Provided by: xz-utils_4.999.9beta+20091116-1_i386 bug

NAME

       xz,  unxz,  xzcat, lzma, unlzma, lzcat - Compress or decompress .xz and
       .lzma files

SYNOPSIS

       xz [option]...  [file]...

       unxz is equivalent to xz --decompress.
       xzcat is equivalent to xz --decompress --stdout.
       lzma is equivalent to xz --format=lzma.
       unlzma is equivalent to xz --format=lzma --decompress.
       lzcat is equivalent to xz --format=lzma --decompress --stdout.

       When writing scripts that need to decompress files, it  is  recommended
       to  always use the name xz with appropriate arguments (xz -d or xz -dc)
       instead of the names unxz and xzcat.

DESCRIPTION

       xz is a general-purpose data compression tool with command line  syntax
       similar  to  gzip(1)  and  bzip2(1).  The native file format is the .xz
       format, but also the legacy .lzma format  and  raw  compressed  streams
       with no container format headers are supported.

       xz  compresses  or  decompresses  each  file  according to the selected
       operation mode.  If no files are given or file  is  -,  xz  reads  from
       standard  input  and  writes the processed data to standard output.  xz
       will refuse (display an error and skip the file)  to  write  compressed
       data  to standard output if it is a terminal. Similarly, xz will refuse
       to read compressed data from standard input if it is a terminal.

       Unless --stdout is specified, files other than - are written to  a  new
       file whose name is derived from the source file name:

       ·  When  compressing,  the  suffix  of  the  target file format (.xz or
          .lzma) is  appended  to  the  source  filename  to  get  the  target
          filename.

       ·  When  decompressing,  the  .xz  or  .lzma suffix is removed from the
          filename to  get  the  target  filename.   xz  also  recognizes  the
          suffixes .txz and .tlz, and replaces them with the .tar suffix.

       If  the  target file already exists, an error is displayed and the file
       is skipped.

       Unless writing to standard output, xz will display a warning  and  skip
       the file if any of the following applies:

       ·  File  is  not  a regular file. Symbolic links are not followed, thus
          they are never considered to be regular files.

       ·  File has more than one hardlink.

       ·  File has setuid, setgid, or sticky bit set.

       ·  The operation mode is set to compress, and the file  already  has  a
          suffix  of  the  target file format (.xz or .txz when compressing to
          the .xz format, and .lzma or .tlz  when  compressing  to  the  .lzma
          format).

       ·  The operation mode is set to decompress, and the file doesn’t have a
          suffix of any of the supported file formats (.xz,  .txz,  .lzma,  or
          .tlz).

       After successfully compressing or decompressing the file, xz copies the
       owner, group, permissions, access time, and modification time from  the
       source  file  to  the  target  file.  If  copying  the group fails, the
       permissions are  modified  so  that  the  target  file  doesn’t  become
       accessible  to  users  who  didn’t have permission to access the source
       file.  xz doesn’t support copying other metadata  like  access  control
       lists or extended attributes yet.

       Once  the  target file has been successfully closed, the source file is
       removed unless --keep was specified. The source file is  never  removed
       if the output is written to standard output.

       Sending  SIGINFO  or  SIGUSR1 to the xz process makes it print progress
       information to standard error.  This has only limited  use  since  when
       standard   error  is  a  terminal,  using  --verbose  will  display  an
       automatically updating progress indicator.

   Memory usage
       The memory usage of xz varies from a few hundred kilobytes  to  several
       gigabytes depending on the compression settings. The settings used when
       compressing a file affect also the memory usage  of  the  decompressor.
       Typically  the decompressor needs only 5 % to 20 % of the amount of RAM
       that the compressor needed when creating the file.  Still,  the  worst-
       case memory usage of the decompressor is several gigabytes.

       To  prevent uncomfortable surprises caused by huge memory usage, xz has
       a built-in memory usage limiter. The default limit is  40  %  of  total
       physical  RAM. While operating systems provide ways to limit the memory
       usage of processes, relying on it wasn’t deemed to be flexible  enough.

       When  compressing,  if  the  selected  compression  settings exceed the
       memory usage limit, the settings are automatically  adjusted  downwards
       and  a  notice  about this is displayed. As an exception, if the memory
       usage limit is exceeded when compressing with --format=raw, an error is
       displayed and xz will exit with exit status 1.

