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NAME

       Xorg - X11R7 X server

SYNOPSIS

       Xorg [:display] [option ...]

DESCRIPTION

       Xorg  is a full featured X server that was originally designed for UNIX
       and UNIX-like operating systems running on Intel x86 hardware.  It  now
       runs on a wider range of hardware and OS platforms.

       This  work  was  derived  by  the  X.Org  Foundation  from  the XFree86
       Project’s XFree86 4.4rc2 release.  The XFree86 release  was  originally
       derived from X386 1.2 by Thomas Roell which was contributed to X11R5 by
       Snitily Graphics Consulting Service.

PLATFORMS

       Xorg operates under a wide range  of  operating  systems  and  hardware
       platforms.   The  Intel  x86  (IA32)  architecture  is  the most widely
       supported hardware platform.  Other hardware platforms  include  Compaq
       Alpha, Intel IA64, AMD64, SPARC and PowerPC.  The most widely supported
       operating systems are the free/OpenSource  UNIX-like  systems  such  as
       Linux,   FreeBSD,   NetBSD,  OpenBSD,  and  Solaris.   Commercial  UNIX
       operating systems such as UnixWare are also supported.  Other supported
       operating  systems include GNU Hurd.  Darwin and Mac OS X are supported
       with the XDarwin(1) X  server.   Win32/Cygwin  is  supported  with  the
       XWin(1) X server.

NETWORK CONNECTIONS

       Xorg  supports  connections  made  using  the  following reliable byte-
       streams:

       Local
           On most platforms, the "Local" connection  type  is  a  UNIX-domain
           socket.   On  some System V platforms, the "local" connection types
           also include STREAMS pipes, named pipes, and some other mechanisms.

       TCPIP
           Xorg  listens  on port 6000+n, where n is the display number.  This
           connection type can be disabled with the -nolisten option (see  the
           Xserver(1) man page for details).

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

       For  operating  systems  that support local connections other than Unix
       Domain sockets (SVR3 and SVR4), there is a compiled-in list  specifying
       the  order  in  which local connections should be attempted.  This list
       can be overridden by the XLOCAL environment variable  described  below.
       If  the  display name indicates a best-choice connection should be made
       (e.g.  :0.0), each connection mechanism is  tried  until  a  connection
       succeeds or no more mechanisms are available.  Note: for these OSs, the
       Unix Domain socket connection is treated  differently  from  the  other
       local  connection  types.   To  use  it  the connection must be made to
       unix:0.0.

       The XLOCAL environment variable should contain a list of one more  more
       of the following:

               NAMED
               PTS
               SCO
               ISC

       which  represent  SVR4  Named Streams pipe, Old-style USL Streams pipe,
       SCO XSight Streams pipe, and ISC Streams pipe, respectively.   You  can
       select  a  single  mechanism  (e.g.   XLOCAL=NAMED), or an ordered list
       (e.g. XLOCAL="NAMED:PTS:SCO").  his variable overrides the  compiled-in
       defaults.   For  SVR4  it  is  recommended  that  NAMED  be  the  first
       preference connection.  The default setting is PTS:NAMED:ISC:SCO.

       To globally override the compiled-in defaults, you should  define  (and
       export  if  using  sh or ksh) XLOCAL globally.  If you use startx(1) or
       xinit(1), the definition should be at the top of  your  .xinitrc  file.
       If  you  use  xdm(1),  the  definitions  should  be  early  on  in  the
       /usr/lib/X11/xdm/Xsession script.

OPTIONS

       Xorg supports several mechanisms for supplying/obtaining  configuration
       and  run-time  parameters: command line options, environment variables,
       the xorg.conf(5)  configuration  files,  auto-detection,  and  fallback
       defaults.   When the same information is supplied in more than one way,
       the highest precedence mechanism is used.  The list  of  mechanisms  is
       ordered   from  highest  precedence  to  lowest.   Note  that  not  all
       parameters can be supplied via all methods.  The available command line
       options  and  environment  variables  (and some defaults) are described
       here and in  the  Xserver(1)  manual  page.   Most  configuration  file
       parameters,  with  their  defaults,  are  described in the xorg.conf(5)
       manual page.  Driver and module specific configuration  parameters  are
       described in the relevant driver or module manual page.

