Provided by: openafs-client_1.4.11+dfsg-1_i386
afsd - Initializes the Cache Manager and starts related daemons
afsd [-afsdb] [-backuptree]
[-biods <number of bkg I/O daemons (aix vm)>]
[-blocks <1024 byte blocks in cache>]
[-cachedir <cache directory>]
[-chunksize <log(2) of chunk size>]
[-confdir <configuration directory>]
[-daemons <number of daemons to use>]
[-dcache <number of dcache entries>] [-debug]
[-dynroot] [-enable_peer_stats] [-enable_process_stats]
[-files <files in cache>]
[-files_per_subdir <log(2) of files per dir> ]
[-help] [-logfile <Place to keep the CM log>]
[-mountdir <mount location>] [-nomount]
[-prealloc <number of â€™smallâ€™ preallocated blocks>]
[-rmtsys] [-rootvol <name of AFS root volume>]
[-rxbind] [-rxmaxmtu value for maximum MTU ]
[-rxpck value for rx_extraPackets ]
[-splitcache <RW/RO ratio>]
[-stat <number of stat entries>] [-verbose]
[-volumes <number of volume entries>]
The afsd command initializes the Cache Manager on an AFS client machine
by transferring AFS-related configuration information into kernel
memory and starting several daemons. More specifically, the afsd
command performs the following actions:
Â· Sets a field in kernel memory that defines the machineâ€™s cell
membership. Some Cache Manager-internal operations and system calls
consult this field to learn which cell to execute in. (The AFS
command interpreters refer to the /etc/openafs/ThisCell file
instead.) This information is transferred into the kernel from the
/etc/openafs/ThisCell file and cannot be changed until the afsd
program runs again.
Â· Places in kernel memory the names and Internet addresses of the
database server machines in the local cell and (optionally) foreign
cells. The appearance of a cellâ€™s database server machines in this
list enables the Cache Manager to contact them and to access files
in the cell. Omission of a cell from this list, or incorrect
information about its database server machines, prevents the Cache
Manager from accessing files in it.
By default, the list of database server machines is transferred
into the kernel from the /etc/openafs/CellServDB file.
Alternatively, when the -afsdb option is used, the list of database
server machines is taken from the AFSDB DNS records for each cell.
After initialization, use the fs newcell command to change the
kernel-resident list without having to reboot.
Â· Mounts the root of the AFS filespace on a directory on the
machineâ€™s local disk, according to either the first field in the
/etc/openafs/cacheinfo file (the default) or the afsd commandâ€™s
-mountdir argument. The conventional value is /afs.
Â· Determines which volume to mount at the root of the AFS file tree.
The default is the volume "root.afs"; use the -rootvol argument to
override it. Although the base (read/write) form of the volume name
is the appropriate value, the Cache Manager has a bias for
accessing the read-only version of the volume (by convention,
"root.afs.readonly") if it is available.
Â· Configures the cache on disk (the default) or in machine memory if
the -memcache argument is provided. In the latter case, the afsd
program allocates space in machine memory for caching, and the
Cache Manager uses no disk space for caching even if the machine
has a disk.
Â· Defines the name of the local disk directory devoted to caching,
when the -memcache argument is not used. If necessary, the afsd
program creates the directory (its parent directory must already
exist). It does not remove the directory that formerly served this
function, if one exists.
The second field in the /etc/openafs/cacheinfo file is the source
for this name. The standard value is /usr/vice/cache. Use the
-cachedir argument to override the value in the cacheinfo file.
Â· Sets the size of the cache. The default source for the value is the
third field in the /etc/openafs/cacheinfo file, which specifies a
number of kilobytes.
For a memory cache, the following arguments to the afsd command
override the value in the cacheinfo file:
Â· The -blocks argument, to specify a different number of kilobyte
Â· The -dcache and -chunksize arguments together, to set both the
number of dcache entries and the chunk size (see below for
definition of these parameters). In this case, the afsd program
derives cache size by multiplying the two values. Using this
combination is not recommended, as it requires the issuer to
perform the calculation beforehand to determine the resulting
Â· The -dcache argument by itself. In this case, the afsd program
derives cache size by multiplying the value specified by the
-dcache argument by the default memory cache chunk size of
eight kilobytes. Using this argument is not recommended, as it
requires the issuer to perform the calculation beforehand to
determine the resulting cache size.