       If  source  file  cannot  be  decompressed without exceeding the memory
       usage limit, an error message is displayed and  the  file  is  skipped.
       Note that compressed files may contain many blocks, which may have been
       compressed with different settings.  Typically  all  blocks  will  have
       roughly  the  same memory requirements, but it is possible that a block
       later in the file will exceed the memory  usage  limit,  and  an  error
       about  too  low  memory  usage limit gets displayed after some data has
       already been decompressed.

       The absolute value of the active memory usage limit can  be  seen  with
       --info-memory  or  near  the  bottom of the output of --long-help.  The
       default limit can be overriden with --memory=limit.

OPTIONS

   Integer suffixes and special values
       In most places where an  integer  argument  is  expected,  an  optional
       suffix is supported to easily indicate large integers. There must be no
       space between the integer and the suffix.

       k or kB
              The integer is multiplied by 1,000 (10^3). For  example,  5k  or
              5kB equals 5000.

       Ki or KiB
              The integer is multiplied by 1,024 (2^10).

       M or MB
              The integer is multiplied by 1,000,000 (10^6).

       Mi or MiB
              The integer is multiplied by 1,048,576 (2^20).

       G or GB
              The integer is multiplied by 1,000,000,000 (10^9).

       Gi or GiB
              The integer is multiplied by 1,073,741,824 (2^30).

       A  special  value max can be used to indicate the maximum integer value
       supported by the option.

   Operation mode
       If multiple operation mode  options  are  given,  the  last  one  takes
       effect.

       -z, --compress
              Compress.  This  is the default operation mode when no operation
              mode option is specified, and no other operation mode is implied
              from  the command name (for example, unxz implies --decompress).

       -d, --decompress, --uncompress
              Decompress.

       -t, --test
              Test the integrity of compressed files.  No files are created or
              removed.  This  option  is  equivalent  to --decompress --stdout
              except that the decompressed data is discarded instead of  being
              written to standard output.

       -l, --list
              View  information  about  the  compressed files. No uncompressed
              output is produced, and no files are created or removed. In list
              mode,  the program cannot read the compressed data from standard
              input or from other unseekable sources.

              This feature has not been implemented yet.

   Operation modifiers
       -k, --keep
              Keep (don’t delete) the input files.

       -f, --force
              This option has several effects:

              ·  If  the  target  file  already  exists,  delete   it   before
                 compressing or decompressing.

              ·  Compress  or  decompress  even  if the input is not a regular
                 file, has more than one hardlink, or has setuid,  setgid,  or
                 sticky  bit set.  The setuid, setgid, and sticky bits are not
                 copied to the target file.

              ·  If  combined  with  --decompress  --stdout  and  xz   doesn’t
                 recognize  the  type  of  the  source  file, xz will copy the
                 source file as is to standard output. This allows using xzcat
                 --force  like  cat(1) for files that have not been compressed
                 with  xz.   Note  that  in  future,  xz  might  support   new
                 compressed  file  formats,  which may make xz decompress more
                 types of files instead of copying  them  as  is  to  standard
                 output.   --format=format  can  be  used  to  restrict  xz to
                 decompress only a single file format.

              ·  Allow writing compressed data  to  a  terminal,  and  reading
                 compressed data from a terminal.

       -c, --stdout, --to-stdout
              Write  the  compressed  or  decompressed data to standard output
              instead of a file. This implies --keep.

       -S .suf, --suffix=.suf
              When compressing, use .suf as the suffix  for  the  target  file
              instead  of .xz or .lzma.  If not writing to standard output and
              the source file already  has  the  suffix  .suf,  a  warning  is
              displayed and the file is skipped.

              When decompressing, recognize also files with the suffix .suf in
              addition to files with the .xz, .txz, .lzma, or .tlz suffix.  If
              the  source  file  has the suffix .suf, the suffix is removed to
              get the target filename.

              When compressing or decompressing  raw  streams  (--format=raw),
              the  suffix  must always be specified unless writing to standard
              output, because there is no default suffix for raw streams.

