Provided by: zip_3.0-2_i386 bug


       zip - package and compress (archive) files


       zip  [-aABcdDeEfFghjklLmoqrRSTuvVwXyz!@$] [--longoption ...]  [-b path]
       [-n suffixes] [-t date] [-tt date] [zipfile [file ...]]  [-xi list]

       zipcloak (see separate man page)

       zipnote (see separate man page)

       zipsplit (see separate man page)

       Note:  Command line processing in zip has been changed to support  long
       options  and  handle all options and arguments more consistently.  Some
       old command lines that depend on command line  inconsistencies  may  no
       longer work.


       zip  is  a compression and file packaging utility for Unix, VMS, MSDOS,
       OS/2, Windows 9x/NT/XP, Minix, Atari, Macintosh, Amiga, and Acorn  RISC
       OS.   It  is analogous to a combination of the Unix commands tar(1) and
       compress(1) and is compatible with PKZIP (Phil  Katz’s  ZIP  for  MSDOS

       A  companion  program  (unzip(1))  unpacks  zip  archives.  The zip and
       unzip(1) programs can work with archives produced by PKZIP  (supporting
       most PKZIP features up to PKZIP version 4.6), and PKZIP and PKUNZIP can
       work with archives produced  by  zip  (with  some  exceptions,  notably
       streamed  archives,  but  recent  changes  in the zip file standard may
       facilitate better compatibility).  zip version 3.0 is  compatible  with
       PKZIP  2.04  and  also supports the Zip64 extensions of PKZIP 4.5 which
       allow archives as well as files to exceed the previous 2 GB limit (4 GB
       in  some  cases).  zip also now supports bzip2 compression if the bzip2
       library is included when zip  is  compiled.   Note  that  PKUNZIP  1.10
       cannot  extract  files  produced by PKZIP 2.04 or zip 3.0. You must use
       PKUNZIP 2.04g or unzip 5.0p1 (or later versions) to extract them.

       See the EXAMPLES section at the bottom of this  page  for  examples  of
       some typical uses of zip.

       Large Archives and Zip64.   zip automatically uses the Zip64 extensions
       when files larger than 4  GB  are  added  to  an  archive,  an  archive
       containing  Zip64  entries  is  updated (if the resulting archive still
       needs Zip64), the size of the archive will exceed 4  GB,  or  when  the
       number  of entries in the archive will exceed about 64K.  Zip64 is also
       used for archives streamed from standard input  as  the  size  of  such
       archives  are  not known in advance, but the option -fz- can be used to
       force zip to create PKZIP 2  compatible  archives  (as  long  as  Zip64
       extensions are not needed).  You must use a PKZIP 4.5 compatible unzip,
       such  as  unzip 6.0  or  later,  to  extract  files  using  the   Zip64

       In   addition,  streamed  archives,  entries  encrypted  with  standard
       encryption, or split archives created with the pause option may not  be
       compatible  with  PKZIP  as  data descriptors are used and PKZIP at the
       time of this writing does not  support  data  descriptors  (but  recent
       changes  in  the PKWare published zip standard now include some support
       for the data descriptor format zip uses).

       Mac OS X.  Though previous Mac versions had their  own  zip  port,  zip
       supports  Mac  OS  X  as  part  of the Unix port and most Unix features
       apply.  References to "MacOS" below generally refer to  MacOS  versions
       older than OS X.  Support for some Mac OS features in the Unix Mac OS X
       port, such as resource forks, is expected in the next zip release.

       For a brief help on zip and unzip,  run  each  without  specifying  any
       parameters on the command line.


       The  program  is  useful for packaging a set of files for distribution;
       for  archiving  files;  and  for  saving  disk  space  by   temporarily
       compressing unused files or directories.

       The  zip  program  puts  one or more compressed files into a single zip
       archive, along with information about the files (name, path, date, time
       of  last modification, protection, and check information to verify file
       integrity).  An entire directory structure can be  packed  into  a  zip
       archive  with  a  single command.  Compression ratios of 2:1 to 3:1 are
       common for text files.  zip has one compression method (deflation)  and
       can  also store files without compression.  (If bzip2 support is added,
       zip can also compress using bzip2 compression, but such entries require
       a  reasonably  modern  unzip  to decompress.  When bzip2 compression is
       selected,  it  replaces  deflation  as  the   default   method.)    zip
       automatically  chooses the better of the two (deflation or store or, if
       bzip2 is selected, bzip2 or store) for each file to be compressed.