For satisfactory memory cache performance, the specified value must
leave enough memory free to accommodate all other processes and
commands that can run on the machine. If the value exceeds the
amount of memory available, the afsd program exits without
initializing the Cache Manager and produces the following message
on the standard output stream:
afsd: memCache allocation failure at <number> KB
where <number> is how many kilobytes were allocated just before the
For a disk cache, use the -blocks argument to the afsd command to
override the value in the cacheinfo file. The value specified in
either way sets an absolute upper limit on cache size; values
provided for other arguments (such as -dcache and -chunksize) never
result in a larger cache. The afsd program rejects any setting
larger than 95% of the partition size, and exits after generating
an error message on the standard output stream, because the cache
implementation itself requires a small amount of disk space and
overfilling the partition can cause the client machine to panic.
To change the size of a disk cache after initialization without
rebooting, use the fs setcachesize command; the setting persists
until the afsd command runs again or the fs setcachesize command is
reissued. The fs setcachesize command does not work for memory
Â· Sets the size of each cache chunk, and by implication the amount of
data that the Cache Manager requests at a time from the File Server
(how much data per fetch RPC, since AFS uses partial file
For a disk cache, a chunk is a Vn file and this parameter sets the
maximum size to which each one can expand; the default is 64 KB.
For a memory cache, each chunk is a collection of contiguous memory
blocks; the default is size is 8 KB.
To override the default chunk size for either type of cache, use
the -chunksize argument to provide an integer to be used as an
exponent of two; see OPTIONS for details. For a memory cache, if
total cache size divided by chunk size leaves a remainder, the afsd
program rounds down the number of dcache entries, resulting in a
slightly smaller cache.
Â· Sets the number of chunks in the cache. For a memory cache, the
number of chunks is equal to the cache size divided by the chunk
size. For a disk cache, the number of chunks (Vn files) is set to
the largest of the following unless the -files argument is used to
set the value explicitly:
Â· 1.5 times the result of dividing cache size by chunk size
(cachesize/chunksize * 1.5)
Â· The result of dividing cachesize by 10 KB (cachesize/10240)
Â· Sets the number of dcache entries allocated in machine memory for
storing information about the chunks in the cache.
For a disk cache, the /usr/vice/cache/CacheItems file contains one
entry for each Vn file. By default, one half the number of these
entries (but not more that 2,000) are duplicated as dcache entries
in machine memory for quicker access.
For a memory cache, there is no CacheItems file so all information
about cache chunks must be in memory as dcache entries. Thus,
there is no default number of dcache entries for a memory cache;
instead, the afsd program derives it by dividing the cache size by
the chunk size.
To set the number of dcache entries, use the -dcache argument; the
specified value can exceed the default limit of 2,000. Using this
argument is not recommended for either type of cache. Increasing
the number of dcache entries for a disk cache sometimes improves
performance (because more entries are retrieved from memory rather
than from disk), but only marginally. Using this argument for a
memory cache requires the issuer to calculate the cache size by
multiplying this value by the chunk size.
Â· Sets the number of stat entries available in machine memory for
caching status information about cached AFS files. The default is
300; use the -stat argument to override the default.
Â· If the -settime option is specified, then it randomly selects a
file server machine in the local cell as the source for the correct
time. Every five minutes thereafter, the local clock is adjusted
(if necessary) to match the file server machineâ€™s clock. This is
not enabled by default. It is recommended, instead, that the
Network Time Protocol Daemon be used to synchronize the time.
In addition to setting cache configuration parameters, the afsd program
starts the following daemons. (On most system types, these daemons
appear as nameless entries in the output of the UNIX ps command.)
Â· One callback daemon, which handles callbacks. It also responds to
the File Serverâ€™s periodic probes, which check that the client
machine is still alive.
Â· One maintenance daemon, which performs the following tasks:
Â· Garbage collects obsolete data (for example, expired tokens)
from kernel memory.
Â· Synchronizes files.
Â· Refreshes information from read-only volumes once per hour.
Â· Does delayed writes for NFS clients if the machine is running
the NFS/AFS Translator.
Â· One cache-truncation daemon, which flushes the cache when free
space is required, by writing cached data and status information to
the File Server.
Â· One server connection daemon, which sends a probe to the File
Server every few minutes to check that it is still accessible. If
the -settime option is set, it also synchronizes the machineâ€™s
clock with the clock on a randomly-chosen file server machine.