       --files[=file]
              Read the filenames to process from file;  if  file  is  omitted,
              filenames  are  read  from  standard  input.  Filenames  must be
              terminated with the newline character. A dash (-) is taken as  a
              regular  filename; it doesn’t mean standard input.  If filenames
              are given also as command line  arguments,  they  are  processed
              before the filenames read from file.

       --files0[=file]
              This  is  identical  to --files[=file] except that the filenames
              must be terminated with the null character.

   Basic file format and compression options
       -F format, --format=format
              Specify the file format to compress or decompress:

              ·  auto:  This  is  the  default.  When  compressing,  auto   is
                 equivalent  to  xz.   When  decompressing,  the format of the
                 input file is autodetected. Note that  raw  streams  (created
                 with --format=raw) cannot be autodetected.

              ·  xz: Compress to the .xz file format, or accept only .xz files
                 when decompressing.

              ·  lzma or alone: Compress to the legacy .lzma file  format,  or
                 accept  only  .lzma files when decompressing. The alternative
                 name alone is provided for backwards compatibility with  LZMA
                 Utils.

              ·  raw:  Compress  or uncompress a raw stream (no headers). This
                 is meant for advanced users only. To decode raw streams,  you
                 need to set not only --format=raw but also specify the filter
                 chain, which would normally be stored in the container format
                 headers.

       -C check, --check=check
              Specify  the  type  of  the integrity check, which is calculated
              from the uncompressed data. This option has an effect only  when
              compressing  into  the  .xz  format;  the  .lzma  format doesn’t
              support integrity checks.   The  integrity  check  (if  any)  is
              verified when the .xz file is decompressed.

              Supported check types:

              ·  none:  Don’t  calculate  an  integrity  check at all. This is
                 usually a bad idea. This can be useful when integrity of  the
                 data is verified by other means anyway.

              ·  crc32:  Calculate  CRC32 using the polynomial from IEEE-802.3
                 (Ethernet).

              ·  crc64: Calculate CRC64 using the  polynomial  from  ECMA-182.
                 This  is  the default, since it is slightly better than CRC32
                 at detecting  damaged  files  and  the  speed  difference  is
                 negligible.

              ·  sha256: Calculate SHA-256. This is somewhat slower than CRC32
                 and CRC64.

              Integrity of the .xz headers is always verified with  CRC32.  It
              is not possible to change or disable it.

       -0 ... -9
              Select  compression  preset.  If  a  preset  level  is specified
              multiple times, the last one takes effect.

              The compression preset levels can be  categorised  roughly  into
              three categories:

              -0 ... -2
                     Fast presets with relatively low memory usage.  -1 and -2
                     should give compression speed and  ratios  comparable  to
                     bzip2 -1 and bzip2 -9, respectively.  Currently -0 is not
                     very good  (not  much  faster  than  -1  but  much  worse
                     compression).  In  future,  -0  may be indicate some fast
                     algorithm instead of LZMA2.

              -3 ... -5
                     Good compression ratio with low to medium  memory  usage.
                     These are significantly slower than levels 0-2.

              -6 ... -9
                     Excellent  compression  with medium to high memory usage.
                     These are also slower than the lower preset  levels.  The
                     default   is   -6.   Unless  you  want  to  maximize  the
                     compression ratio,  you  probably  don’t  want  a  higher
                     preset level than -7 due to speed and memory usage.

              The  exact  compression  settings  (filter  chain)  used by each
              preset may vary between xz versions. The settings may also  vary
              between  files  being compressed, if xz determines that modified
              settings will probably give  better  compression  ratio  without
              significantly affecting compression time or memory usage.

              Because  the  settings  may vary, the memory usage may vary too.
              The following table lists  the  maximum  memory  usage  of  each
              preset level, which won’t be exceeded even in future versions of
              xz.

              FIXME: The table below is just a rough idea.

                     Preset   Compression   Decompression
                       -0         6 MiB         1 MiB
                       -1         6 MiB         1 MiB
                       -2        10 MiB         1 MiB
                       -3        20 MiB         2 MiB
                       -4        30 MiB         3 MiB
                       -5        60 MiB         6 MiB
                       -6       100 MiB        10 MiB
                       -7       200 MiB        20 MiB
                       -8       400 MiB        40 MiB
                       -9       800 MiB        80 MiB

              When  compressing,  xz  automatically  adjusts  the  compression
              settings  downwards if the memory usage limit would be exceeded,
              so it is safe to specify a high preset  level  even  on  systems
              that don’t have lots of RAM.

