Provided by: unzip_6.0-1build1_i386 bug


       unzip - list, test and extract compressed files in a ZIP archive


       unzip  [-Z] [-cflptTuvz[abjnoqsCDKLMUVWX$/:^]] file[.zip] [file(s) ...]
       [-x xfile(s) ...] [-d exdir]


       unzip will list, test, or extract files from a  ZIP  archive,  commonly
       found  on MS-DOS systems.  The default behavior (with no options) is to
       extract into the current directory (and subdirectories  below  it)  all
       files  from  the  specified  ZIP archive.  A companion program, zip(1),
       creates ZIP  archives;  both  programs  are  compatible  with  archives
       created by PKWARE’s PKZIP and PKUNZIP for MS-DOS, but in many cases the
       program options or default behaviors differ.


              Path of the ZIP archive(s).  If  the  file  specification  is  a
              wildcard, each matching file is processed in an order determined
              by the operating system (or file system).  Only the filename can
              be a wildcard; the path itself cannot.  Wildcard expressions are
              similar to those supported in commonly  used  Unix  shells  (sh,
              ksh, csh) and may contain:

              *      matches a sequence of 0 or more characters

              ?      matches exactly 1 character

              [...]  matches  any  single character found inside the brackets;
                     ranges are specified by a beginning character, a  hyphen,
                     and  an  ending  character.  If an exclamation point or a
                     caret (‘!’ or ‘^’) follows the  left  bracket,  then  the
                     range  of  characters within the brackets is complemented
                     (that is,  anything  except  the  characters  inside  the
                     brackets  is  considered a match).  To specify a verbatim
                     left bracket, the three-character sequence ‘‘[[]’’ has to
                     be used.

              (Be  sure  to  quote  any  character  that  might  otherwise  be
              interpreted or modified by the  operating  system,  particularly
              under Unix and VMS.)  If no matches are found, the specification
              is assumed to be a literal filename; and if that also fails, the
              suffix  .zip  is  appended.  Note that self-extracting ZIP files
              are supported, as with any other ZIP archive; just  specify  the
              .exe suffix (if any) explicitly.

              An  optional  list of archive members to be processed, separated
              by spaces.  (VMS versions  compiled  with  VMSCLI  defined  must
              delimit  files  with  commas instead.  See -v in OPTIONS below.)
              Regular expressions (wildcards) may be used  to  match  multiple
              members;  see  above.   Again, be sure to quote expressions that
              would otherwise be expanded or modified by the operating system.

       [-x xfile(s)]
              An  optional  list  of  archive  members  to  be  excluded  from
              processing.  Since  wildcard  characters  normally  match  (‘/’)
              directory  separators  (for  exceptions see the option -W), this
              option  may  be  used  to  exclude  any  files   that   are   in
              subdirectories.   For example, ‘‘unzip foo *.[ch] -x */*’’ would
              extract all C source files in the main directory,  but  none  in
              any  subdirectories.   Without the -x option, all C source files
              in all directories within the zipfile would be extracted.

       [-d exdir]
              An optional directory to which to extract  files.   By  default,
              all  files  and  subdirectories  are  recreated  in  the current
              directory; the -d  option  allows  extraction  in  an  arbitrary
              directory  (always  assuming  one has permission to write to the
              directory).  This option need not  appear  at  the  end  of  the
              command   line;   it   is   also  accepted  before  the  zipfile
              specification (with the normal options), immediately  after  the
              zipfile specification, or between the file(s) and the -x option.
              The option and directory may be concatenated without  any  white
              space  between  them,  but note that this may cause normal shell
              behavior to be suppressed.  In particular, ‘‘-d ~’’  (tilde)  is
              expanded  by  Unix  C  shells  into  the name of the user’s home
              directory, but ‘‘-d~’’ is  treated  as  a  literal  subdirectory
              ‘‘~’’ of the current directory.


       Note  that,  in  order  to  support obsolescent hardware, unzip’s usage
       screen is limited to 22 or 23 lines and should therefore be  considered
       only  a  reminder  of  the basic unzip syntax rather than an exhaustive
       list of all possible flags.  The exhaustive list follows:

       -Z     zipinfo(1) mode.  If the first option on the command line is -Z,
              the  remaining  options are taken to be zipinfo(1) options.  See
              the appropriate manual page for a description of these  options.

       -A     [OS/2,  Unix  DLL] print extended help for the DLL’s programming
              interface (API).

       -c     extract  files  to  stdout/screen  (‘‘CRT’’).   This  option  is
              similar  to  the  -p option except that the name of each file is
              printed as it is extracted, the -a option is allowed, and ASCII-
              EBCDIC  conversion  is  automatically  performed if appropriate.
              This option is not listed in the unzip usage screen.

       -f     freshen existing files, i.e.,  extract  only  those  files  that
              already  exist  on disk and that are newer than the disk copies.
              By default unzip queries before overwriting, but the  -o  option
              may  be  used  to  suppress  the  queries.  Note that under many
              operating systems, the TZ (timezone) environment  variable  must
              be  set correctly in order for -f and -u to work properly (under
              Unix the variable is usually set  automatically).   The  reasons
              for this are somewhat subtle but have to do with the differences
              between DOS-format file times  (always  local  time)  and  Unix-
              format  times  (always  in GMT/UTC) and the necessity to compare
              the two.  A typical TZ value is  ‘‘PST8PDT’’  (US  Pacific  time
              with  automatic adjustment for Daylight Savings Time or ‘‘summer

       -l     list archive files (short format).  The names, uncompressed file
              sizes  and  modification  dates and times of the specified files
              are printed, along with totals  for  all  files  specified.   If
              UnZip  was  compiled  with  OS2_EAS  defined, the -l option also
              lists columns for the sizes of stored OS/2  extended  attributes
              (EAs)  and  OS/2  access control lists (ACLs).  In addition, the
              zipfile comment  and  individual  file  comments  (if  any)  are
              displayed.   If  a  file  was  archived  from a single-case file
              system (for example, the old MS-DOS FAT file system) and the  -L
              option  was given, the filename is converted to lowercase and is
              prefixed with a caret (^).

