
              for when searching for a module.  Also provides  information  on
              module cleanup at exit.

       -V     Prints the Python version number of the executable and exits.

       -W argument
              Warning  control.   Python  sometimes  prints warning message to
              sys.stderr.  A typical warning message has the  following  form:
              file:line:  category:  message.   By  default,  each  warning is
              printed once for each source line where it occurs.  This  option
              controls  how  often  warnings are printed.  Multiple -W options
              may be given; when a warning matches more than one  option,  the
              action  for  the  last matching option is performed.  Invalid -W
              options are ignored (a warning message is printed about  invalid
              options when the first warning is issued).  Warnings can also be
              controlled from within  a  Python  program  using  the  warnings
              module.

              The  simplest  form  of  argument is one of the following action
              strings  (or  a  unique  abbreviation):  ignore  to  ignore  all
              warnings;  default  to  explicitly  request the default behavior
              (printing each warning once per source line);  all  to  print  a
              warning  each time it occurs (this may generate many messages if
              a warning is triggered repeatedly for the same source line, such
              as  inside  a  loop); module to print each warning only only the
              first time it occurs in each module; once to print each  warning
              only  the first time it occurs in the program; or error to raise
              an exception instead of printing a warning message.

              The        full        form        of        argument         is
              action:message:category:module:line.    Here,   action   is   as
              explained above but only applies  to  messages  that  match  the
              remaining fields.  Empty fields match all values; trailing empty
              fields may be omitted.  The message field matches the  start  of
              the  warning  message  printed;  this match is case-insensitive.
              The category field matches the warning category.  This must be a
              class  name;  the match test whether the actual warning category
              of the message is a subclass of the specified warning  category.
              The full class name must be given.  The module field matches the
              (fully-qualified) module name;  this  match  is  case-sensitive.
              The  line  field matches the line number, where zero matches all
              line numbers and is thus equivalent to an omitted line number.

       -x     Skip the first line of the source.  This is intended for  a  DOS
              specific hack only.  Warning: the line numbers in error messages
              will be off by one!

       -3     Warn  about  Python  3.x  incompatibilities  that  2to3   cannot
              trivially fix.

INTERPRETER INTERFACE

       The interpreter interface resembles that of the UNIX shell: when called
       with standard input connected to a tty device, it prompts for  commands
       and  executes  them  until an EOF is read; when called with a file name
       argument or with a file as standard input,  it  reads  and  executes  a
       script  from  that  file;  when called with -c command, it executes the
       Python  statement(s)  given  as  command.   Here  command  may  contain
       multiple  statements  separated  by  newlines.   Leading  whitespace is
       significant in Python statements!  In non-interactive mode, the  entire
       input is parsed before it is executed.

       If  available,  the script name and additional arguments thereafter are
       passed to the script in the Python variable sys.argv , which is a  list
       of  strings (you must first import sys to be able to access it).  If no
       script name is given, sys.argv[0] is an empty string; if  -c  is  used,
       sys.argv[0] contains the string -c.  Note that options interpreted by
       the Python interpreter itself are not placed in sys.argv.

       In interactive mode, the primary prompt is  ‘>>>’;  the  second  prompt
       (which  appears  when a command is not complete) is ‘...’.  The prompts
       can be changed by assignment to sys.ps1 or  sys.ps2.   The  interpreter
       quits  when  it  reads an EOF at a prompt.  When an unhandled exception
       occurs, a stack trace is printed and control  returns  to  the  primary
       prompt;  in  non-interactive mode, the interpreter exits after printing
       the stack trace.  The interrupt  signal  raises  the  KeyboardInterrupt
       exception;  other  UNIX  signals are not caught (except that SIGPIPE is
       sometimes ignored, in favor of the IOError exception).  Error  messages
       are written to stderr.

FILES AND DIRECTORIES

       These  are  subject  to  difference  depending  on  local  installation
       conventions; ${prefix} and  ${exec_prefix}  are  installation-dependent
       and  should  be  interpreted as for GNU software; they may be the same.
       On Debian GNU/{Hurd,Linux} the default for both is /usr.