       --fast and --best
              These   are   somewhat   misleading   aliases  for  -0  and  -9,
              respectively.    These   are   provided   only   for   backwards
              compatibility with LZMA Utils.  Avoid using these options.

              Especially  the  name  of  --best  is  misleading,  because  the
              definition of best depends on the input data, and  that  usually
              people  don’t  want  the  very  best  compression  ratio anyway,
              because it would be very slow.

       -e, --extreme
              Modify the compression preset (-0 ... -9) so that a  little  bit
              better  compression  ratio  can  be  achieved without increasing
              memory usage  of  the  compressor  or  decompressor  (exception:
              compressor  memory  usage  may increase a little with presets -0
              ... -2). The downside is that the compression time will increase
              dramatically (it can easily double).

       -M limit, --memory=limit
              Set  the  memory usage limit. If this option is specied multiple
              times, the last one takes effect. The limit can be specified  in
              multiple ways:

              ·  The limit can be an absolute value in bytes. Using an integer
                 suffix like MiB can be useful. Example: --memory=80MiB

              ·  The limit can be specified as a percentage of  physical  RAM.
                 Example: --memory=70%

              ·  The  limit  can be reset back to its default value (currently
                 40 % of physical RAM) by setting it to 0.

              ·  The memory usage limiting  can  be  effectively  disabled  by
                 setting  limit  to max.  This isn’t recommended. It’s usually
                 better to use, for example, --memory=90%.

              The current limit can be seen near the bottom of the  output  of
              the --long-help option.

       -T threads, --threads=threads
              Specify the maximum number of worker threads to use. The default
              is the number of available CPU cores. You can  see  the  current
              value  of  threads near the end of the output of the --long-help
              option.

              The actual number of worker threads can be less than threads  if
              using  more  threads  would  exceed  the memory usage limit.  In
              addition to CPU-intensive worker  threads,  xz  may  use  a  few
              auxiliary threads, which don’t use a lot of CPU time.

              Multithreaded  compression and decompression are not implemented
              yet, so this option has no effect for now.

   Custom compressor filter chains
       A custom filter chain allows specifying  the  compression  settings  in
       detail  instead  of  relying  on  the settings associated to the preset
       levels.  When a custom  filter  chain  is  specified,  the  compression
       preset level options (-0 ... -9 and --extreme) are silently ignored.

       A  filter chain is comparable to piping on the UN*X command line.  When
       compressing, the uncompressed input goes to  the  first  filter,  whose
       output  goes to the next filter (if any). The output of the last filter
       gets written to the compressed file. The maximum number of  filters  in
       the  chain  is  four,  but typically a filter chain has only one or two
       filters.

       Many filters have limitations where they can be in  the  filter  chain:
       some  filters  can work only as the last filter in the chain, some only
       as a non-last filter, and some work  in  any  position  in  the  chain.
       Depending  on  the  filter,  this  limitation is either inherent to the
       filter design or exists to prevent security issues.

       A custom filter chain is specified by using one or more filter  options
       in the order they are wanted in the filter chain. That is, the order of
       filter   options   is   significant!   When   decoding   raw    streams
       (--format=raw),  the  filter chain is specified in the same order as it
       was specified when compressing.

       Filters take filter-specific options as a comma-separated  list.  Extra
       commas in options are ignored. Every option has a default value, so you
       need to specify only those you want to change.

       --lzma1[=options], --lzma2[=options]
              Add LZMA1 or LZMA2 filter to the filter chain. These filter  can
              be used only as the last filter in the chain.

              LZMA1  is  a legacy filter, which is supported almost solely due
              to the legacy .lzma file  format,  which  supports  only  LZMA1.
              LZMA2  is  an  updated  version  of  LZMA1 to fix some practical
              issues of LZMA1. The .xz format uses LZMA2, and doesn’t  support
              LZMA1  at  all.  Compression speed and ratios of LZMA1 and LZMA2
              are practically the same.