       Command format.  The basic command format is

              zip options archive inpath inpath ...

       where archive is a  new  or  existing  zip  archive  and  inpath  is  a
       directory  or file path optionally including wildcards.  When given the
       name of an existing zip archive, zip  will  replace  identically  named
       entries  in  the  zip archive (matching the relative names as stored in
       the archive) or add entries for new names.   For  example,  if
       exists  and  contains  foo/file1  and  foo/file2, and the directory foo
       contains the files foo/file1 and foo/file3, then:

              zip -r foo

       or more concisely

              zip -r foo foo

       will replace foo/file1 in and add foo/file3 to   After
       this,  contains  foo/file1,  foo/file2,  and  foo/file3,  with
       foo/file2 unchanged from before.

       So if before the zip command is executed has:

               foo/file1 foo/file2

       and directory foo has:

               file1 file3

       then will have:

               foo/file1 foo/file2 foo/file3

       where foo/file1 is replaced and foo/file3 is new.

       -@ file lists.  If a file list is specified as -@ [Not on  MacOS],  zip
       takes  the  list of input files from standard input instead of from the
       command line.  For example,

              zip -@ foo

       will store the files listed one per line on stdin in

       Under Unix, this option can be used to powerful effect  in  conjunction
       with  the  find (1)  command.  For example, to archive all the C source
       files in the current directory and its subdirectories:

              find . -name "*.[ch]" -print | zip source -@

       (note that the pattern must be quoted to keep the shell from  expanding

       Streaming input and output.   zip  will also accept a single dash ("-")
       as the zip file name, in which case it  will  write  the  zip  file  to
       standard  output,  allowing  the output to be piped to another program.
       For example:

              zip -r - . | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       would write the zip output directly to a tape with the specified  block
       size for the purpose of backing up the current directory.

       zip  also  accepts  a  single  dash  ("-")  as the name of a file to be
       compressed, in which case it will read the file  from  standard  input,
       allowing zip to take input from another program. For example:

              tar cf - . | zip backup -

       would compress the output of the tar command for the purpose of backing
       up the current directory. This generally  produces  better  compression
       than  the  previous  example  using  the -r option because zip can take
       advantage of redundancy between files. The backup can be restored using
       the command

              unzip -p backup | tar xf -

       When  no  zip file name is given and stdout is not a terminal, zip acts
       as a filter,  compressing  standard  input  to  standard  output.   For

              tar cf - . | zip | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       is equivalent to

              tar cf - . | zip - - | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       zip  archives  created in this manner can be extracted with the program
       funzip which is provided in the unzip package, or by  gunzip  which  is
       provided  in  the gzip package (but some gunzip may not support this if
       zip used the Zip64 extensions). For example:

              dd if=/dev/nrst0  ibs=16k | funzip | tar xvf -

       The stream can also be saved to a file and unzip used.

       If Zip64 support for large files and archives is  enabled  and  zip  is
       used as a filter, zip creates a Zip64 archive that requires a PKZIP 4.5
       or later compatible unzip to read it.  This is to avoid amgibuities  in
       the  zip  file structure as defined in the current zip standard (PKWARE
       AppNote) where the decision to use Zip64 needs to be made  before  data
       is  written for the entry, but for a stream the size of the data is not
       known at that point.  If the data is known to be smaller than 4 GB, the
       option -fz- can be used to prevent use of Zip64, but zip will exit with
       an error if Zip64 was in fact needed.  zip 3 and unzip 6 and later  can
       read  archives  with  Zip64  entries.   Also,  zip  removes  the  Zip64
       extensions if not needed when archive entries are copied  (see  the  -U
       (--copy) option).

       When directing the output to another file, note that all options should
       be before the redirection including -x.  For example:

              zip archive "*.h" "*.c" -x donotinclude.h orthis.h > tofile

       Zip files.  When changing an existing zip archive,  zip  will  write  a
       temporary file with the new contents, and only replace the old one when
       the process of creating the new  version  has  been  completed  without

       If  the  name  of  the  zip  archive does not contain an extension, the
       extension .zip is added. If the  name  already  contains  an  extension
       other  than  .zip,  the existing extension is kept unchanged.  However,
       split archives (archives split over multiple files)  require  the  .zip
       extension on the last split.