       In  addition  to  the normal server options described in the Xserver(1)
       manual page, Xorg accepts the following command line switches:

       vtXX    XX specifies the Virtual Terminal device number which Xorg will
               use.   Without  this option, Xorg will pick the first available
               Virtual Terminal that it can locate.  This option applies  only
               to platforms that have virtual terminal support, such as Linux,
               BSD, OpenSolaris, SVR3, and SVR4.

       -allowMouseOpenFail
               Allow the server to start up even if the mouse device can’t  be
               opened   or   initialised.    This   is   equivalent   to   the
               AllowMouseOpenFail xorg.conf(5) file option.

       -allowNonLocalXvidtune
               Make the VidMode extension available to remote  clients.   This
               allows  the xvidtune client to connect from another host.  This
               is equivalent to the  AllowNonLocalXvidtune  xorg.conf(5)  file
               option.  By default non-local connections are not allowed.

       -bgamma value
               Set  the  blue gamma correction.  value must be between 0.1 and
               10.  The default is 1.0.  Not all drivers  support  this.   See
               also the -gamma, -rgamma, and -ggamma options.

       -bpp n  No  longer  supported.   Use -depth to set the color depth, and
               use  -fbbpp  if  you  really  need  to  force   a   non-default
               framebuffer (hardware) pixel format.

       -config file
               Read the server configuration from file.  This option will work
               for any file when the server is run as root (i.e, with real-uid
               0),  or  for files relative to a directory in the config search
               path for all other users.

       -configdir directory
               Read the  server  configuration  files  from  directory.   This
               option  will  work  for any directory when the server is run as
               root (i.e, with real-uid 0), or for directories relative  to  a
               directory  in  the  config  directory search path for all other
               users.

       -configure
               When this option is specified, the Xorg server loads all  video
               driver  modules,  probes for available hardware, and writes out
               an initial xorg.conf(5) file based on what was detected.   This
               option  currently  has  some problems on some platforms, but in
               most cases it is a good  way  to  bootstrap  the  configuration
               process.   This option is only available when the server is run
               as root (i.e, with real-uid 0).

       -crt /dev/ttyXX
               SCO only.  This is the same as the vt option, and  is  provided
               for compatibility with the native SCO X server.

       -depth n
               Sets  the  default  color depth.  Legal values are 1, 4, 8, 15,
               16, and 24.  Not all drivers support all values.

       -disableVidMode
               Disable the  parts  of  the  VidMode  extension  (used  by  the
               xvidtune  client)  that  can be used to change the video modes.
               This is equivalent to the DisableVidModeExtension  xorg.conf(5)
               file option.

       -fbbpp n
               Sets the number of framebuffer bits per pixel.  You should only
               set this if you’re sure it’s necessary; normally the server can
               deduce the correct value from -depth above.  Useful if you want
               to run a depth 24  configuration  with  a  24  bpp  framebuffer
               rather  than the (possibly default) 32 bpp framebuffer (or vice
               versa).  Legal values are 1, 8, 16, 24, 32.   Not  all  drivers
               support all values.

       -flipPixels
               Swap the default values for the black and white pixels.

       -gamma value
               Set  the  gamma  correction.  value must be between 0.1 and 10.
               The default is 1.0.  This value is applied equally to the R,  G
               and  B  values.  Those values can be set independently with the
               -rgamma, -bgamma, and -ggamma options.  Not all drivers support
               this.

       -ggamma value
               Set  the green gamma correction.  value must be between 0.1 and
               10.  The default is 1.0.  Not all drivers  support  this.   See
               also the -gamma, -rgamma, and -bgamma options.