There is always one server connection daemon.
Â· One or more background daemons that improve performance by pre-
fetching files and performing background (delayed) writes of saved
data into AFS.
The default number of background daemons is two, enough to service
at least five simultaneous users of the machine. To increase the
number, use the -daemons argument. A value greater than six is not
Â· On some system types, one Rx listener daemon, which listens for
Â· On some system types, one Rx event daemon, which reviews the Rx
systemâ€™s queue of tasks and performs them as appropriate. Most
items in the queue are retransmissions of failed packets.
Â· On machines that run AIX with virtual memory (VM) integration, one
or more VM daemons (sometimes called I/O daemons, which transfer
data between disk and machine memory. The number of them depends on
the setting of the -biods and -daemons arguments:
Â· If the -biods argument is used, it sets the number of VM
Â· If only the -daemons argument is used, the number of VM daemons
is twice the number of background daemons.
Â· If neither argument is used, there are five VM daemons.
This command does not use the syntax conventions of the AFS command
suites. Provide the command name and all option names in full.
Before using the -shutdown parameter, use the standard UNIX umount
command to unmount the AFS root directory (by convention, /afs). On
Linux, unloading the AFS kernel module and then loading it again before
restarting AFS after -shutdown is recommended.
AFS has for years had difficulties with being stopped and restarted
without an intervening reboot. While most of these issues have been
ironed out, stopping and restarting AFS is not recommended unless
necessary and rebooting before restarting AFS is still the safest
course of action. This does not apply to Linux; it should be safe to
restart the AFS client on Linux without rebooting.
In contrast to many client-server applications, not all communication
is initiated by the client. When the AFS client opens a file, it
registers a callback with the AFS server. If the file changes, the
server notifies the client that the file has changed and that all
cached copies should be discarded. In order to enable full
functionality on the AFS client, including all command-line utilities,
the following UDP ports must be open on an firewalls between the client
and the server:
cachemanager 7001/udp (OpenAFS client. Arla uses 4711/udp)
kaserver 7004/udp (not needed with Kerberos v5)
reserved 7006/udp (for future use)
Additionally, for klog to work through the firewall you need to allow
inbound and outbound UDP on ports >1024 (probably 1024<port<2048 would
suffice depending on the number of simultaneous klogs).
Be sure to set the UDP timeouts on the firewall to be at least twenty
minutes for the best callback performance.
Enable afsdb support. This will use DNS to lookup the AFSDB record
and use that for the database servers for each cell instead of the
values in the CellServDB file. This has the advantage of only
needing to update one DNS record to reconfigure the AFS clients for
a new database server as opposed to touching all of the clients,
and also allows one to access a cell without preconfiguring its
database servers in CellServDB. The format of AFSDB records is
defined in RFC 1183.
Prefer backup volumes for mountpoints in backup volumes. This
option means that the AFS client will prefer to resolve mount
points to backup volumes when a parent of the current volume is a
backup volume. This is similar to the standard behaviour of
preferring read-only volumes over read-write volumes when the
parent volume is a read-only volume.
-biods <number of I/O daemons>
Sets the number of VM daemons dedicated to performing I/O
operations on a machine running a version of AIX with virtual
memory (VM) integration. If both this argument and the -daemons
argument are omitted, the default is five. If this argument is
omitted but the -daemons argument is provided, the number of VM
daemons is set to twice the value of the -daemons argument.
-blocks <blocks in cache>
Specifies the number of kilobyte blocks to be made available for
caching in the machineâ€™s cache directory (for a disk cache) or
memory (for a memory cache), overriding the default defined in the
third field of the /etc/openafs/cacheinfo file. For a disk cache,
the value cannot exceed 95% of the space available in the cache
partition. If using a memory cache, do not combine this argument
with the -dcache argument, since doing so can possibly result in a
chunk size that is not an exponent of 2.
-cachedir <cache directory>
Names the local disk directory to be used as the cache. This value
overrides the default defined in the second field of the
-chunksize <chunk size>
Sets the size of each cache chunk. The integer provided, which must
be from the range 0 to 30, is used as an exponent on the number 2.
It overrides the default of 16 for a disk cache (2^16 is 64 KB) and
13 for a memory cache (2^13 is 8 KB). A value of 0 or less, or
greater than 30, sets chunk size to the appropriate default. Values
less than 10 (which sets chunk size to a 1 KB) are not recommended.