              LZMA1 and LZMA2 share the same set of options:

              preset=preset
                     Reset all LZMA1  or  LZMA2  options  to  preset.   Preset
                     consist  of  an integer, which may be followed by single-
                     letter preset modifiers. The integer can be from 0 to  9,
                     matching  the  command  line options -0 ... -9.  The only
                     supported  modifier  is  currently   e,   which   matches
                     --extreme.

                     The  default  preset  is 6, from which the default values
                     for the rest of the LZMA1 or LZMA2 options are taken.

              dict=size
                     Dictionary (history buffer) size indicates how many bytes
                     of  the  recently  processed uncompressed data is kept in
                     memory. One method to reduce  size  of  the  uncompressed
                     data  is  to  store distance-length pairs, which indicate
                     what data to  repeat  from  the  dictionary  buffer.  The
                     bigger  the  dictionary, the better the compression ratio
                     usually is, but dictionaries bigger than the uncompressed
                     data are waste of RAM.

                     Typical  dictionary  size  is  from 64 KiB to 64 MiB. The
                     minimum  is  4  KiB.   The  maximum  for  compression  is
                     currently  1.5  GiB.  The  decompressor  already supports
                     dictionaries up to one byte less than 4 GiB, which is the
                     maximum for LZMA1 and LZMA2 stream formats.

                     Dictionary  size  has  the  biggest effect on compression
                     ratio.   Dictionary  size  and  match   finder   together
                     determine the memory usage of the LZMA1 or LZMA2 encoder.
                     The same dictionary size is  required  for  decompressing
                     that  was used when compressing, thus the memory usage of
                     the decoder is determined by  the  dictionary  size  used
                     when compressing.

              lc=lc  Specify  the  number of literal context bits. The minimum
                     is 0 and  the  maximum  is  4;  the  default  is  3.   In
                     addition, the sum of lc and lp must not exceed 4.

              lp=lp  Specify  the number of literal position bits. The minimum
                     is 0 and the maximum is 4; the default is 0.

              pb=pb  Specify the number of position bits. The minimum is 0 and
                     the maximum is 4; the default is 2.

              mode=mode
                     Compression  mode  specifies the function used to analyze
                     the data produced by the match finder.   Supported  modes
                     are fast and normal.  The default is fast for presets 0-2
                     and normal for presets 3-9.

              mf=mf  Match finder has a major effect on encoder speed,  memory
                     usage,  and  compression  ratio. Usually Hash Chain match
                     finders are faster than Binary Tree match  finders.  Hash
                     Chains  are  usually  used  together  with  mode=fast and
                     Binary Trees with mode=normal.  The memory usage formulas
                     are  only  rough  estimates, which are closest to reality
                     when dict is a power of two.

                      hc3    Hash Chain with 2- and 3-byte hashing
                             Minimum value for nice: 3
                             Memory usage: dict * 7.5 (if dict <= 16 MiB);
                             dict * 5.5 + 64 MiB (if dict > 16 MiB)

                      hc4    Hash Chain with 2-, 3-, and 4-byte hashing
                             Minimum value for nice: 4
                             Memory usage: dict * 7.5

                      bt2    Binary Tree with 2-byte hashing
                             Minimum value for nice: 2
                             Memory usage: dict * 9.5

                      bt3    Binary Tree with 2- and 3-byte hashing
                             Minimum value for nice: 3
                             Memory usage: dict * 11.5 (if dict <= 16 MiB);
                             dict * 9.5 + 64 MiB (if dict > 16 MiB)

                      bt4    Binary Tree with 2-, 3-, and 4-byte hashing
                             Minimum value for nice: 4
                             Memory usage: dict * 11.5

              nice=nice
                     Specify what is considered to be  a  nice  length  for  a
                     match.  Once a match of at least nice bytes is found, the
                     algorithm stops looking for possibly better matches.

                     nice can be 2-273  bytes.  Higher  values  tend  to  give
                     better compression ratio at expense of speed. The default
                     depends on the preset level.

              depth=depth
                     Specify the maximum search depth in the match finder. The
                     default   is   the  special  value  0,  which  makes  the
                     compressor determine a reasonable depth from mf and nice.