       ${exec_prefix}/bin/python
              Recommended location of the interpreter.

       ${prefix}/lib/python<version>
       ${exec_prefix}/lib/python<version>
              Recommended locations of the directories containing the standard
              modules.

       ${prefix}/include/python<version>
       ${exec_prefix}/include/python<version>
              Recommended  locations of the directories containing the include
              files needed for developing Python extensions and embedding  the
              interpreter.

       ~/.pythonrc.py
              User-specific initialization file loaded by the user module; not
              used by default or by most applications.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

       PYTHONHOME
              Change the  location  of  the  standard  Python  libraries.   By
              default,       the      libraries      are      searched      in
              ${prefix}/lib/python<version>                                and
              ${exec_prefix}/lib/python<version>,    where    ${prefix}    and
              ${exec_prefix}  are  installation-dependent  directories,   both
              defaulting  to  /usr/local.  When $PYTHONHOME is set to a single
              directory, its value replaces both ${prefix} and ${exec_prefix}.
              To  specify  different  values  for  these,  set  $PYTHONHOME to
              ${prefix}:${exec_prefix}.

       PYTHONPATH
              Augments the default search path for module files.   The  format
              is  the  same  as  the  shell’s  $PATH:  one  or  more directory
              pathnames separated by  colons.   Non-existent  directories  are
              silently  ignored.   The  default  search  path  is installation
              dependent,        but        generally        begins        with
              ${prefix}/lib/python<version>   (see   PYTHONHOME  above).   The
              default search path is always appended  to  $PYTHONPATH.   If  a
              script argument is given, the directory containing the script is
              inserted in the path in front of $PYTHONPATH.  The  search  path
              can  be manipulated from within a Python program as the variable
              sys.path .

       PYTHONSTARTUP
              If this is the name of a readable file, the Python  commands  in
              that  file  are executed before the first prompt is displayed in
              interactive mode.  The file is executed in the same  name  space
              where  interactive commands are executed so that objects defined
              or imported in it can  be  used  without  qualification  in  the
              interactive  session.   You  can also change the prompts sys.ps1
              and sys.ps2 in this file.

       PYTHONY2K
              Set this to a non-empty string  to  cause  the  time  module  to
              require  dates  specified  as  strings to include 4-digit years,
              otherwise 2-digit years are converted based on  rules  described
              in the time module documentation.

       PYTHONOPTIMIZE
              If  this  is  set  to  a  non-empty  string  it is equivalent to
              specifying the -O option. If set to an integer, it is equivalent
              to specifying -O multiple times.

       PYTHONDEBUG
              If  this  is  set  to  a  non-empty  string  it is equivalent to
              specifying the -d option. If set to an integer, it is equivalent
              to specifying -d multiple times.

       PYTHONINSPECT
              If  this  is  set  to  a  non-empty  string  it is equivalent to
              specifying the -i option.

       PYTHONUNBUFFERED
              If this is set  to  a  non-empty  string  it  is  equivalent  to
              specifying the -u option.

       PYTHONVERBOSE
              If  this  is  set  to  a  non-empty  string  it is equivalent to
              specifying the -v option. If set to an integer, it is equivalent
              to specifying -v multiple times.

AUTHOR

       The Python Software Foundation: http://www.python.org/psf

INTERNET RESOURCES

       Main website:  http://www.python.org/
       Documentation:  http://docs.python.org/
       Developer resources:  http://www.python.org/dev/
       Downloads:  http://python.org/download/
       Module repository:  http://pypi.python.org/
       Newsgroups:  comp.lang.python, comp.lang.python.announce

LICENSING

       Python  is  distributed  under  an  Open  Source license.  See the file
       "LICENSE" in the Python source distribution for information on terms  &
       conditions   for  accessing  and  otherwise  using  Python  and  for  a
       DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.

             $Date: 2009-09-12 22:21:55 -0400 (Sat, 12 Sep 2009) $   PYTHON(1)