Provided by: groff_1.20.1-5_i386 bug

NAME

       groff_man - groff ‘man’ macros to support generation of man pages

SYNOPSIS

       [options ...] [files ...] [options ...] [files ...]

DESCRIPTION

       The  man  macros  used to generate man pages with groff were written by
       James Clark.  This document provides a brief summary of the use of each
       macro in that package.

OPTIONS

       The  man  macros  understand  the following command line options (which
       define various registers).

       -rcR=1 This option (the default if in nroff  mode)  creates  a  single,
              very long page instead of multiple pages.  Say -rcR=0 to disable
              it.

       -rC1   If more than one manual page  is  given  on  the  command  line,
              number the pages continuously, rather than starting each at 1.

       -rD1   Double-sided  printing.   Footers  for  even  and  odd pages are
              formatted differently.

       -rFT=dist
              Set distance of the footer relative to the bottom of the page if
              negative  or  relative  to  the top if positive.  The default is
              -0.5i.

       -rHY=flags
              Set hyphenation flags.   Possible  values  are  1  to  hyphenate
              without  restrictions,  2  to  not  hyphenate the last word on a
              page, 4 to not hyphenate the last two characters of a word,  and
              8  to  not  hyphenate the first two characters of a word.  These
              values are additive; the default is 14.

       -rIN=width
              Set body text indentation to  width.   The  default  is  7n  for
              nroff,  7.2n  for troff.  For nroff, this value should always be
              an integer multiple of unit ‘n’ to get consistent indentation.

       -rLL=line-length
              Set line length.  If this option is not given, the  line  length
              is set to respect any value set by a prior ‘.ll’ request, (which
              must be in effect when the ‘.TH’  macro  is  invoked),  if  this
              differs  from  the built-in default for the formatter; otherwise
              it defaults to 78n in nroff mode and 6.5i in troff mode.

              Note that the use of a ‘.ll’  request  to  initialize  the  line
              length   is  supported  for  backward  compatibility  with  some
              versions of the man program; direct initialization of  the  ‘LL’
              register  should  always  be  preferred  to  the  use  of such a
              request.  In particular, note that a ‘.ll 65n’ request does  not
              preserve  the normal nroff default line length, (the man default
              initialization to 78n prevails), whereas, the ‘-rLL=65n’ option,
              or  an  equivalent ‘.nr LL 65n’ request preceding the use of the
              ‘TH’ macro, does set a line length of 65n.

       -rLT=title-length
              Set title length.  If this option is not given, the title length
              defaults to the line length.

       -rPnnn Enumeration of pages start with nnn rather than with 1.

       -rSxx  Base  document  font size is xx points (xx can be 10, 11, or 12)
              rather than 10 points.

       -rSN=width
              Set sub-subheading indentation to width.  The default is 3n.

       -rXnnn After page nnn, number pages as  nnna,  nnnb,  nnnc,  etc.   For
              example,  the option ‘-rX2’ produces the following page numbers:
              1, 2, 2a, 2b, 2c, etc.

USAGE

       This section describes the available  macros  for  manual  pages.   For
       further customization, put additional macros and requests into the file
       man.local which is loaded immediately after the man package.

       .TH title section [extra1] [extra2] [extra3]
              Set the title of the man  page  to  title  and  the  section  to
              section,  which must take on a value between 1 and 8.  The value
              section may also have a string appended, e.g. ‘.pm’, to indicate
              a  specific subsection of the man pages.  Both title and section
              are positioned at the left and right in the  header  line  (with
              section in parentheses immediately appended to title.  extra1 is
              positioned  in  the  middle  of  the  footer  line.   extra2  is
              positioned  at  the  left  in the footer line (or at the left on
              even pages and  at  the  right  on  odd  pages  if  double-sided
              printing is active).  extra3 is centered in the header line.

              For  HTML output, headers and footers are completely suppressed.