       -p     extract files to pipe (stdout).  Nothing but the  file  data  is
              sent  to  stdout,  and  the files are always extracted in binary
              format, just as they are stored (no conversions).

       -t     test archive files.  This option extracts each specified file in
              memory  and  compares  the  CRC  (cyclic  redundancy  check,  an
              enhanced checksum) of the expanded file with the original file’s
              stored CRC value.

       -T     [most  OSes]  set the timestamp on the archive(s) to that of the
              newest file in each one.  This corresponds to zip’s  -go  option
              except  that  it can be used on wildcard zipfiles (e.g., ‘‘unzip
              -T \*.zip’’) and is much faster.

       -u     update existing files and  create  new  ones  if  needed.   This
              option  performs  the same function as the -f option, extracting
              (with query) files that are newer than those with the same  name
              on  disk,  and  in  addition it extracts those files that do not
              already exist on disk.  See -f above for information on  setting
              the timezone properly.

       -v     list  archive  files (verbose format) or show diagnostic version
              info.  This option has evolved and now behaves as both an option
              and  a  modifier.   As  an  option  it has two purposes:  when a
              zipfile is specified with no other  options,  -v  lists  archive
              files  verbosely,  adding  to  the basic -l info the compression
              method, compressed size, compression ratio and 32-bit  CRC.   In
              contrast  to  most of the competing utilities, unzip removes the
              12  additional  header  bytes  of  encrypted  entries  from  the
              compressed   size   numbers.   Therefore,  compressed  size  and
              compression  ratio  figures  are  independent  of  the   entry’s
              encryption  status and show the correct compression performance.
              (The complete size of the encrypted compressed data  stream  for
              zipfile  entries  is  reported  by  the  more verbose zipinfo(1)
              reports, see the separate manual.)  When no zipfile is specified
              (that  is,  the  complete  command  is  simply  ‘‘unzip -v’’), a
              diagnostic screen is printed.  In addition to the normal  header
              with release date and version, unzip lists the home Info-ZIP ftp
              site and where to find a list of other ftp  and  non-ftp  sites;
              the  target  operating system for which it was compiled, as well
              as (possibly)  the  hardware  on  which  it  was  compiled,  the
              compiler and version used, and the compilation date; any special
              compilation options that might affect  the  program’s  operation
              (see   also   DECRYPTION  below);  and  any  options  stored  in
              environment variables that might do the  same  (see  ENVIRONMENT
              OPTIONS  below).   As  a  modifier  it works in conjunction with
              other options (e.g., -t) to produce more  verbose  or  debugging
              output;  this is not yet fully implemented but will be in future

       -z     display only the archive comment.


       -a     convert text files.  Ordinarily all files are extracted  exactly
              as  they are stored (as ‘‘binary’’ files).  The -a option causes
              files identified by zip as text files (those with the ‘t’  label
              in  zipinfo  listings,  rather  than  ‘b’)  to  be automatically
              extracted  as  such,  converting   line   endings,   end-of-file
              characters  and  the  character  set  itself as necessary.  (For
              example, Unix files use line feeds (LFs) for  end-of-line  (EOL)
              and  have  no end-of-file (EOF) marker; Macintoshes use carriage
              returns (CRs) for EOLs; and most PC operating systems use  CR+LF
              for EOLs and control-Z for EOF.  In addition, IBM mainframes and
              the Michigan Terminal System use EBCDIC  rather  than  the  more
              common ASCII character set, and NT supports Unicode.)  Note that
              zip’s identification of text files is by no means perfect;  some
              ‘‘text’’  files  may  actually  be binary and vice versa.  unzip
              therefore prints ‘‘[text]’’ or ‘‘[binary]’’ as  a  visual  check
              for  each  file  it  extracts when using the -a option.  The -aa
              option forces all files to be extracted as text,  regardless  of
              the supposed file type.  On VMS, see also -S.

       -b     [general] treat all files as binary (no text conversions).  This
              is a shortcut for ---a.

       -b     [Tandem] force the creation files with filecode type  180  (’C’)
              when  extracting Zip entries marked as "text". (On Tandem, -a is
              enabled by default, see above).

       -b     [VMS] auto-convert binary files (see -a above) to  fixed-length,
              512-byte  record  format.   Doubling the option (-bb) forces all
              files to  be  extracted  in  this  format.  When  extracting  to
              standard  output  (-c  or  -p  option  in  effect),  the default
              conversion of text record delimiters is disabled for binary (-b)
              resp. all (-bb) files.

       -B     [when  compiled  with  UNIXBACKUP defined] save a backup copy of
              each overwritten file. The backup file is gets the name  of  the
              target file with a tilde and optionally a unique sequence number
              (up to 5 digits)  appended.   The  sequence  number  is  applied
              whenever  another file with the original name plus tilde already
              exists.  When used together with the "overwrite all" option  -o,
              numbered  backup  files  are  never  created.  In this case, all
              backup files are named as the original  file  with  an  appended
              tilde,  existing  backup files are deleted without notice.  This
              feature works similarly to the default behavior of  emacs(1)  in
              many locations.

              Example: the old copy of ‘‘foo’’ is renamed to ‘‘foo~’’.