Combining this argument with the -dcache argument is not
recommended because it requires that the issuer calculate the cache
size that results.
-chunksize is an important option when tuning for performance.
Setting this option to larger values can increase performance when
dealing with large files.
-confdir <configuration directory>
Names a directory other than the /etc/openafs directory from which
to fetch the cacheinfo, ThisCell, and CellServDB configuration
-daemons <number of daemons to use>
Specifies the number of background daemons to run on the machine.
These daemons improve efficiency by doing prefetching and
background writing of saved data. This value overrides the default
of 2, which is adequate for a machine serving up to five users.
Values greater than 6 are not generally more effective than 6.
Note: On AIX machines with integrated virtual memory (VM), the
number of VM daemons is set to twice the value of this argument, if
it is provided and the -biods argument is not. If both arguments
are omitted, there are five VM daemons.
-dcache <number of dcache entries>
Sets the number of dcache entries in memory, which are used to
store information about cache chunks. For a disk cache, this
overrides the default, which is 50% of the number of Vn files
(cache chunks). For a memory cache, this argument effectively sets
the number of cache chunks, but its use is not recommended, because
it requires the issuer to calculate the resulting total cache size
(derived by multiplying this value by the chunk size). Do not
combine this argument with the -blocks argument, since doing so can
possibly result in a chunk size that is not an exponent of 2.
Generates a highly detailed trace of the afsd programâ€™s actions on
the standard output stream. The information is useful mostly for
The standard behaviour of the AFS client without the -dynroot
option is to mount the root.afs volume from the default cell on the
/afs path. The /afs folder and root.afs volume traditionally shows
the folders for ThisCell and other cells as configured by the AFS
The -dynroot option changes this. Using this option, the AFS client
does not mount the root.afs volume on /afs. Instead it uses the
contents of the CellServDB file to populate the listing of cells in
/afs. This is known as a DYNamic ROOT. A cell is not contacted
until the path /afs/cellname if accessed. This functions similarly
to an automounter. The main advantage of using -dynroot is that
the AFS client will start properly even without network access,
whereas the client not using -dynroot will freeze upon startup if
cannot contact the default cell specified in ThisCell and mount the
root.afs volume. Dynamic root mode is also sometimes called
travelling mode because it works well for laptops which donâ€™t
always have network connectivity.
Two advantages of not using dynroot are that listing /afs will
usually be faster because the contents of /afs are limited to what
the AFS administrator decides and that symbolic links are
traditionally created by the AFS administrator to provide a short
name for the cell (i.e. cellname.domain.com is aliased to
cellname). However, with dynroot, the local system administrator
can limit the default contents of /afs by installing a stripped-
down CellServDB file, and if dynroot is in effect, the CellAlias
file can be used to provide shortname for common AFS cells which
provides equivalent functionality to the most commonly used
Activates the collection of Rx statistics and allocates memory for
their storage. For each connection with a specific UDP port on
another machine, a separate record is kept for each type of RPC
(FetchFile, GetStatus, and so on) sent or received. To display or
otherwise access the records, use the Rx Monitoring API.
Activates the collection of Rx statistics and allocates memory for
their storage. A separate record is kept for each type of RPC
(FetchFile, GetStatus, and so on) sent or received, aggregated over
all connections to other machines. To display or otherwise access
the records, use the Rx Monitoring API.
Return fake values for stat calls on cross-cell mounts. This option
makes an "ls -l" of /afs much faster since each cell isnâ€™t
contacted, and this and the -fakestat-all options are useful on Mac
OS X so that the Finder program doesnâ€™t try to contact every AFS
cell the system knows about.
Return fake values for stat calls on all mounts, not just cross-
cell mounts. This and the -fakestat options are useful on Mac OS X
so that the Finder program doesnâ€™t hang when browsing AFS
-files <files in cache>
Specifies the number of Vn files to create in the cache directory
for a disk cache, overriding the default that is calculated as
described in DESCRIPTION. Each Vn file accommodates a chunk of
data, and can grow to a maximum size of 64 KB by default. Do not
combine this argument with the -memcache argument.
-files_per_subdir <files per cache subdirectory>
Limits the number of cache files in each subdirectory of the cache
directory. The value of the option should be the base-two log of
the number of cache files per cache subdirectory (so 10 for 1024
files, 14 for 16384 files, and so forth).