       -ignoreABI
               The  Xorg  server checks the ABI revision levels of each module
               that it loads.  It will normally refuse to  load  modules  with
               ABI  revisions  that  are  newer  than  the  server’s.  This is
               because such modules might use interfaces that the server  does
               not  have.  When this option is specified, mismatches like this
               are downgraded from fatal  errors  to  warnings.   This  option
               should be used with care.

       -isolateDevice bus-id
               Restrict  device  resets  to  the device at bus-id.  The bus-id
               string  has   the   form   bustype:bus:device:function   (e.g.,
               ‘PCI:1:0:0’).   At  present,  only  isolation of PCI devices is
               supported; i.e., this option is ignored if bustype is  anything
               other than ‘PCI’.

       -keeptty
               Prevent  the  server  from  detaching  its  initial controlling
               terminal.  This  option  is  only  useful  when  debugging  the
               server.  Not all platforms support (or can use) this option.

       -keyboard keyboard-name
               Use  the xorg.conf(5) file InputDevice section called keyboard-
               name as the core keyboard.  This option  is  ignored  when  the
               Layout  section  specifies  a core keyboard.  In the absence of
               both a Layout section  and  this  option,  the  first  relevant
               InputDevice section is used for the core keyboard.

       -layout layout-name
               Use  the  xorg.conf(5)  file Layout section called layout-name.
               By default the first Layout section is used.

       -logfile filename
               Use the file called filename as the Xorg server log file.   The
               default  log  file  is  /var/log/Xorg.n.log  on most platforms,
               where n is the display number of the Xorg server.  The  default
               may be in a different directory on some platforms.  This option
               is only available when the server is run  as  root  (i.e,  with
               real-uid 0).

       -logverbose [n]
               Sets  the  verbosity  level for information printed to the Xorg
               server  log  file.   If  the  n  value  isn’t  supplied,   each
               occurrence  of  this  option  increments the log file verbosity
               level.  When the n value is supplied, the  log  file  verbosity
               level  is  set  to  that value.  The default log file verbosity
               level is 3.

       -modulepath searchpath
               Set the module search path  to  searchpath.   searchpath  is  a
               comma  separated  list of directories to search for Xorg server
               modules.  This option is only available when the server is  run
               as root (i.e, with real-uid 0).

       -nosilk Disable Silken Mouse support.

       -pixmap24
               Set  the internal pixmap format for depth 24 pixmaps to 24 bits
               per pixel.  The default is usually 32 bits per pixel.  There is
               normally  little  reason  to  use  this  option.   Some  client
               applications don’t like this pixmap format, even though it is a
               perfectly  legal  format.   This  is  equivalent  to the Pixmap
               xorg.conf(5) file option.

       -pixmap32
               Set the internal pixmap format for depth 24 pixmaps to 32  bits
               per pixel.  This is usually the default.  This is equivalent to
               the Pixmap xorg.conf(5) file option.

       -pointer pointer-name
               Use the xorg.conf(5) file InputDevice section  called  pointer-
               name  as  the  core  pointer.   This option is ignored when the
               Layout section specifies a core pointer.   In  the  absence  of
               both  a  Layout  section  and  this  option, the first relevant
               InputDevice section is used for the core pointer.

       -quiet  Suppress most informational messages at startup.  The verbosity
               level is set to zero.

       -rgamma value
               Set  the  red  gamma correction.  value must be between 0.1 and
               10.  The default is 1.0.  Not all drivers  support  this.   See
               also the -gamma, -bgamma, and -ggamma options.

       -screen screen-name
               Use  the  xorg.conf(5)  file Screen section called screen-name.
               By default the screens referenced by the default Layout section
               are  used, or the first Screen section when there are no Layout
               sections.

       -showconfig
               This is the same as the -version option, and  is  included  for
               compatibility  reasons.  It may be removed in a future release,
               so the -version option should be used instead.

       -showDefaultModulePath
               Print out the default module path the server was compiled with.

       -showDefaultLibPath
               Print out the path libraries should be installed to.

       -showopts
               For each driver module installed, print out the list of options
               and their argument types.