              Warning:  Users  should  be  aware  that  the -B option does not
              prevent loss of existing  data  under  all  circumstances.   For
              example,  when  unzip  is run in overwrite-all mode, an existing
              ‘‘foo~’’ file is deleted before unzip attempts to rename ‘‘foo’’
              to  ‘‘foo~’’.  When this rename attempt fails (because of a file
              locks, insufficient  privileges,  or  ...),  the  extraction  of
              ‘‘foo~’’  gets  cancelled,  but  the  old backup file is already
              lost.  A similar scenario takes place when the  sequence  number
              range  for numbered backup files gets exhausted (99999, or 65535
              for 16-bit systems).  In this case, the  backup  file  with  the
              maximum  sequence  number  is  deleted  and  replaced by the new
              backup version without notice.

       -C     use case-insensitive  matching  for  the  selection  of  archive
              entries   from   the  command-line  list  of  extract  selection
              patterns.  unzip’s philosophy is ‘‘you get what  you  ask  for’’
              (this is also responsible for the -L/-U change; see the relevant
              options below).  Because  some  file  systems  are  fully  case-
              sensitive  (notably  those  under the Unix operating system) and
              because both ZIP archives and unzip itself are  portable  across
              platforms,  unzip’s  default  behavior is to match both wildcard
              and literal filenames  case-sensitively.   That  is,  specifying
              ‘‘makefile’’ on the command line will only match ‘‘makefile’’ in
              the archive, not ‘‘Makefile’’ or ‘‘MAKEFILE’’ (and similarly for
              wildcard specifications).  Since this does not correspond to the
              behavior of many other operating/file systems (for example, OS/2
              HPFS,  which  preserves  mixed case but is not sensitive to it),
              the -C option may be used to force all filename  matches  to  be
              case-insensitive.   In  the example above, all three files would
              then match ‘‘makefile’’ (or  ‘‘make*’’,  or  similar).   The  -C
              option  affects  file specs in both the normal file list and the
              excluded-file list (xlist).

              Please note that the -C option does neither  affect  the  search
              for  the  zipfile(s)  nor  the  matching  of  archive entries to
              existing files on the extraction path.  On a case-sensitive file
              system,  unzip  will  never try to overwrite a file ‘‘FOO’’ when
              extracting an entry ‘‘foo’’!

       -D     skip restoration of timestamps for extracted  items.   Normally,
              unzip  tries to restore all meta-information for extracted items
              that are supplied  in  the  Zip  archive  (and  do  not  require
              privileges  or impose a security risk).  By specifying -D, unzip
              is told to suppress restoration of  timestamps  for  directories
              explicitly  created  from Zip archive entries.  This option only
              applies to ports that support setting timestamps for directories
              (currently  ATheOS,  BeOS,  MacOS,  OS/2,  Unix, VMS, Win32, for
              other unzip ports, -D has no effect).  The duplicated option -DD
              forces  suppression  of  timestamp restoration for all extracted
              entries (files and directories).  This option results in setting
              the timestamps for all extracted entries to the current time.

              On   VMS,  the  default  setting  for  this  option  is  -D  for
              consistency with the behaviour of BACKUP:  file  timestamps  are
              restored,  timestamps  of  extracted directories are left at the
              current time.  To enable restoration  of  directory  timestamps,
              the  negated option --D should be specified.  On VMS, the option
              -D disables timestamp restoration for all extracted Zip  archive
              items.  (Here, a single -D on the command line combines with the
              default -D to do what an explicit -DD does on other systems.)

       -E     [MacOS only]  display  contents  of  MacOS  extra  field  during
              restore operation.

       -F     [Acorn  only]  suppress  removal  of NFS filetype extension from
              stored filenames.

       -F     [non-Acorn  systems  supporting  long  filenames  with  embedded
              commas,  and  only  if  compiled  with  ACORN_FTYPE_NFS defined]
              translate filetype information from ACORN RISC  OS  extra  field
              blocks  into a NFS filetype extension and append it to the names
              of the extracted files.  (When the stored  filename  appears  to
              already  have an appended NFS filetype extension, it is replaced
              by the info from the extra field.)

       -i     [MacOS only] ignore filenames  stored  in  MacOS  extra  fields.
              Instead, the most compatible filename stored in the generic part
              of the entry’s header is used.

       -j     junk paths.  The archive’s directory structure is not recreated;
              all files are deposited in the extraction directory (by default,
              the current one).

       -J     [BeOS  only]  junk  file  attributes.   The  file’s  BeOS   file
              attributes are not restored, just the file’s data.

       -J     [MacOS  only] ignore MacOS extra fields.  All Macintosh specific
              info is skipped. Data-fork and  resource-fork  are  restored  as
              separate files.

       -K     [AtheOS,   BeOS,   Unix   only]   retain   SUID/SGID/Tacky  file
              attributes.  Without this flag, these attribute bits are cleared
              for security reasons.

       -L     convert  to  lowercase any filename originating on an uppercase-
              only operating system or file system.  (This was unzip’s default
              behavior  in releases prior to 5.11; the new default behavior is
              identical to the old behavior with the -U option, which  is  now
              obsolete and will be removed in a future release.)  Depending on
              the archiver, files  archived  under  single-case  file  systems
              (VMS,  old  MS-DOS  FAT,  etc.)  may  be stored as all-uppercase
              names; this can be ugly or inconvenient  when  extracting  to  a
              case-preserving  file  system  such  as  OS/2  HPFS  or  a case-
              sensitive one such as under Unix.  By default  unzip  lists  and
              extracts  such  filenames  exactly  as they’re stored (excepting
              truncation, conversion of unsupported  characters,  etc.);  this
              option  causes the names of all files from certain systems to be
              converted to lowercase.  The -LL  option  forces  conversion  of
              every  filename to lowercase, regardless of the originating file

       -M     pipe all output through an internal pager similar  to  the  Unix
              more(1)  command.   At  the  end of a screenful of output, unzip
              pauses with a ‘‘--More--’’ prompt; the  next  screenful  may  be
              viewed  by  pressing  the  Enter  (Return) key or the space bar.
              unzip can be terminated by pressing the ‘‘q’’ key and,  on  some
              systems, the Enter/Return key.  Unlike Unix more(1), there is no
              forward-searching or editing capability.   Also,  unzip  doesn’t
              notice if long lines wrap at the edge of the screen, effectively
              resulting  in  the  printing  of  two  or  more  lines  and  the
              likelihood  that some text will scroll off the top of the screen
              before being viewed.  On some systems the  number  of  available
              lines on the screen is not detected, in which case unzip assumes
              the height is 24 lines.