              Additionally, this macro starts a new page; the new line  number
              is  1 again (except if the ‘-rC1’ option is given on the command
              line) -- this feature is intended only for  formatting  multiple
              man pages; a single man page should contain exactly one TH macro
              at the beginning of the file.

       .SH [text for a heading]
              Set up an unnumbered section heading sticking out to  the  left.
              Prints  out  all the text following SH up to the end of the line
              (or the text in the next input line if there is no  argument  to
              SH)  in  bold face (or the font specified by the string HF), one
              size larger than the base document size.  Additionally, the left
              margin  and  the  indentation for the following text is reset to
              the default values.

       .SS [text for a heading]
              Set up a secondary, unnumbered section heading.  Prints out  all
              the  text following SS up to the end of the line (or the text in
              the next input line if there is no argument to SS) in bold  face
              (or  the  font  specified by the string HF), at the same size as
              the base document size.  Additionally, the left margin  and  the
              indentation  for  the  following  text  is  reset to the default
              values.

       .TP [nnn]
              Set up an indented paragraph with label.  The indentation is set
              to  nnn if that argument is supplied (the default unit is ‘n’ if
              omitted), otherwise it is set to the previous indentation  value
              specified with TP, IP, or HP (or to the default value if none of
              them have been used yet).

              The first input line of text following this macro is interpreted
              as a string to be printed flush-left, as it is appropriate for a
              label.  It is not interpreted as part of a paragraph,  so  there
              is  no  attempt  to  fill  the  first  line  with  text from the
              following input lines.  Nevertheless, if the  label  is  not  as
              wide  as  the  indentation the paragraph starts at the same line
              (but indented), continuing on the following lines.  If the label
              is  wider  than  the  indentation  the  descriptive  part of the
              paragraph begins on  the  line  following  the  label,  entirely
              indented.   Note  that  neither  font shape nor font size of the
              label is set to a default value; on the other hand, the rest  of
              the text has default font settings.

              The TP macro is the macro used for the explanations you are just
              reading.

       .TQ    The TQ macro sets up header continuation for a .TP macro.   With
              it,  you  can  stack  up  any  number  of  labels  (such as in a
              glossary, or list of commands)  before  beginning  the  indented
              paragraph.  For an example, look just past the next paragraph.

              This macro is not defined on legacy Unix systems running classic
              troff.  To be certain  your  page  will  be  portable  to  those
              systems,  copy  its  definition  from  the an-ext.tmac file of a
              groff installation.

       .LP    .PP .P These macros are mutual aliases.  Any of  them  causes  a
              line break at the current position, followed by a vertical space
              downwards by the amount specified by the  PD  macro.   The  font
              size  and  shape  are  reset to the default value (normally 10pt
              Roman).  Finally, the current left margin  and  the  indentation
              are restored.

       .IP [designator] [nnn]
              Set  up an indented paragraph, using designator as a tag to mark
              its beginning.  The indentation is set to nnn if  that  argument
              is  supplied  (the default unit is ‘n’ if omitted), otherwise it
              is set to the previous indentation value specified with TP,  IP,
              or  HP  (or  to the default value if none of them have been used
              yet).  Font  size  and  face  of  the  paragraph  (but  not  the
              designator) are reset to its default values.

              To start an indented paragraph with a particular indentation but
              without a designator, use ‘""’ (two doublequotes) as the  second
              argument.

              For  example,  the  following  paragraphs  were  all set up with
              bullets as the designator, using ‘.IP \(bu 4’.  The whole  block
              has  been  enclosed  with ‘.RS’ and ‘.RE’ to set the left margin
              temporarily to the current indentation value.

              ·   IP is one of the three macros used in  the  man  package  to
                  format lists.

              ·   HP  is another.  This macro produces a paragraph with a left
                  hanging indentation.

              ·   TP is another.  This  macro  produces  an  unindented  label
                  followed by an indented paragraph.