       Scanning and reading files.   When  zip  starts,  it scans for files to
       process (if needed).  If this scan takes longer than about  5  seconds,
       zip  will  display  a  "Scanning  files"  message  and start displaying
       progress dots every 2 seconds  or  every  so  many  entries  processed,
       whichever  takes  longer.  If there is more than 2 seconds between dots
       it could indicate that finding each file is taking time and could  mean
       a slow network connection for example.  (Actually the initial file scan
       is a two-step process where the directory scan is followed  by  a  sort
       and  these  two  steps  are  separated  with  a  space in the dots.  If
       updating an existing archive, a space also appears between the existing
       file  scan  and  the  new  file scan.)  The scanning files dots are not
       controlled by the -ds dot size option, but the dots are turned  off  by
       the -q quiet option.  The -sf show files option can be used to scan for
       files and get the list of files  scanned  without  actually  processing

       If  zip  is not able to read a file, it issues a warning but continues.
       See the -MM option below for more on how zip handles patterns that  are
       not  matched  and  files  that  are  not  readable.  If some files were
       skipped, a warning is issued at the end of the zip operation noting how
       many files were read and how many skipped.

       Command modes.   zip  now supports two distinct types of command modes,
       external and internal.  The external modes (add, update,  and  freshen)
       read  files  from the file system (as well as from an existing archive)
       while the internal modes  (delete  and  copy)  operate  exclusively  on
       entries in an existing archive.

              Update  existing entries and add new files.  If the archive does
              not exist create it.  This is the default mode.

       update (-u)
              Update existing entries if newer on the file system and add  new
              files.   If the archive does not exist issue warning then create
              a new archive.

       freshen (-f)
              Update existing entries of an  archive  if  newer  on  the  file
              system.  Does not add new files to the archive.

       delete (-d)
              Select entries in an existing archive and delete them.

       copy (-U)
              Select  entries  in  an  existing archive and copy them to a new
              archive.  This new mode is similar to update  but  command  line
              patterns  select  entries  in  the  existing archive rather than
              files from the file system and it uses the --out option to write
              the  resulting  archive  to  a  new  file rather than update the
              existing archive, leaving the original archive unchanged.

       The new File Sync option (-FS) is also considered a new mode, though it
       is  similar  to  update.   This  mode synchronizes the archive with the
       files on the OS, only replacing files in the archive if the  file  time
       or  size  of  the  OS file is different, adding new files, and deleting
       entries from the archive where there is no matching file.  As this mode
       can  delete  entries from the archive, consider making a backup copy of
       the archive.

       Also see -DF for creating difference archives.

       See each option description below for details and the EXAMPLES  section
       below for examples.

       Split archives.   zip  version 3.0 and later can create split archives.
       A split archive is a standard zip archive split  over  multiple  files.
       (Note  that split archives are not just archives split in to pieces, as
       the offsets of entries are now  based  on  the  start  of  each  split.
       Concatenating  the  pieces  together will invalidate these offsets, but
       unzip can usually deal with it.  zip will  usually  refuse  to  process
       such  a  spliced  archive  unless the -FF fix option is used to fix the

       One use of split archives  is  storing  a  large  archive  on  multiple
       removable media.  For a split archive with 20 split files the files are
       typically named  (replace  ARCHIVE  with  the  name  of  your  archive)
       ARCHIVE.z01, ARCHIVE.z02, ..., ARCHIVE.z19,  Note that the
       last file is the .zip file.  In  contrast,  spanned  archives  are  the
       original  multi-disk archive generally requiring floppy disks and using
       volume labels to store disk numbers.  zip supports split  archives  but
       not  spanned  archives,  though a procedure exists for converting split
       archives of the right size to spanned archives.  The  reverse  is  also
       true,  where  each  file of a spanned archive can be copied in order to
       files with the above names to create a split archive.

       Use -s to set the split size and create a split archive.  The  size  is
       given as a number followed optionally by one of k (kB), m (MB), g (GB),
       or t (TB) (the default is m).  The -sp option can be used to pause  zip
       between splits to allow changing removable media, for example, but read
       the descriptions and warnings for both -s and -sp below.