       -n     never overwrite existing files.  If a file already exists,  skip
              the extraction of that file without prompting.  By default unzip
              queries before extracting any file that already exists; the user
              may  choose  to  overwrite  only the current file, overwrite all
              files, skip extraction of the current file, skip  extraction  of
              all existing files, or rename the current file.

       -N     [Amiga] extract file comments as Amiga filenotes.  File comments
              are created with the -c option of zip(1), or with the -N  option
              of the Amiga port of zip(1), which stores filenotes as comments.

       -o     overwrite existing files without prompting.  This is a dangerous
              option,  so  use  it  with  care.   (It  is  often used with -f,
              however, and is the only way to overwrite  directory  EAs  under

       -P password
              use  password  to  decrypt  encrypted  zipfile entries (if any).
              THIS IS INSECURE!  Many  multi-user  operating  systems  provide
              ways  for  any user to see the current command line of any other
              user; even on stand-alone systems there is always the threat  of
              over-the-shoulder  peeking.   Storing  the plaintext password as
              part of a command line in an automated  script  is  even  worse.
              Whenever  possible,  use  the non-echoing, interactive prompt to
              enter passwords.  (And where security is  truly  important,  use
              strong  encryption  such  as  Pretty Good Privacy instead of the
              relatively  weak  encryption  provided   by   standard   zipfile

       -q     perform  operations  quietly  (-qq  = even quieter).  Ordinarily
              unzip prints the names of the files it’s extracting or  testing,
              the extraction methods, any file or zipfile comments that may be
              stored in the archive, and possibly a summary when finished with
              each  archive.   The -q[q] options suppress the printing of some
              or all of these messages.

       -s     [OS/2, NT, MS-DOS] convert spaces in filenames  to  underscores.
              Since  all PC operating systems allow spaces in filenames, unzip
              by  default  extracts  filenames  with  spaces   intact   (e.g.,
              ‘‘EA DATA. SF’’).  This can be awkward, however, since MS-DOS in
              particular does not  gracefully  support  spaces  in  filenames.
              Conversion   of   spaces   to   underscores  can  eliminate  the
              awkwardness in some cases.

       -S     [VMS] convert text files (-a, -aa) into Stream_LF record format,
              instead of the text-file default, variable-length record format.
              (Stream_LF is the default record format  of  VMS  unzip.  It  is
              applied  unless conversion (-a, -aa and/or -b, -bb) is requested
              or a VMS-specific entry is processed.)

       -U     [UNICODE_SUPPORT only] modify or disable UTF-8  handling.   When
              UNICODE_SUPPORT  is  available,  the  option  -U forces unzip to
              escape all non-ASCII characters from UTF-8  coded  filenames  as
              ‘‘#Uxxxx’’  (for  UCS-2  characters, or ‘‘#Lxxxxxx’’ for unicode
              codepoints needing 3 octets).  This option  is  mainly  provided
              for  debugging  purpose  when  the  fairly  new UTF-8 support is
              suspected to mangle up extracted filenames.

              The option -UU allows to entirely  disable  the  recognition  of
              UTF-8  encoded  filenames.   The  handling  of  filename codings
              within unzip falls back to the behaviour of previous versions.

              [old, obsolete usage] leave filenames uppercase if created under
              MS-DOS, VMS, etc.  See -L above.

       -V     retain (VMS) file version numbers.  VMS files can be stored with
              a version number, in the format  file.ext;##.   By  default  the
              ‘‘;##’’  version  numbers  are  stripped, but this option allows
              them to be retained.  (On file systems that limit  filenames  to
              particularly short lengths, the version numbers may be truncated
              or stripped regardless of this option.)

       -W     [only  when  WILD_STOP_AT_DIR   compile-time   option   enabled]
              modifies  the pattern matching routine so that both ‘?’ (single-
              char wildcard) and ‘*’ (multi-char wildcard) do  not  match  the
              directory  separator character ‘/’.  (The two-character sequence
              ‘‘**’’ acts as a multi-char wildcard that includes the directory
              separator in its matched characters.)  Examples:

               "*.c" matches "foo.c" but not "mydir/foo.c"
               "**.c" matches both "foo.c" and "mydir/foo.c"
               "*/*.c" matches "bar/foo.c" but not "baz/bar/foo.c"
               "??*/*" matches "ab/foo" and "abc/foo"
                       but not "a/foo" or "a/b/foo"

              This  modified  behaviour  is equivalent to the pattern matching
              style used by the shells of some of UnZip’s supported target OSs
              (one  example  is  Acorn  RISC  OS).   This  option  may  not be
              available on systems where the Zip archive’s internal  directory
              separator  character  ‘/’  is  allowed  as  regular character in
              native operating system filenames.  (Currently, UnZip  uses  the
              same   pattern   matching   rules   for  both  wildcard  zipfile
              specifications and zip entry selection patterns in  most  ports.
              For  systems  allowing ‘/’ as regular filename character, the -W
              option  would  not  work  as  expected  on  a  wildcard  zipfile