       .HP [nnn]
              Set   up   a  paragraph  with  hanging  left  indentation.   The
              indentation is set to nnn if  that  argument  is  supplied  (the
              default  unit  is  ‘n’  if  omitted), otherwise it is set to the
              previous indentation value specified with TP, IP, or HP  (or  to
              the  default  value  if  none of them have been used yet).  Font
              size and face are reset to its default  values.   The  following
              paragraph  illustrates  the  effect  of  this macro with hanging
              indentation set to 4 (enclosed by .RS and .RE to  set  the  left
              margin temporarily to the current indentation):

              This is a paragraph following an invocation of the HP macro.  As
                  you can see, it produces a paragraph where all lines but the
                  first are indented.

              Use of this presentation-level macro is deprecated.  While it is
              universally  portable  to  legacy  Unix   systems,   a   hanging
              indentation  cannot  be expressed naturally under HTML, and many
              HTML-based manual viewers simply interpret it as a starter for a
              normal  paragraph.   Thus,  any  information  or distinction you
              tried to express with the indentation may be lost.

       .RS [nnn]
              This macro moves the left margin to the right by the  value  nnn
              if  specified  (default unit is ‘n’); otherwise it is set to the
              previous indentation value specified with TP, IP, or HP  (or  to
              the  default  value  if  none  of them have been used yet).  The
              indentation value is then set to the default.

              Calls to the RS macro can be nested.

       .RE [nnn]
              This macro moves the left margin back to  level  nnn,  restoring
              the previous left margin.  If no argument is given, it moves one
              level back.  The first level (i.e.,  no  call  to  RS  yet)  has
              number 1, and each call to RS increases the level by 1.

       .EX    .EE  Example/End Example.  After EX, filling is disabled and the
              font is set to constant-width.  This is  useful  for  formatting
              code,  command,  and  configuration-file examples.  The EE macro
              restores the previous font.

              These macros are defined on  many  (but  not  all)  legacy  Unix
              systems  running classic troff.  To be certain your page will be
              portable to those  systems,  copy  their  definitions  from  the
              an-ext.tmac file of a groff installation.

       To  summarize,  the  following  macros  cause  a  line  break  with the
       insertion of vertical space (which amount can be changed  with  the  PD
       macro): SH, SS, TP, TQ, LP (PP, P), IP, and HP.  The macros RS, RE, EX,
       and EE also cause a break but no insertion of vertical space.

MACROS TO SET FONTS

       The standard font is Roman; the default text size is 10 point.

       .SM [text]
              Causes the text on the same line or the text on the  next  input
              line to appear in a font that is one point size smaller than the
              default font.

       .SB [text]
              Causes the text on the same line or the text on the  next  input
              line to appear in boldface font, one point size smaller than the
              default font.

       .BI text
              Causes text on the same line to appear alternately in bold  face
              and  italic.   The  text  must  be on the same line as the macro
              call.  Thus

                     .BI this "word and" that

              would cause ‘this’ and ‘that’ to  appear  in  bold  face,  while
              ‘word and’ appears in italics.

       .IB text
              Causes  text to appear alternately in italic and bold face.  The
              text must be on the same line as the macro call.

       .RI text
              Causes text on the same line to appear alternately in roman  and
              italic.  The text must be on the same line as the macro call.

       .IR text
              Causes text on the same line to appear alternately in italic and
              roman.  The text must be on the same line as the macro call.

       .BR text
              Causes text on the same line to appear alternately in bold  face
              and roman.  The text must be on the same line as the macro call.

       .RB text
              Causes text on the same line to appear alternately in roman  and
              bold face.  The text must be on the same line as the macro call.

       .B [text]
              Causes text to appear in bold face.  If no text  is  present  on
              the  line  where  the macro is called the text of the next input
              line appears in bold face.

       .I [text]
              Causes text to appear in italic.  If no text is present  on  the
              line  where  the macro is called the text of the next input line
              appears in italic.

MACROS TO DESCRIBE HYPERLINKS AND EMAIL ADDRESSES

       The following macros are not defined on  legacy  Unix  systems  running
       classic  troff.   To  be  certain  your  page will be portable to those
       systems, copy their definitions from the an-ext.tmac file  of  a  groff
       installation.