       Though zip does not update split archives, zip provides the new  option
       -O  (--output-file  or --out) to allow split archives to be updated and
       saved in a new archive.  For example,

              zip foo.c bar.c --out

       reads archive, even if split, adds the  files  foo.c  and
       bar.c,   and  writes  the  resulting  archive  to   If is split then defaults to the  same  split
       size.   Be  aware  that  if and any split files that are
       created with it already exist, these are always overwritten  as  needed
       without warning.  This may be changed in the future.

       Unicode.   Though the zip standard requires storing paths in an archive
       using a specific character set, in practice zips have stored  paths  in
       archives in whatever the local character set is.  This creates problems
       when an archive is created or updated on a system using  one  character
       set  and  then  extracted on another system using a different character
       set.  When compiled with Unicode  support  enabled  on  platforms  that
       support  wide  characters,  zip now stores, in addition to the standard
       local path for backward compatibility, the  UTF-8  translation  of  the
       path.  This provides a common universal character set for storing paths
       that allows these paths to be fully extracted  on  other  systems  that
       support  Unicode  and  to  match  as  close as possible on systems that

       On Win32 systems where paths  are  internally  stored  as  Unicode  but
       represented  in  the local character set, it’s possible that some paths
       will be skipped during a local character set directory scan.  zip  with
       Unicode  support  now can read and store these paths.  Note that Win 9x
       systems and FAT file systems don’t fully support Unicode.

       Be aware that console windows on Win32 and Unix, for example, sometimes
       don’t  accurately  show all characters due to how each operating system
       switches in character sets for display.  However, directory  navigation
       tools should show the correct paths if the needed fonts are loaded.

       Command  line  format.   This  version  of zip has updated command line
       processing and support for long options.

       Short options take the form

              -s[-][s[-]...][value][=value][ value]

       where s is a one or two character short option.  A  short  option  that
       takes  a value is last in an argument and anything after it is taken as
       the value.  If the option can be negated and  "-"  immediately  follows
       the  option, the option is negated.  Short options can also be given as
       separate arguments

              -s[-][value][=value][ value] -s[-][value][=value][ value] ...

       Short options in general  take  values  either  as  part  of  the  same
       argument  or  as  the  following  argument.   An  optional  =  is  also
       supported.  So





              -tt mmddyyyy

       all work.  The -x and -i options accept  lists  of  values  and  use  a
       slightly  different format described below.  See the -x and -i options.

       Long options take the form

              --longoption[-][=value][ value]

       where the option starts with --, has a multicharacter name, can include
       a  trailing  dash to negate the option (if the option supports it), and
       can have a value (option argument) specified by preceding it with = (no
       spaces).  Values can also follow the argument.  So



              --before-date mmddyyyy

       both work.

       Long option names can be shortened to the shortest unique abbreviation.
       See the option descriptions below for which support long  options.   To
       avoid confusion, avoid abbreviating a negatable option with an embedded
       dash ("-") at the dash if you plan  to  negate  it  (the  parser  would
       consider  a  trailing  dash, such as for the option --some-option using
       --some- as the option, as part of  the  name  rather  than  a  negating
       dash).   This  may  be  changed to force the last dash in --some- to be
       negating in the future.


              [Systems using EBCDIC] Translate file to ASCII format.

              Adjust self-extracting executable  archive.   A  self-extracting
              executable  archive  is created by prepending the SFX stub to an
              existing archive. The -A option tells zip to  adjust  the  entry
              offsets  stored  in  the  archive  to  take  into  account  this
              "preamble" data.

       Note: self-extracting archives for the Amiga are a  special  case.   At
       present, only the Amiga port of zip is capable of adjusting or updating
       these without corrupting them. -J can be used to remove the SFX stub if
       other updates need to be made.

              [WIN32]   Once  archive  is  created  (and tested if -T is used,
              which  is  recommended),  clear  the  archive  bits   of   files
              processed.  WARNING: Once the bits are cleared they are cleared.
              You may want to use the -sf show files option to store the  list
              of  files  processed  in  case  the  archive  operation  must be
              repeated.  Also consider using the -MM must  match  option.   Be
              sure to check out -DF as a possibly better way to do incremental

              [WIN32]  Only include files  that  have  the  archive  bit  set.
              Directories  are  not stored when -AS is used, though by default
              the paths of entries, including directories, are stored as usual
              and can be used by most unzips to recreate directories.