       -weight nnn
               Set RGB weighting at 16 bpp.  The default is 565.  This applies
               only to those drivers which support 16 bpp.

       -verbose [n]
               Sets the verbosity level for information printed on stderr.  If
               the n value isn’t supplied,  each  occurrence  of  this  option
               increments  the verbosity level.  When the n value is supplied,
               the  verbosity  level  is  set  to  that  value.   The  default
               verbosity level is 0.

       -version
               Print  out  the  server  version, patchlevel, release date, the
               operating system/platform it  was  built  on,  and  whether  it
               includes module loader support.

KEYBOARD

       The  Xorg  server  is  normally configured to recognize various special
       combinations of key presses that instruct the server  to  perform  some
       action,  rather  than  just  sending  the  key  press event to a client
       application. These actions  depend  on  the  XKB  keymap  loaded  by  a
       particular  keyboard  device and may or may not be available on a given
       configuration.

       The following  key  combinations  are  commonly  part  of  the  default
       XKEYBOARD keymap.

       Ctrl+Alt+Backspace
               Immediately  kills  the server -- no questions asked. It can be
               disabled by setting the DontZap xorg.conf(5) file option  to  a
               TRUE value.

       Ctrl+Alt+Keypad-Plus
               Change  video  mode  to next one specified in the configuration
               file.  This can be disabled with the DontZoom xorg.conf(5) file
               option.

       Ctrl+Alt+Keypad-Minus
               Change   video   mode   to   previous   one  specified  in  the
               configuration file.  This can be  disabled  with  the  DontZoom
               xorg.conf(5) file option.

       Ctrl+Alt+F1...F12
               For  systems  with  virtual  terminal  support, these keystroke
               combinations are used to switch to virtual terminals 1  through
               12,  respectively.   This can be disabled with the DontVTSwitch
               xorg.conf(5) file option.

CONFIGURATION

       Xorg  typically  uses  a  configuration  file  called   xorg.conf   and
       configuration  files  with  the  suffix  .conf  in  a  directory called
       xorg.conf.d for its initial setup.  Refer to  the  xorg.conf(5)  manual
       page for information about the format of this file.

       Xorg   has   a   mechanism  for  automatically  generating  a  built-in
       configuration at run-time when no xorg.conf file or  xorg.conf.d  files
       are  present.   The  current  version  of  this automatic configuration
       mechanism works in two ways.

       The first is via enhancements that have made  many  components  of  the
       xorg.conf  file  optional.   This  means  that  information that can be
       probed or reasonably deduced doesn’t need to be  specified  explicitly,
       greatly  reducing the amount of built-in configuration information that
       needs to be generated at run-time.

       The  second  is  to  have  "safe"  fallbacks  for  most   configuration
       information.   This  maximises the likelihood that the Xorg server will
       start up in some usable configuration even when information  about  the
       specific hardware is not available.

       The  automatic  configuration support for Xorg is work in progress.  It
       is currently aimed at the most popular hardware and software  platforms
       supported by Xorg.  Enhancements are planned for future releases.

FILES

       The  Xorg  server  config  files  can be found in a range of locations.
       These are documented fully in the xorg.conf(5) manual page.   The  most
       commonly used locations are shown here.

       /etc/X11/xorg.conf            Server configuration file.

       /etc/X11/xorg.conf-4          Server configuration file.

       /etc/xorg.conf                Server configuration file.

       /usr/etc/xorg.conf            Server configuration file.

       /usr/lib/X11/xorg.conf        Server configuration file.

       /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d          Server configuration directory.

       /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d-4        Server configuration directory.

       /etc/xorg.conf.d              Server configuration directory.

       /usr/etc/xorg.conf.d          Server configuration directory.

       /usr/lib/X11/xorg.conf.d      Server configuration directory.

       /var/log/Xorg.n.log           Server log file for display n.

       /usr/bin/∗                    Client binaries.

       /usr/include/∗                Header files.

       /usr/lib/∗                    Libraries.

       /usr/lib/X11/fonts/∗          Fonts.

