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     printf, uprintf, tprintf, log - formatted output conversion


     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <sys/systm.h>

     printf(const char *fmt, ...);

     tprintf(struct proc *p, int pri, const char *fmt, ...);

     uprintf(const char *fmt, ...);

     #include <sys/syslog.h>

     log(int pri, const char *fmt, ...);


     The printf(9) family of functions are similar to the printf(3) family of
     functions.  The different functions each use a different output stream.
     The uprintf() function outputs to the current process’ controlling tty,
     while printf() writes to the console as well as to the logging facility.
     The tprintf() function outputs to the tty associated with the process p
     and the logging facility if pri is not -1.  The log() function sends the
     message to the kernel logging facility, using the log level as indicated
     by pri.

     Each of these related functions use the fmt parameter in the same manner
     as printf(3).  However, printf(9) adds two other conversion specifiers.

     The %b identifier expects two arguments: an int and a char *.  These are
     used as a register value and a print mask for decoding bitmasks.  The
     print mask is made up of two parts: the base and the arguments.  The base
     value is the output base expressed as an integer value; for example, \10
     gives octal and \20 gives hexadecimal.  The arguments are made up of a
     sequence of bit identifiers.  Each bit identifier begins with an integer
     value which is the number of the bit (starting from 1) this identifier
     describes.  The rest of the identifier is a string of characters
     containing the name of the bit.  The string is terminated by either the
     bit number at the start of the next bit identifier or NUL for the last
     bit identifier.

     The %D identifier is meant to assist in hexdumps.  It requires two
     arguments: a u_char * pointer and a char * string.  The memory pointed to
     be the pointer is output in hexadecimal one byte at a time.  The string
     is used as a delimiter between individual bytes.  If present, a width
     directive will specify the number of bytes to display.  By default, 16
     bytes of data are output.

     The log() function uses syslog(3) level values LOG_DEBUG through
     LOG_EMERG for its pri parameter (mistakenly called ‘priority’ here).
     Alternatively, if a pri of -1 is given, the message will be appended to
     the last log message started by a previous call to log().  As these
     messages are generated by the kernel itself, the facility will always be


     The printf() and the uprintf() functions return the number of characters


     This example demonstrates the use of the %b and %D conversion specifiers.
     The function


                   printf("reg=%b\n", 3, "\10\2BITTWO\1BITONE\n");
                   printf("out: %4D\n", "AAAA", ":");

     will produce the following output:

           out: 41:41:41:41

     The call

           log(LOG_DEBUG, "%s%d: been there.\n", sc->sc_name, sc->sc_unit);

     will add the appropriate debug message at priority “kern.debug” to the
     system log.


     printf(3), syslog(3)