       -X     [VMS,  Unix,  OS/2,  NT,  Tandem]  restore owner/protection info
              (UICs and ACL  entries)  under  VMS,  or  user  and  group  info
              (UID/GID)  under  Unix,  or  access  control  lists (ACLs) under
              certain network-enabled versions of OS/2 (Warp Server  with  IBM
              LAN  Server/Requester  3.0  to  5.0;  Warp Connect with IBM Peer
              1.0), or security ACLs under Windows NT.   In  most  cases  this
              will  require special system privileges, and doubling the option
              (-XX) under NT instructs unzip to use privileges for extraction;
              but  under  Unix,  for  example,  a  user who belongs to several
              groups can restore files owned by any of those groups,  as  long
              as  the  user IDs match his or her own.  Note that ordinary file
              attributes are always  restored--this  option  applies  only  to
              optional,  extra  ownership  info  available  on  some operating
              systems.  [NT’s  access  control  lists  do  not  appear  to  be
              especially  compatible  with  OS/2’s,  so  no attempt is made at
              cross-platform portability of  access  privileges.   It  is  not
              clear under what conditions this would ever be useful anyway.]

       -Y     [VMS]  treat  archived  file  name  endings  of  ‘‘.nnn’’ (where
              ‘‘nnn’’ is a decimal   number)  as  if  they  were  VMS  version
              numbers  (‘‘;nnn’’).   (The  default  is  to  treat them as file
              types.)  Example:
                       "a.b.3" -> "a.b;3".

       -$     [MS-DOS, OS/2, NT] restore the volume label  if  the  extraction
              medium  is  removable  (e.g.,  a diskette).  Doubling the option
              (-$$) allows fixed media (hard disks) to be  labelled  as  well.
              By default, volume labels are ignored.

       -/ extensions
              [Acorn  only] overrides the extension list supplied by Unzip$Ext
              environment variable.  During  extraction,  filename  extensions
              that  match  one of the items in this extension list are swapped
              in front of the base name of the extracted file.

       -:     [all but Acorn, VM/CMS, MVS, Tandem] allows to  extract  archive
              members into locations outside of the current ‘‘ extraction root
              folder’’. For security reasons, unzip normally removes  ‘‘parent
              dir’’  path  components  (‘‘../’’)  from  the names of extracted
              file.  This safety feature (new for version 5.50) prevents unzip
              from  accidentally  writing files to ‘‘sensitive’’ areas outside
              the active extraction folder tree  head.   The  -:  option  lets
              unzip  switch  back  to its previous, more liberal behaviour, to
              allow exact extraction of (older)  archives  that  used  ‘‘../’’
              components  to  create  multiple directory trees at the level of
              the current extraction folder.   This  option  does  not  enable
              writing  explicitly  to  the root directory (‘‘/’’).  To achieve
              this, it is necessary to set the  extraction  target  folder  to
              root (e.g. -d / ).  However, when the -: option is specified, it
              is still possible to implicitly write to the root  directory  by
              specifying   enough  ‘‘../’’  path  components  within  the  zip
              archive.  Use this option with extreme caution.

       -^     [Unix only] allow control characters in names of  extracted  ZIP
              archive  entries.   On Unix, a file name may contain any (8-bit)
              character code with the two exception ’/’ (directory  delimiter)
              and  NUL  (0x00, the C string termination indicator), unless the
              specific  file  system   has   more   restrictive   conventions.
              Generally,  this  allows  to  embed ASCII control characters (or
              even sophisticated control sequences) in file names, at least on
              ’native’   Unix   file  systems.   However,  it  may  be  highly
              suspicious to make use of this Unix "feature".  Embedded control
              characters  in  file  names  might  have nasty side effects when
              displayed on screen by  some  listing  code  without  sufficient
              filtering.   And,  for  ordinary  users,  it may be difficult to
              handle such file names (e.g. when trying to specify it for open,
              copy,  move,  or delete operations).  Therefore, unzip applies a
              filter by default that  removes  potentially  dangerous  control
              characters  from  the extracted file names. The -^ option allows
              to override this filter in the rare case that embedded  filename
              control characters are to be intentionally restored.

       -2     [VMS]   force   unconditionally  conversion  of  file  names  to
              ODS2-compatible  names.   The  default   is   to   exploit   the
              destination  file system, preserving case and extended file name
              characters on an ODS5 destination file system; and applying  the
              ODS2-compatibility  file  name  filtering on an ODS2 destination
              file system.


       unzip’s default behavior may be  modified  via  options  placed  in  an
       environment  variable.   This  can  be  done with any option, but it is
       probably most useful with the -a, -L, -C,  -q,  -o,  or  -n  modifiers:
       make  unzip  auto-convert  text  files  by  default,  make  it  convert
       filenames from uppercase systems to  lowercase,  make  it  match  names
       case-insensitively,  make  it  quieter,  or make it always overwrite or
       never overwrite files as it extracts them.  For example, to make  unzip
       act as quietly as possible, only reporting errors, one would use one of
       the following commands:

         Unix Bourne shell:
              UNZIP=-qq; export UNZIP

         Unix C shell:
              setenv UNZIP -qq

         OS/2 or MS-DOS:
              set UNZIP=-qq

         VMS (quotes for lowercase):
              define UNZIP_OPTS "-qq"

       Environment options are, in effect, considered  to  be  just  like  any
       other  command-line options, except that they are effectively the first
       options on the command line.  To override an  environment  option,  one
       may use the ‘‘minus operator’’ to remove it.  For instance, to override
       one of the quiet-flags in the example above, use the command

           unzip --q[other options] zipfile

       The first hyphen is the normal switch character, and the  second  is  a
       minus  sign, acting on the q option.  Thus the effect here is to cancel
       one quantum of quietness.  To cancel both quiet flags,  two  (or  more)
       minuses may be used:

           unzip -t--q zipfile
           unzip ---qt zipfile

       (the  two  are equivalent).  This may seem awkward or confusing, but it
       is reasonably intuitive:  just ignore the  first  hyphen  and  go  from
       there.  It is also consistent with the behavior of Unix nice(1).