                     Using  very  high  values  for depth can make the encoder
                     extremely  slow  with  carefully  crafted  files.   Avoid
                     setting  the  depth  over 1000 unless you are prepared to
                     interrupt the compression in case it is taking too  long.

              When  decoding  raw streams (--format=raw), LZMA2 needs only the
              value of dict.  LZMA1 needs also lc, lp, and pb.

       --x86[=options]

       --powerpc[=options]

       --ia64[=options]

       --arm[=options]

       --armthumb[=options]

       --sparc[=options]
              Add a branch/call/jump (BCJ) filter to the filter  chain.  These
              filters can be used only as non-last filter in the filter chain.

              A BCJ filter converts relative addresses in the machine code  to
              their absolute counterparts. This doesn’t change the size of the
              data, but it increases redundancy, which allows  e.g.  LZMA2  to
              get better compression ratio.

              The BCJ filters are always reversible, so using a BCJ filter for
              wrong type  of  data  doesn’t  cause  any  data  loss.  However,
              applying  a  BCJ  filter  for  wrong type of data is a bad idea,
              because it tends to make the compression ratio worse.

              Different instruction sets have have different alignment:

                     Filter      Alignment   Notes
                     x86             1       32-bit and 64-bit x86
                     PowerPC         4       Big endian only
                     ARM             4       Little endian only
                     ARM-Thumb       2       Little endian only
                     IA-64          16       Big or little endian
                     SPARC           4       Big or little endian

              Since the BCJ-filtered data is usually  compressed  with  LZMA2,
              the  compression  ratio  may  be  improved slightly if the LZMA2
              options are set to match  the  alignment  of  the  selected  BCJ
              filter.  For  example,  with  the IA-64 filter, it’s good to set
              pb=4 with LZMA2 (2^4=16). The x86 filter is an  exception;  it’s
              usually  good  to  stick  to LZMA2’s default four-byte alignment
              when compressing x86 executables.

              All BCJ filters support the same options:

              start=offset
                     Specify the start offset that  is  used  when  converting
                     between relative and absolute addresses.  The offset must
                     be a multiple of the alignment of  the  filter  (see  the
                     table  above).   The  default  is  zero. In practice, the
                     default is good; specifying a  custom  offset  is  almost
                     never useful.

                     Specifying  a  non-zero  start  offset is probably useful
                     only if the executable has multiple sections,  and  there
                     are  many  cross-section  jumps  or calls. Applying a BCJ
                     filter separately for  each  section  with  proper  start
                     offset  and then compressing the result as a single chunk
                     may give some improvement in compression  ratio  compared
                     to  applying  the  BCJ filter with the default offset for
                     the whole executable.

       --delta[=options]
              Add Delta filter to the filter chain. The Delta  filter  can  be
              used only as non-last filter in the filter chain.

              Currently  only simple byte-wise delta calculation is supported.
              It can be  useful  when  compressing  e.g.  uncompressed  bitmap
              images  or  uncompressed  PCM  audio.  However,  special purpose
              algorithms may give significantly better results  than  Delta  +
              LZMA2.  This  is  true  especially  with audio, which compresses
              faster and better e.g. with FLAC.

              Supported options:

              dist=distance
                     Specify the distance of the delta calculation  as  bytes.
                     distance must be 1-256. The default is 1.

                     For example, with dist=2 and eight-byte input A1 B1 A2 B3
                     A3 B5 A4 B7, the output will be A1 B1 01 02 01 02 01  02.

   Other options
       -q, --quiet
              Suppress  warnings  and  notices. Specify this twice to suppress
              errors too.  This option has no effect on the exit status.  That
              is,  even  if  a  warning  was  suppressed,  the  exit status to
              indicate a warning is still used.

       -v, --verbose
              Be verbose. If standard error is connected  to  a  terminal,  xz
              will  display  a progress indicator.  Specifying --verbose twice
              will  give  even  more  verbose  output   (useful   mostly   for
              debugging).

              The progress indicator shows the following information:

              ·  Completion  percentage is shown if the size of the input file
                 is known.  That is, percentage cannot be shown in pipes.

              ·  Amount of compressed data produced (compressing) or  consumed
                 (decompressing).

              ·  Amount   of   uncompressed  data  consumed  (compressing)  or
                 produced (decompressing).