       Using  these  macros  helps  ensure  that  you get hyperlinks when your
       manual page is rendered in a browser or  other  program  that  is  Web-
       enabled.

       .UR URL
              .UE [punctuation] Wrap a World Wide Web hyperlink.  The argument
              to UR is the URL; thereafter, lines until UE are  collected  and
              used  as  the link text.  Any argument to the UE macro is pasted
              to the end of the text.  On a device that is not a browser,

                     this is a  link  to  .UR  http://\:randomsite.org/\:fubar
                     some random site .UE , given as an example

              usually  displays like this: “this is a link to some random site
              <http://randomsite.org/fubar>, given as an example”.

              The use of \:  to  insert  hyphenless  breakpoints  is  a  groff
              extension and can be omitted.

       .MT address
              .ME  [punctuation] Wrap an email address.  The argument of MT is
              the  address;  text  following,  until  ME,  is  a  name  to  be
              associated  with  the  address.  Any argument to the ME macro is
              pasted to the end of the link text.  On a device that is  not  a
              browser,

                     contact  .UR  fred.foonly@\:fubar.net Fred Foonly .UE for
                     more information

              usually displays like this: “contact Fred  Foonly  <fred.foonly@
              fubar.net> for more information”.

              The  use  of  \:  to  insert  hyphenless  breakpoints is a groff
              extension and can be omitted.

MACROS TO DESCRIBE COMMAND SYNOPSES

       The following macros are not defined on  legacy  Unix  systems  running
       classic  troff.   To  be  certain  your  page will be portable to those
       systems, copy their definitions from the an-ext.tmac file  of  a  groff
       installation.

       These macros are a convenience for authors.  They also assist automated
       translation tools and help browsers in recognizing command synopses and
       treating them differently from running text.

       .SY command
              Begin synopsis.  Takes a single argument, the name of a command.
              Text following, until closed  by  YS,  is  set  with  a  hanging
              indentation  with  the  width  of  command  plus  a space.  This
              produces the traditional look of a Unix command synopsis.

       .OP key value
              Describe an optional command argument.  The  arguments  of  this
              macro  are  set surrounded by option braces in the default Roman
              font; the first argument is printed with a bold face, while  the
              second argument is typeset as italic.

       .YS    This  macro  restores normal indentation at the end of a command
              synopsis.

       Here is a real example:

              .SY groff .OP \-abcegiklpstzCEGNRSUVXZ .OP \-d cs  .OP  \-f  fam
              .OP \-F dir .OP \-I dir .OP \-K arg .OP \-L arg .OP \-m name .OP
              \-M dir .OP \-n num .OP \-o list .OP \-P arg .OP \-r cn .OP  \-T
              dev .OP \-w name .OP \-W name .RI [ file .IR .\|.\|. ] .YS

       produces the following output:

              [file ...]

       If  necessary, you might use br requests to control line breaking.  You
       can insert  plain  text  as  well;  this  looks  like  the  traditional
       (unornamented) syntax for a required command argument or filename.

MISCELLANEOUS

       The  default  indentation  is  7.2n  in troff mode and 7n in nroff mode
       except for grohtml which ignores indentation.

       .DT    Set tabs every 0.5 inches.  Since this macro  is  always  called
              during  a  TH request, it makes sense to call it only if the tab
              positions have been changed.

              Use  of  this  presentation-level  macro  is   deprecated.    It
              translates  poorly to HTML, under which exact whitespace control
              and tabbing are not readily  available.   Thus,  information  or
              distinctions  that  you use DT to express are likely to be lost.
              If you feel tempted to use it, you should probably be  composing
              a table using tbl(@MAN1DIR@) markup instead.

       .PD [nnn]
              Adjust  the  empty space before a new paragraph or section.  The
              optional argument gives the amount of  space  (default  unit  is
              ‘v’); without parameter, the value is reset to its default value
              (1 line in nroff mode, 0.4v otherwise).  This affects the macros
              SH, SS, TP, LP (resp. PP and P), IP, and HP.