       As  suggested  by  the  examples  above, the default variable names are
       UNZIP_OPTS for VMS (where the symbol used to install unzip as a foreign
       command would otherwise be confused with the environment variable), and
       UNZIP for all other operating systems.  For compatibility with  zip(1),
       UNZIPOPT  is also accepted (don’t ask).  If both UNZIP and UNZIPOPT are
       defined, however, UNZIP takes precedence.   unzip’s  diagnostic  option
       (-v  with  no zipfile name) can be used to check the values of all four
       possible unzip and zipinfo environment variables.

       The timezone variable  (TZ)  should  be  set  according  to  the  local
       timezone  in  order  for  the  -f and -u to operate correctly.  See the
       description of -f  above  for  details.   This  variable  may  also  be
       necessary  to  get  timestamps  of extracted files to be set correctly.
       The WIN32 (Win9x/ME/NT4/2K/XP/2K3) port  of  unzip  gets  the  timezone
       configuration  from  the  registry, assuming it is correctly set in the
       Control Panel.  The TZ variable is ignored for this port.


       Encrypted archives are fully supported by Info-ZIP software, but due to
       United  States  export  restrictions,  de-/encryption  support might be
       disabled in your compiled  binary.   However,  since  spring  2000,  US
       export restrictions have been liberated, and our source archives do now
       include full crypt code.  In case you need  binary  distributions  with
       crypt support enabled, see the file ‘‘WHERE’’ in any Info-ZIP source or
       binary distribution for locations both inside and outside the US.

       Some compiled versions of unzip may not support decryption.  To check a
       version  for  crypt  support,  either  attempt  to  test  or extract an
       encrypted archive, or else check unzip’s diagnostic screen (see the  -v
       option  above)  for  ‘‘[decryption]’’ as one of the special compilation

       As noted above, the -P option may be used to supply a password  on  the
       command  line,  but  at  a  cost in security.  The preferred decryption
       method is simply to extract normally; if a zipfile member is encrypted,
       unzip  will  prompt  for  the  password  without echoing what is typed.
       unzip continues to use the same password as long as it  appears  to  be
       valid,  by testing a 12-byte header on each file.  The correct password
       will always check out against the  header,  but  there  is  a  1-in-256
       chance  that  an  incorrect password will as well.  (This is a security
       feature of the PKWARE zipfile  format;  it  helps  prevent  brute-force
       attacks  that  might  otherwise gain a large speed advantage by testing
       only the header.)  In the case that an incorrect password is given  but
       it  passes  the  header  test  anyway,  either an incorrect CRC will be
       generated for the extracted data or else unzip  will  fail  during  the
       extraction  because  the  ‘‘decrypted’’ bytes do not constitute a valid
       compressed data stream.

       If the first password fails the header check on some file,  unzip  will
       prompt  for  another password, and so on until all files are extracted.
       If a password is not known, entering a null password (that is,  just  a
       carriage  return or ‘‘Enter’’) is taken as a signal to skip all further
       prompting.  Only unencrypted files in the archive(s) will thereafter be
       extracted.   (In  fact, that’s not quite true; older versions of zip(1)
       and zipcloak(1) allowed null passwords, so unzip checks each  encrypted
       file  to  see  if  the null password works.  This may result in ‘‘false
       positives’’ and extraction errors, as noted above.)

       Archives encrypted with 8-bit passwords (for  example,  passwords  with
       accented European characters) may not be portable across systems and/or
       other archivers.  This problem stems from the use of multiple  encoding
       methods  for  such  characters,  including Latin-1 (ISO 8859-1) and OEM
       code page 850.  DOS PKZIP 2.04g uses the OEM code page;  Windows  PKZIP
       2.50 uses Latin-1 (and is therefore incompatible with DOS PKZIP); Info-
       ZIP uses the OEM code page on DOS, OS/2 and Win3.x ports but ISO coding
       (Latin-1  etc.)  everywhere  else;  and  Nico Mak’s WinZip 6.x does not
       allow 8-bit passwords at all.  UnZip 5.3 (or newer) attempts to use the
       default  character set first (e.g., Latin-1), followed by the alternate
       one (e.g., OEM code page) to test passwords.   On  EBCDIC  systems,  if
       both  of  these  fail, EBCDIC encoding will be tested as a last resort.
       (EBCDIC is not tested on non-EBCDIC systems, because there are no known
       archivers that encrypt using EBCDIC encoding.)  ISO character encodings
       other than Latin-1 are not supported.  The new addition of  (partially)
       Unicode (resp.  UTF-8) support in UnZip 6.0 has not yet been adapted to
       the encryption password handling in unzip.  On systems that  use  UTF-8
       as  native  character  encoding, unzip simply tries decryption with the
       native UTF-8 encoded password;  the  built-in  attempts  to  check  the
       password  in  translated  encoding  have not yet been adapted for UTF-8
       support and will consequently fail.


