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       strtol - convert a string to a long integer.


       #include <stdlib.h>

       long int strtol(const char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);


       The  strtol()  function  converts  the string in nptr to a long integer
       value according to the given base, which  must  be  between  2  and  36
       inclusive, or be the special value 0.

       The  string  must  begin  with  an  arbitrary amount of white space (as
       determined by isspace(3)) followed by a  single  optional  ‘+’  or  ‘-’
       sign.   If  base  is  zero  or  16,  the string may then include a ‘0x’
       prefix, and the number will be read in base 16; otherwise, a zero  base
       is  taken  as  10  (decimal) unless the next character is ‘0’, in which
       case it is taken as 8 (octal).

       The remainder of the string is converted to a long  int  value  in  the
       obvious  manner,  stopping  at the first character which is not a valid
       digit in the given base.  (In bases above 10, the letter ‘A’ in  either
       upper  or  lower  case  represents 10, ‘B’ represents 11, and so forth,
       with ‘Z’ representing 35.)

       If endptr is not NULL, strtol() stores the address of the first invalid
       character  in *endptr.  If there were no digits at all, strtol() stores
       the original value of nptr in *endptr.  (Thus, if *nptr is not ‘\0’ but
       **endptr is ‘\0’ on return, the entire string is valid.)


       The  strtol() function returns the result of the conversion, unless the
       value would underflow or overflow.  If an  underflow  occurs,  strtol()
       returns  LONG_MIN.   If  an overflow occurs, strtol() returns LONG_MAX.
       In both cases, errno is set to ERANGE.


       ERANGE The given string was out of range; the value converted has  been


       SVID 3, BSD 4.3, ISO 9899


       atof(3), atoi(3), atol(3), strtod(3), strtoul(3)


       Ignores the current locale.