       /usr/share/X11/XErrorDB       Client error message database.

       /usr/lib/X11/app-defaults/∗   Client resource specifications.

       /usr/share/man/man?/∗         Manual pages.

       /etc/Xn.hosts                 Initial  access  control list for display
                                     n.

SEE ALSO

       X(7), Xserver(1), xdm(1), xinit(1), xorg.conf(5), xvidtune(1),  apm(4),
       ati(4),  chips(4),  cirrus(4),  cyrix(4), fbdev(4), glide(4), glint(4),
       i128(4), i740(4),  imstt(4),  intel(4),  mga(4),  neomagic(4),  nsc(4),
       nv(4),    openchrome    (4),    r128(4),    rendition(4),   s3virge(4),
       siliconmotion(4), sis(4), sunbw2(4), suncg14(4), suncg3(4),  suncg6(4),
       sunffb(4), sunleo(4), suntcx(4), tdfx(4), tga(4), trident(4), tseng(4),
       v4l(4), vesa(4), vmware(4),
       Web site <http://www.x.org>.

AUTHORS

       Xorg has many contributors world wide.  The names of most of  them  can
       be  found in the documentation, ChangeLog files in the source tree, and
       in the actual source code.

       Xorg was originally based on XFree86 4.4rc2.  That was originally based
       on  X386  1.2  by  Thomas  Roell,  which  was contributed to the then X
       Consortium’s X11R5 distribution by SGCS.

       Xorg is released by the X.Org Foundation.

       The project that became XFree86 was originally founded in 1992 by David
       Dawes, Glenn Lai, Jim Tsillas and David Wexelblat.

       XFree86  was  later integrated in the then X Consortium’s X11R6 release
       by a group of dedicated XFree86 developers, including the following:

           Stuart Anderson    anderson@metrolink.com
           Doug Anson         danson@lgc.com
           Gertjan Akkerman   akkerman@dutiba.twi.tudelft.nl
           Mike Bernson       mike@mbsun.mlb.org
           Robin Cutshaw      robin@XFree86.org
           David Dawes        dawes@XFree86.org
           Marc Evans         marc@XFree86.org
           Pascal Haible      haible@izfm.uni-stuttgart.de
           Matthieu Herrb     Matthieu.Herrb@laas.fr
           Dirk Hohndel       hohndel@XFree86.org
           David Holland      davidh@use.com
           Alan Hourihane     alanh@fairlite.demon.co.uk
           Jeffrey Hsu        hsu@soda.berkeley.edu
           Glenn Lai          glenn@cs.utexas.edu
           Ted Lemon          mellon@ncd.com
           Rich Murphey       rich@XFree86.org
           Hans Nasten        nasten@everyware.se
           Mark Snitily       mark@sgcs.com
           Randy Terbush      randyt@cse.unl.edu
           Jon Tombs          tombs@XFree86.org
           Kees Verstoep      versto@cs.vu.nl
           Paul Vixie         paul@vix.com
           Mark Weaver        Mark_Weaver@brown.edu
           David Wexelblat    dwex@XFree86.org
           Philip Wheatley    Philip.Wheatley@ColumbiaSC.NCR.COM
           Thomas Wolfram     wolf@prz.tu-berlin.de
           Orest Zborowski    orestz@eskimo.com

       Xorg source is available from the FTP  server  <ftp://ftp.x.org/>,  and
       from  the X.Org server <http://gitweb.freedesktop.org/>.  Documentation
       and  other  information  can  be  found  from  the   X.Org   web   site
       <http://www.x.org/>.

LEGAL

       Xorg  is  copyright  software,  provided  under  licenses  that  permit
       modification and redistribution in source and binary form without  fee.
       Xorg  is copyright by numerous authors and contributors from around the
       world.  Licensing  information  can  be  found  at  <http://www.x.org>.
       Refer to the source code for specific copyright notices.

       XFree86(TM) is a trademark of The XFree86 Project, Inc.

       X11(TM) and X Window System(TM) are trademarks of The Open Group.