Prints the online help for this command. All other valid options
-logfile <log file location>
This option is obsolete and no longer has any effect.
Allows sleeps when allocating a memory cache.
Initializes a memory cache rather than a disk cache. Do not combine
this flag with the -files argument.
-mountdir <mount location>
Names the local disk directory on which to mount the root of the
AFS filespace. This value overrides the default defined in the
first field of the /etc/openafs/cacheinfo file. If a value other
than the /afs directory is used, the machine cannot access the
filespace of cells that do use that value.
Do not mount AFS on startup. The afs global mount must be mounted
via some other means. This is useful on Mac OS X where /afs is
sometimes mounted in /Network/afs like other network file systems.
This is enabled by default. It prevents the Cache Manager from
synchronizing its clock with the clock on a server machine selected
at random by checking the time on the server machine every five
minutes. This is the recommended behavior; instead of the AFS
Cache Manager, the Network Time Protocol Daemon should be used to
synchronize the system time.
-prealloc <number of preallocated blocks>
Specifies the number of pieces of memory to preallocate for the
Cache Managerâ€™s internal use. The default initial value is 400, but
the Cache Manager dynamically allocates more memory as it needs it.
Initializes an additional daemon to execute AFS-specific system
calls on behalf of NFS client machines. Use this flag only if the
machine is an NFS/AFS translator machine serving users of NFS
client machines who execute AFS commands.
-rootvol <name of AFS root volume>
Names the read/write volume corresponding to the root directory for
the AFS file tree (which is usually the /afs directory). This value
overrides the default of the "root.afs" volume. This option is
ignored if -dynroot is given.
Bind the Rx socket (one interface only).
-rxmaxmtu <value for maximum MTU>
Set a limit for the largest maximum transfer unit (network packet
size) that the AFS client on this machine will be willing to
transmit. This switch can be used where an artificial limit on the
network precludes packets as large as the discoverable MTU from
being transmitted successfully.
-rxpck <value for rx_extraPackets>
Set rx_extraPackets to this value. This sets the number of extra Rx
packet structures that are available to handle Rx connections. This
value should be increased if the "rxdebug 127.0.0.1 -port 7001
-rxstats" command shows no free Rx packets. Increasing this value
may improve OpenAFS client performance in some circumstances.
Enable native AFS time synchronization. This option is the opposite
of -nosettime and cannot be used with the -nosettime option.
Shuts down the Cache Manager. Before calling afsd with this option,
unmount the AFS file system with umount.
-splitcache <RW/RO Ratio>
This allows the user to set a certain percentage of the AFS cache
be reserved for read/write content and the rest to be reserved for
read-only content. The ratio should be written as a fraction. For
example, "-splitcache 75/25" devotes 75% of your cache space to
read/write content and 25% to read-only.
-stat <number of stat entries>
Specifies the number of entries to allocate in the machineâ€™s memory
for recording status information about the AFS files in the cache.
This value overrides the default of 300.
Generates a detailed trace of the afsd programâ€™s actions on the
standard output stream.
-volumes <number of volume entries>
Specifies the number of memory structures to allocate for storing
volume location information. The default value is 50.
By default, dynamic vcache overrides the -stat option by using the
value of -stat (or the default) as the initial size of the stat (or
vcache) pool and increases the pool dynamically as needed on
supported platforms. This flag will disable this new functionality
and honor the â€™-statâ€™ setting.
Has no effect on the operation of the Cache Manager. The behavior
it affected in previous versions of the Cache Manager, to perform
synchronous writes to the File Server, is now the default behavior.
To perform asynchronous writes in certain cases, use the fs
The afsd command is normally included in the machineâ€™s AFS
initialization file, rather than typed at the command shell prompt. For
most disk caches, the appropriate form is
The following command is appropriate when enabling a machine to act as
an NFS/AFS Translator machine serving more than five users.
% /etc/openafs/afsd -daemons 4 -rmtsys
The following command initializes a memory cache and sets chunk size to
16 KB (2^14).
% /etc/openafs/afsd -memcache -chunksize 14
The issuer must be logged in as the local superuser root.
fs_newcell(1), afs_cache(5), CellServDB(5), cacheinfo(5)
RFC 1183 <http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc1183.html>
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