       To use unzip to extract all members of the archive into the
       current   directory   and   subdirectories   below   it,  creating  any
       subdirectories as necessary:

           unzip letters

       To extract all members of into the current directory only:

           unzip -j letters

       To test, printing only a summary message indicating whether
       the archive is OK or not:

           unzip -tq letters

       To  test  all  zipfiles  in  the  current  directory, printing only the

           unzip -tq \*.zip

       (The backslash before the  asterisk  is  only  required  if  the  shell
       expands  wildcards,  as  in  Unix;  double  quotes could have been used
       instead, as in the source  examples  below.)  To  extract  to  standard
       output  all  members  of  whose  names  end in .tex, auto-
       converting to the local end-of-line convention and  piping  the  output
       into more(1):

           unzip -ca letters \*.tex | more

       To extract the binary file paper1.dvi to standard output and pipe it to
       a printing program:

           unzip -p articles paper1.dvi | dvips

       To  extract  all  FORTRAN  and  C  source  files--*.f,  *.c,  *.h,  and
       Makefile--into the /tmp directory:

           unzip "*.[fch]" Makefile -d /tmp

       (the  double  quotes are necessary only in Unix and only if globbing is
       turned on).  To extract all FORTRAN and C source files,  regardless  of
       case  (e.g.,  both *.c and *.C, and any makefile, Makefile, MAKEFILE or

           unzip -C "*.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp

       To extract any such files but convert any uppercase MS-DOS or VMS names
       to  lowercase  and  convert the line-endings of all of the files to the
       local standard (without respect to  any  files  that  might  be  marked

           unzip -aaCL "*.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp

       To  extract  only  newer  versions  of the files already in the current
       directory, without querying (NOTE:  be  careful  of  unzipping  in  one
       timezone  a  zipfile  created in another--ZIP archives other than those
       created by Zip 2.1 or later contain  no  timezone  information,  and  a
       ‘‘newer’’ file from an eastern timezone may, in fact, be older):

           unzip -fo sources

       To extract newer versions of the files already in the current directory
       and to create any files not already  there  (same  caveat  as  previous

           unzip -uo sources

       To  display a diagnostic screen showing which unzip and zipinfo options
       are stored in environment variables,  whether  decryption  support  was
       compiled in, the compiler with which unzip was compiled, etc.:

           unzip -v

       In  the  last  five examples, assume that UNZIP or UNZIP_OPTS is set to
       -q.  To do a singly quiet listing:

           unzip -l

       To do a doubly quiet listing:

           unzip -ql

       (Note that the ‘‘.zip’’ is generally not necessary.)  To do a  standard

           unzip --ql
           unzip -l-q
           unzip -l--q
       (Extra minuses in options don’t hurt.)


       The  current  maintainer,  being  a  lazy sort, finds it very useful to
       define a pair of aliases:  tt for ‘‘unzip -tq’’ and ii for ‘‘unzip -Z’’
       (or  ‘‘zipinfo’’).   One may then simply type ‘‘tt zipfile’’ to test an
       archive, something that is worth making a habit of  doing.   With  luck
       unzip   will   report  ‘‘No  errors  detected  in  compressed  data  of,’’ after which one may breathe a sigh of relief.

       The maintainer also finds  it  useful  to  set  the  UNZIP  environment
       variable  to ‘‘-aL’’ and is tempted to add ‘‘-C’’ as well.  His ZIPINFO
       variable is set to ‘‘-z’’.


       The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by
       PKWARE and takes on the following values, except under VMS:

              0      normal; no errors or warnings detected.

              1      one   or   more  warning  errors  were  encountered,  but
                     processing completed successfully anyway.  This  includes
                     zipfiles  where  one  or  more  files  was skipped due to
                     unsupported compression  method  or  encryption  with  an
                     unknown password.

              2      a  generic  error  in  the  zipfile  format was detected.
                     Processing may have completed successfully  anyway;  some
                     broken  zipfiles  created  by other archivers have simple

              3      a severe  error  in  the  zipfile  format  was  detected.
                     Processing probably failed immediately.

              4      unzip  was  unable  to  allocate  memory  for one or more
                     buffers during program initialization.

              5      unzip was unable to allocate memory or unable to obtain a
                     tty to read the decryption password(s).

              6      unzip  was unable to allocate memory during decompression
                     to disk.

              7      unzip was unable  to  allocate  memory  during  in-memory

              8      [currently not used]

              9      the specified zipfiles were not found.

              10     invalid options were specified on the command line.

              11     no matching files were found.

              50     the disk is (or was) full during extraction.

              51     the end of the ZIP archive was encountered prematurely.

              80     the  user  aborted  unzip  prematurely with control-C (or

              81     testing or extraction of one or more files failed due  to
                     unsupported    compression    methods    or   unsupported

              82     no files were found due to  bad  decryption  password(s).
                     (If even one file is successfully processed, however, the
                     exit status is 1.)

       VMS interprets standard Unix (or PC) return values as  other,  scarier-
       looking things, so unzip instead maps them into VMS-style status codes.
       The current mapping is as  follows:    1  (success)  for  normal  exit,
       0x7fff0001     for     warning     errors,     and     (0x7fff000?    +
       16*normal_unzip_exit_status) for all other errors, where the ‘?’  is  2
       (error) for unzip values 2, 9-11 and 80-82, and 4 (fatal error) for the
       remaining ones (3-8, 50, 51).  In  addition,  there  is  a  compilation
       option  to expand upon this behavior:  defining RETURN_CODES results in
       a human-readable explanation of what the error status means.


       Multi-part archives are not yet supported, except in  conjunction  with
       zip.  (All parts must be concatenated together in order, and then ‘‘zip
       -F’’ (for zip 2.x) or ‘‘zip -FF’’ (for zip 3.x) must  be  performed  on
       the  concatenated  archive  in  order to ‘‘fix’’ it.  Also, zip 3.0 and
       later can combine multi-part (split) archives into a  combined  single-
       file  archive using ‘‘zip -s- inarchive -O outarchive’’.  See the zip 3
       manual page for more information.)  This will definitely  be  corrected
       in the next major release.