              The  archive  bit  is set by the operating system when a file is
              modified and, if used with -AC, -AS can provide  an  incremental
              backup  capability.   However, other applications can modify the
              archive bit and it may not be  a  reliable  indicator  of  which
              files   have   changed   since   the   last  archive  operation.
              Alternative ways to create incremental backups are using  -t  to
              use  file  dates,  though  this  won’t catch old files copied to
              directories being archived, and -DF  to  create  a  differential

              [VM/CMS and MVS] force file to be read binary (default is text).

       -Bn    [TANDEM] set Edit/Enscribe formatting options with n defined as
              bit  0: Don’t add delimiter (Edit/Enscribe)
              bit  1: Use LF rather than CR/LF as delimiter (Edit/Enscribe)
              bit  2: Space fill record to maximum record length (Enscribe)
              bit  3: Trim trailing space (Enscribe)
              bit  8: Force 30K (Expand) large read for unstructured files

       -b path
       --temp-path path
              Use the specified  path  for  the  temporary  zip  archive.  For

                     zip -b /tmp stuff *

              will  put  the  temporary  zip  archive  in  the directory /tmp,
              copying over to the current directory when done.  This
              option  is useful when updating an existing archive and the file
              system containing this old archive does not have enough space to
              hold both old and new archives at the same time.  It may also be
              useful when streaming in some cases to avoid the need  for  data
              descriptors.   Note  that using this option may require zip take
              additional time to copy  the  archive  file  when  done  to  the
              destination file system.

              Add  one-line  comments for each file.  File operations (adding,
              updating) are done first, and the user is then  prompted  for  a
              one-line  comment  for each file.  Enter the comment followed by
              return, or just return for no comment.

              [VMS]  Preserve case all on VMS.   Negating  this  option  (-C-)

              [VMS]   Preserve  case ODS2 on VMS.  Negating this option (-C2-)

              [VMS]  Preserve case ODS5 on VMS.  Negating this  option  (-C5-)

              Remove (delete) entries from a zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -d foo foo/tom/junk foo/harry/\* \*.o

              will  remove the entry foo/tom/junk, all of the files that start
              with foo/harry/, and all of the files that end with .o  (in  any
              path).   Note  that  shell pathname expansion has been inhibited
              with backslashes, so that zip can see  the  asterisks,  enabling
              zip  to  match on the contents of the zip archive instead of the
              contents of the current directory.   (The  backslashes  are  not
              used  on  MSDOS-based platforms.)  Can also use quotes to escape
              the asterisks as in

                     zip -d foo foo/tom/junk "foo/harry/*" "*.o"

              Not escaping the asterisks on a system where the  shell  expands
              wildcards  could  result  in  the asterisks being converted to a
              list of files in the current directory and  that  list  used  to
              delete entries from the archive.

              Under  MSDOS,  -d is case sensitive when it matches names in the
              zip archive.  This requires that file names be entered in  upper
              case  if  they  were  zipped  by  PKZIP on an MSDOS system.  (We
              considered making this case insensitive on systems  where  paths
              were  case insensitive, but it is possible the archive came from
              a system where case does matter and the  archive  could  include
              both Bar and bar as separate files in the archive.)  But see the
              new option -ic to ignore case in the archive.

              Display running byte counts showing the  bytes  zipped  and  the
              bytes to go.

              Display running count of entries zipped and entries to go.

              Display  dots  while  each entry is zipped (except on ports that
              have their own progress indicator).  See -ds below  for  setting
              dot  size.   The  default  is  a  dot  every 10 MB of input file
              processed.  The -v option also displays dots  (previously  at  a
              much  higher  rate  than this but now -v also defaults to 10 MB)
              and this rate is also controlled by -ds.

              [MacOS] Include only data-fork of files zipped into the archive.
              Good   for   exporting   files   to  foreign  operating-systems.
              Resource-forks will be ignored at all.

              Display progress dots for the archive instead of for each  file.
              The command

                         zip -qdgds 10m

              will turn off most output except dots every 10 MB.

       -ds size
       --dot-size size
              Set  amount of input file processed for each dot displayed.  See
              -dd to enable displaying dots.  Setting this option implies -dd.
              Size  is  in  the  format  nm  where  n  is  a number and m is a
              multiplier.  Currently m can be k (KB), m (MB),  g  (GB),  or  t
              (TB), so if n is 100 and m is k, size would be 100k which is 100
              KB.  The default is 10 MB.

              The -v option also displays dots and now defaults to 10 MB also.
              This  rate is also controlled by this option.  A size of 0 turns
              dots off.