              ·  Compression ratio, which is calculated by dividing the amount
                 of  compressed  data  processed  so  far  by  the  amount  of
                 uncompressed data processed so far.

              ·  Compression or decompression speed. This is measured  as  the
                 amount   of   uncompressed  data  consumed  (compression)  or
                 produced (decompression) per second. It is shown once  a  few
                 seconds have passed since xz started processing the file.

              ·  Elapsed  time  or  estimated time remaining.  Elapsed time is
                 displayed in the  format  M:SS  or  H:MM:SS.   The  estimated
                 remaining  time  is  displayed in a less precise format which
                 never has colons, for example, 2 min 30 s. The  estimate  can
                 be  shown only when the size of the input file is known and a
                 couple of  seconds  have  already  passed  since  xz  started
                 processing the file.

              When  standard  error  is not a terminal, --verbose will make xz
              print  the  filename,  compressed   size,   uncompressed   size,
              compression  ratio,  speed, and elapsed time on a single line to
              standard error after compressing or decompressing the  file.  If
              operating  took  at  least  a  few  seconds,  also the speed and
              elapsed time are printed. If the operation  didn’t  finish,  for
              example due to user interruption, also the completion percentage
              is printed if the size of the input file is known.

       -Q, --no-warn
              Don’t set the exit status to 2  even  if  a  condition  worth  a
              warning  was  detected. This option doesn’t affect the verbosity
              level, thus both --quiet and --no-warn have to be  used  to  not
              display warnings and to not alter the exit status.

       --robot
              Print messages in a machine-parsable format. This is intended to
              ease writing frontends that want to use xz instead  of  liblzma,
              which may be the case with various scripts. The output with this
              option enabled  is  meant  to  be  stable  across  xz  releases.
              Currently  --robot  is  implemented  only  for --info-memory and
              --version, but  the  idea  is  to  make  it  usable  for  actual
              compression and decompression too.

       --info-memory
              Display  the current memory usage limit in human-readable format
              on a single line, and exit successfully. To see how much RAM  xz
              thinks your system has, use --memory=100% --info-memory.  To get
              machine-parsable output (memory usage  limit  as  bytes  without
              thousand separators), specify --robot before --info-memory.

       -h, --help
              Display  a  help  message  describing  the  most  commonly  used
              options, and exit successfully.

       -H, --long-help
              Display a help message describing all features of xz,  and  exit
              successfully

       -V, --version
              Display  the  version number of xz and liblzma in human readable
              format. To get machine-parsable output, specify  --robot  before
              --version.

EXIT STATUS

       0      All is good.

       1      An error occurred.

       2      Something  worth  a  warning  occurred,  but  no  actual  errors
              occurred.

       Notices (not warnings or errors) printed on standard error don’t affect
       the exit status.

ENVIRONMENT

       XZ_OPT A  space-separated  list of options is parsed from XZ_OPT before
              parsing the options given on the command line.  Note  that  only
              options  are  parsed  from  XZ_OPT; all non-options are silently
              ignored. Parsing is done with getopt_long(3) which is used  also
              for the command line arguments.

LZMA UTILS COMPATIBILITY

       The  command  line  syntax  of  xz  is  practically a superset of lzma,
       unlzma, and lzcat as found from LZMA Utils 4.32.x. In most cases, it is
       possible  to replace LZMA Utils with XZ Utils without breaking existing
       scripts. There are some incompatibilities though, which  may  sometimes
       cause problems.

   Compression preset levels
       The  numbering  of the compression level presets is not identical in xz
       and LZMA Utils.  The most important difference is how dictionary  sizes
       are  mapped  to  different presets. Dictionary size is roughly equal to
       the decompressor memory usage.