       Archives  read  from  standard input are not yet supported, except with
       funzip  (and  then  only  the  first  member  of  the  archive  can  be

       Archives  encrypted with 8-bit passwords (e.g., passwords with accented
       European characters) may not be portable across  systems  and/or  other
       archivers.  See the discussion in DECRYPTION above.

       unzip’s  -M  (‘‘more’’)  option  tries  to  take into account automatic
       wrapping of long lines. However,  the  code  may  fail  to  detect  the
       correct  wrapping locations. First, TAB characters (and similar control
       sequences) are not taken into account, they  are  handled  as  ordinary
       printable  characters.   Second,  depending  on  the actual system / OS
       port, unzip may not detect the true screen geometry but rather rely  on
       "commonly used" default dimensions.  The correct handling of tabs would
       require the implementation of a query for the actual tabulator setup on
       the output console.

       Dates,  times  and  permissions  of stored directories are not restored
       except under Unix. (On Windows NT and successors,  timestamps  are  now

       [MS-DOS]  When  extracting  or  testing  files  from  an  archive  on a
       defective floppy diskette, if the ‘‘Fail’’ option is chosen from  DOS’s
       ‘‘Abort,  Retry,  Fail?’’ message, older versions of unzip may hang the
       system, requiring a reboot.  This problem  appears  to  be  fixed,  but
       control-C (or control-Break) can still be used to terminate unzip.

       Under DEC Ultrix, unzip would sometimes fail on long zipfiles (bad CRC,
       not always reproducible).  This was apparently due either to a hardware
       bug  (cache  memory)  or  an operating system bug (improper handling of
       page faults?).  Since Ultrix has been abandoned  in  favor  of  Digital
       Unix (OSF/1), this may not be an issue anymore.

       [Unix]  Unix  special  files  such as FIFO buffers (named pipes), block
       devices and character devices are not restored even if they are somehow
       represented  in  the  zipfile,  nor  are  hard-linked  files  relinked.
       Basically the only file types restored  by  unzip  are  regular  files,
       directories and symbolic (soft) links.

       [OS/2] Extended attributes for existing directories are only updated if
       the -o (‘‘overwrite all’’) option is given.  This is  a  limitation  of
       the  operating  system;  because  directories only have a creation time
       associated with them, unzip has no way to determine whether the  stored
       attributes are newer or older than those on disk.  In practice this may
       mean a  two-pass  approach  is  required:   first  unpack  the  archive
       normally  (with  or  without  freshening/updating existing files), then
       overwrite just the directory entries (e.g., ‘‘unzip -o foo */’’).

       [VMS] When extracting to another directory, only the [.foo]  syntax  is
       accepted  for  the  -d  option;  the simple Unix foo syntax is silently
       ignored (as is the less common VMS foo.dir syntax).

       [VMS] When the file being extracted already exists, unzip’s query  only
       allows  skipping, overwriting or renaming; there should additionally be
       a choice for creating  a  new  version  of  the  file.   In  fact,  the
       ‘‘overwrite’’  choice does create a new version; the old version is not
       overwritten or deleted.


       funzip(1), zip(1),  zipcloak(1),  zipgrep(1),  zipinfo(1),  zipnote(1),


       The Info-ZIP home page is currently at


       The  primary  Info-ZIP authors (current semi-active members of the Zip-
       Bugs workgroup) are:  Ed Gordon (Zip, general maintenance, shared code,
       Zip64,  Win32,  Unix,  Unicode);  Christian  Spieler (UnZip maintenance
       coordination, VMS, MS-DOS, Win32, shared code, general  Zip  and  UnZip
       integration  and  optimization);  Onno van der Linden (Zip); Mike White
       (Win32, Windows GUI, Windows  DLLs);  Kai  Uwe  Rommel  (OS/2,  Win32);
       Steven  M.  Schweda  (VMS, Unix, support of new features); Paul Kienitz
       (Amiga, Win32, Unicode); Chris Herborth (BeOS,  QNX,  Atari);  Jonathan
       Hudson (SMS/QDOS); Sergio Monesi (Acorn RISC OS); Harald Denker (Atari,
       MVS); John Bush (Solaris, Amiga); Hunter Goatley  (VMS,  Info-ZIP  Site
       maintenance);  Steve  Salisbury (Win32); Steve Miller (Windows CE GUI),
       Johnny Lee (MS-DOS, Win32, Zip64); and Dave Smith (Tandem NSK).

       The following people were former members of  the  Info-ZIP  development
       group  and  provided  major  contributions  to key parts of the current
       code: Greg ‘‘Cave Newt’’ Roelofs (UnZip, unshrink decompression); Jean-
       loup  Gailly  (deflate compression); Mark Adler (inflate decompression,

       The author of the original unzip code upon which Info-ZIP’s  was  based
       is  Samuel H. Smith; Carl Mascott did the first Unix port; and David P.
       Kirschbaum organized and led Info-ZIP in  its  early  days  with  Keith
       Petersen  hosting the original mailing list at WSMR-SimTel20.  The full
       list of contributors to UnZip has grown quite large;  please  refer  to
       the  CONTRIBS  file  in  the UnZip source distribution for a relatively
       complete version.


       v1.2   15 Mar 89   Samuel H. Smith
       v2.0    9 Sep 89   Samuel H. Smith
       v2.x   fall 1989   many Usenet contributors
       v3.0    1 May 90   Info-ZIP (DPK, consolidator)
       v3.1   15 Aug 90   Info-ZIP (DPK, consolidator)
       v4.0    1 Dec 90   Info-ZIP (GRR, maintainer)
       v4.1   12 May 91   Info-ZIP
       v4.2   20 Mar 92   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.0   21 Aug 92   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.01  15 Jan 93   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.1    7 Feb 94   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.11   2 Aug 94   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.12  28 Aug 94   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.2   30 Apr 96   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.3   22 Apr 97   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.31  31 May 97   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.32   3 Nov 97   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.4   28 Nov 98   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.41  16 Apr 00   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.42  14 Jan 01   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.5   17 Feb 02   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.51  22 May 04   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.52  28 Feb 05   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v6.0   20 Apr 09   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)