              This option does not control the dots from the "Scanning  files"
              message  as zip scans for input files.  The dot size for that is
              fixed at 2 seconds or a fixed number of  entries,  whichever  is

              Display the uncompressed size of each entry.

              Display  the volume (disk) number each entry is being read from,
              if reading an existing archive, and being written to.

              Do not create  entries  in  the  zip  archive  for  directories.
              Directory   entries   are  created  by  default  so  that  their
              attributes can be saved in the  zip  archive.   The  environment
              variable  ZIPOPT  can be used to change the default options. For
              example under Unix with sh:

                     ZIPOPT="-D"; export ZIPOPT

              (The variable ZIPOPT can be used for any  option,  including  -i
              and -x using a new option format detailed below, and can include
              several options.) The option -D is a shorthand for -x  "*/"  but
              the  latter previously could not be set as default in the ZIPOPT
              environment variable as the contents  of  ZIPOPT  gets  inserted
              near  the beginning of the command line and the file list had to
              end at the end of the line.

              This version of zip does allow -x and -i options  in  ZIPOPT  if
              the form

              -x file file ... @

              is used, where the @ (an argument that is just @) terminates the

              Create an archive that contains all new and changed files  since
              the  original  archive was created.  For this to work, the input
              file list and current directory must be the same as  during  the
              original zip operation.

              For example, if the existing archive was created using

                     zip -r foofull .

              from the bar directory, then the command

                     zip -r foofull . -DF --out foonew

              also from the bar directory creates the archive foonew with just
              the files not in foofull and the files where the  size  or  file
              time of the files do not match those in foofull.

              Note  that  the  timezone  environment variable TZ should be set
              according to the local timezone in order for this option to work
              correctly.   A change in timezone since the original archive was
              created could result in no times matching and  all  files  being

              A possible approach to backing up a directory might be to create
              a normal archive of the contents of  the  directory  as  a  full
              backup, then use this option to create incremental backups.

              Encrypt  the  contents of the zip archive using a password which
              is entered on the terminal in response to a  prompt  (this  will
              not  be  echoed;  if  standard error is not a tty, zip will exit
              with an error).  The password prompt is  repeated  to  save  the
              user from typing errors.

              [OS/2]  Use  the  .LONGNAME  Extended  Attribute  (if  found) as

              Replace (freshen) an existing entry in the zip archive  only  if
              it  has  been modified more recently than the version already in
              the zip archive; unlike the update option (-u) this will not add
              files that are not already in the zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -f foo

              This  command  should  be run from the same directory from which
              the original zip command was run,  since  paths  stored  in  zip
              archives are always relative.

              Note  that  the  timezone  environment variable TZ should be set
              according to the local timezone in order for the -f, -u  and  -o
              options to work correctly.

              The  reasons behind this are somewhat subtle but have to do with
              the differences between the Unix-format file  times  (always  in
              GMT) and most of the other operating systems (always local time)
              and the necessity to compare the two.  A  typical  TZ  value  is
              ‘‘MET-1MEST’’  (Middle  European  time with automatic adjustment
              for ‘‘summertime’’ or Daylight Savings Time).

              The format is TTThhDDD, where TTT is the time zone such as  MET,
              hh  is  the  difference  between  GMT  and local time such as -1
              above, and DDD is the time zone when daylight savings time is in
              effect.  Leave off the DDD if there is no daylight savings time.
              For the US Eastern time zone EST5EDT.

              Fix the zip archive. The -F option can be used if some  portions
              of  the  archive  are  missing, but requires a reasonably intact
              central directory.  The input archive is scanned as  usual,  but
              zip  will ignore some problems.  The resulting archive should be
              valid, but any inconsistent entries will be left out.

              When doubled  as  in  -FF,  the  archive  is  scanned  from  the
              beginning  and  zip scans for special signatures to identify the
              limits between the  archive  members.  The  single  -F  is  more
              reliable  if  the  archive  is not too much damaged, so try this
              option first.

              If the archive is too damaged or the end has been truncated, you
              must  use  -FF.   This  is  a change from zip 2.32, where the -F
              option is able to read a truncated archive.  The -F  option  now
              more  reliably  fixes  archives  with  minor  damage and the -FF
              option is needed to  fix  archives  where  -F  might  have  been
              sufficient before.