              Level     xz      LZMA Utils
               -1      64 KiB     64 KiB
               -2     512 KiB      1 MiB
               -3       1 MiB    512 KiB
               -4       2 MiB      1 MiB
               -5       4 MiB      2 MiB
               -6       8 MiB      4 MiB
               -7      16 MiB      8 MiB
               -8      32 MiB     16 MiB
               -9      64 MiB     32 MiB

       The dictionary size differences affect the compressor memory usage too,
       but  there  are some other differences between LZMA Utils and XZ Utils,
       which make the difference even bigger:

              Level     xz      LZMA Utils 4.32.x
               -1       2 MiB          2 MiB
               -2       5 MiB         12 MiB
               -3      13 MiB         12 MiB
               -4      25 MiB         16 MiB
               -5      48 MiB         26 MiB
               -6      94 MiB         45 MiB
               -7     186 MiB         83 MiB
               -8     370 MiB        159 MiB
               -9     674 MiB        311 MiB

       The default preset level in LZMA Utils is -7 while in XZ  Utils  it  is
       -6, so both use 8 MiB dictionary by default.

   Streamed vs. non-streamed .lzma files
       Uncompressed  size  of the file can be stored in the .lzma header. LZMA
       Utils does that when compressing regular files.  The alternative is  to
       mark that uncompressed size is unknown and use end of payload marker to
       indicate where the decompressor should  stop.   LZMA  Utils  uses  this
       method  when  uncompressed  size  isn’t  known,  which  is the case for
       example in pipes.

       xz supports decompressing .lzma files with or without  end  of  payload
       marker,  but  all  .lzma  files  created  by xz will use end of payload
       marker and have uncompressed  size  marked  as  unknown  in  the  .lzma
       header.  This  may  be  a  problem  in  some (uncommon) situations. For
       example, a .lzma decompressor in an embedded  device  might  work  only
       with  files that have known uncompressed size. If you hit this problem,
       you need to use LZMA Utils or LZMA SDK to create .lzma files with known
       uncompressed size.

   Unsupported .lzma files
       The  .lzma format allows lc values up to 8, and lp values up to 4. LZMA
       Utils can decompress files with any lc and lp, but always creates files
       with  lc=3  and  lp=0.  Creating files with other lc and lp is possible
       with xz and with LZMA SDK.

       The implementation of the LZMA1 filter in liblzma requires that the sum
       of  lc  and  lp  must not exceed 4. Thus, .lzma files which exceed this
       limitation, cannot be decompressed with xz.

       LZMA Utils creates only .lzma files which have dictionary size  of  2^n
       (a  power  of  2), but accepts files with any dictionary size.  liblzma
       accepts only .lzma files which have dictionary size of  2^n  or  2^n  +
       2^(n-1).   This is to decrease false positives when autodetecting .lzma
       files.

       These limitations shouldn’t be a problem in practice, since practically
       all  .lzma  files  have been compressed with settings that liblzma will
       accept.

   Trailing garbage
       When decompressing, LZMA Utils silently  ignore  everything  after  the
       first  .lzma stream. In most situations, this is a bug. This also means
       that LZMA Utils don’t support decompressing concatenated .lzma files.

       If there is data left after the first .lzma stream,  xz  considers  the
       file  to  be corrupt. This may break obscure scripts which have assumed
       that trailing garbage is ignored.

NOTES

   Compressed output may vary
       The exact compressed output produced from the same  uncompressed  input
       file may vary between XZ Utils versions even if compression options are
       identical.  This is because the encoder  can  be  improved  (faster  or
       better  compression)  without affecting the file format. The output can
       vary even between different builds of the same  XZ  Utils  version,  if
       different build options are used.

       The  above  means that implementing --rsyncable to create rsyncable .xz
       files is not going to happen without freezing a  part  of  the  encoder
       implementation, which can then be used with --rsyncable.

   Embedded .xz decompressors
       Embedded  .xz  decompressor  implementations  like  XZ  Embedded  don’t
       necessarily support files created with check types other than none  and
       crc32.   Since  the default is --check=crc64, you must use --check=none
       or --check=crc32 when creating files for embedded systems.

       Outside embedded systems, all .xz format decompressors support all  the
       check  types,  or  at  least  are  able  to decompress the file without
       verifying the integrity check if the particular check is not supported.

       XZ  Embedded  supports  BCJ  filters,  but  only with the default start
       offset.

SEE ALSO

       xzdec(1), gzip(1), bzip2(1)

       XZ Utils: <http://tukaani.org/xz/>
       XZ Embedded: <http://tukaani.org/xz/embedded.html>
       LZMA SDK: <http://7-zip.org/sdk.html>