              Use   of   this  presentation-level  macro  is  deprecated.   It
              translates poorly to HTML, under which exact control  of  inter-
              paragraph  spacing  is not readily available.  Thus, information
              or distinctions that you use PD to  express  are  likely  to  be
              lost.

       .AT [system [release]]
              Alter  the  footer  for  use  with AT&T man pages.  This command
              exists only for compatibility; don’t use it.  See the groff info
              manual for more.

       .UC [version]
              Alter  the  footer  for  use  with  BSD man pages.  This command
              exists only for compatibility; don’t use it.  See the groff info
              manual for more.

       .PT    Print  the header string.  Redefine this macro to get control of
              the header.

       .BT    Print the footer string.  Redefine this macro to get control  of
              the footer.

       The following strings are defined:

       \*S    Switch back to the default font size.

       \*R    The ‘registered’ sign.

       \*(Tm  The ‘trademark’ sign.

       \*(lq  \*(rq Left and right quote.  This is equal to ‘\(lq’ and ‘\(rq’,
              respectively.

       \*(HF  The typeface  used  to  print  headings  and  subheadings.   The
              default is ‘B’.

       If  a  preprocessor  like  tbl or eqn is needed, it has become usage to
       make the first line of the man page look like this:

              ’\" word

       Note the single space character after the double quote.  word  consists
       of  letters  for  the needed preprocessors: ‘e’ for eqn, ‘r’ for refer,
       and ‘t’ for tbl.  Modern implementations of the man program  read  this
       first line and automatically call the right preprocessor(s).

PORTABILITY AND TROFF REQUESTS

       Since  the  man macros consist of groups of groff requests, one can, in
       principle,  supplement  the  functionality  of  the  man  macros   with
       individual  groff  requests  where necessary.  See the groff info pages
       for a complete reference of all requests.

       Note, however, that using raw troff requests is  likely  to  make  your
       page  render  poorly on the (increasingly common) class of viewers that
       render it to HTML.  Troff  requests  make  implicit  assumptions  about
       things  like  character  and  page  sizes  that  may  break  in an HTML
       environment; also, many of these viewers don’t interpret the full troff
       vocabulary,  a  problem  which  can lead to portions of your text being
       silently dropped.

       For portability to modern viewers,  it  is  best  to  write  your  page
       entirely  in  the requests described on this page.  Further, it is best
       to completely avoid those we  have  described  as  ‘presentation-level’
       (HP, PD, and DT).

       The  macros  we  have  described  as  extensions (.EX/.EE, .SY/.OP/.YS,
       .UR/.UE, and .MT/.ME) should be used with caution, as they may not  yet
       be  built  in to some viewer that is important to your audience.  If in
       doubt, copy the implementation onto your page.

FILES

       man.tmac
              an.tmac These are wrapper files to call andoc.tmac.

       andoc.tmac
              Use this file in case you don’t know whether the man  macros  or
              the  mdoc package should be used.  Multiple man pages (in either
              format) can be handled.

       an-old.tmac
              Most man macros are contained in this file.

       an-ext.tmac
              The extension macro definitions for .SY, .OP, .YS, .TQ, .EX/.EE,
              .UR/.UE,  and .MT/.ME are contained in this file.  It is written
              in  classic  troff,  and  released  for  free  re-use,  and  not
              copylefted;  manual  page authors concerned about portability to
              legacy Unix systems are encouraged  to  copy  these  definitions
              into their pages, and maintainers of troff or its workalikes are
              encouraged to re-use them.

       man.local
              Local changes and customizations should be put into this file.

SEE ALSO

       tbl(1), eqn(1), refer(1), man(1), man(7), groff_mdoc(7)

AUTHORS

       This manual page was originally written for the Debian GNU/Linux system
       by  Susan  G.  Kleinmann It was corrected and updated by Werner Lemberg
       The extension macros were documented (and partly designed) by  Eric  S.
       Raymond he also wrote the portability advice.