              Neither  option will recover archives that have been incorrectly
              transferred in ascii mode instead of binary. After  the  repair,
              the  -t option of unzip may show that some files have a bad CRC.
              Such files cannot be recovered; you can  remove  them  from  the
              archive using the -d option of zip.

              Note  that  -FF may have trouble fixing archives that include an
              embedded zip archive that was stored  (without  compression)  in
              the  archive  and,  depending  on  the  damage,  it may find the
              entries in the embedded archive rather than the archive  itself.
              Try -F first as it does not have this problem.

              The  format  of  the fix commands have changed.  For example, to
              fix the damaged archive,

                     zip -F foo --out foofix

              tries to read the entries normally, copying good entries to  the
              new  archive   If  this  doesn’t  work, as when the
              archive is truncated, or if some entries you  know  are  in  the
              archive are missed, then try

                     zip -FF foo --out foofixfix

              and  compare the resulting archive to the archive created by -F.
              The -FF option may create an inconsistent archive.  Depending on
              what  is  damaged,  you  can  then use the -F option to fix that

              A split archive with missing split files can be fixed  using  -F
              if  you  have the last split of the archive (the .zip file).  If
              this file is missing, you must use -FF to fix the archive, which
              will prompt you for the splits you have.

              Currently  the fix options can’t recover entries that have a bad
              checksum or are otherwise damaged.

       --fifo [Unix]  Normally zip  skips  reading  any  FIFOs  (named  pipes)
              encountered, as zip can hang if the FIFO is not being fed.  This
              option tells zip to read the contents of any FIFO it finds.

              Synchronize the contents of an archive with the files on the OS.
              Normally  when  an  archive  is updated, new files are added and
              changed files are updated but files that no longer exist on  the
              OS  are not deleted from the archive.  This option enables a new
              mode that checks entries in the archive against the file system.
              If  the file time and file size of the entry matches that of the
              OS file, the entry is copied from the  old  archive  instead  of
              being  read from the file system and compressed.  If the OS file
              has changed, the entry is read and compressed as usual.  If  the
              entry  in the archive does not match a file on the OS, the entry
              is deleted.  Enabling this option should  create  archives  that
              are  the  same  as  new archives, but since existing entries are
              copied instead of compressed, updating an existing archive  with
              -FS  can  be  much  faster  than  creating  a new archive.  Also
              consider using -u for updating an archive.

              For this option to work, the archive should be updated from  the
              same  directory  it  was created in so the relative paths match.
              If few files are being copied from the old archive,  it  may  be
              faster to create a new archive instead.

              Note  that  the  timezone  environment variable TZ should be set
              according to the local timezone in order for this option to work
              correctly.   A change in timezone since the original archive was
              created could result in no times matching and  recompression  of
              all files.

              This  option  deletes  files  from  the archive.  If you need to
              preserve the original archive, make a copy of the archive  first
              or  use  the --out option to output the updated archive to a new
              file.  Even though it may be slower, creating a new archive with
              a  new  archive name is safer, avoids mismatches between archive
              and OS paths, and is preferred.

              Grow (append to) the specified zip archive, instead of  creating
              a  new one. If this operation fails, zip attempts to restore the
              archive to its original state. If  the  restoration  fails,  the
              archive  might  become  corrupted.  This  option is ignored when
              there’s no existing archive or when at least one archive  member
              must be updated or deleted.

              Display  the  zip  help information (this also appears if zip is
              run with no arguments).

              Display extended help including more  on  command  line  format,
              pattern matching, and more obscure options.

       -i files
       --include files
              Include only the specified files, as in:

                     zip -r foo . -i \*.c

              which  will include only the files that end in .c in the current
              directory and its subdirectories. (Note  for  PKZIP  users:  the
              equivalent command is

                     pkzip -rP foo *.c

              PKZIP  does  not  allow  recursion in directories other than the
              current  one.)   The  backslash  avoids   the   shell   filename
              substitution,  so  that the name matching is performed by zip at
              all directory levels.  [This is for Unix and other systems where
              \   escapes  the  next  character.   For other systems where the
              shell does not process * do not use \ and the above is

                     zip -r foo . -i *.c

              Examples are  for  Unix  unless  otherwise  specified.]   So  to
              include  dir,  a directory directly under the current directory,

                     zip -r foo . -i dir/\*


                     zip -r foo . -i "dir/*"

              to match paths such as dir/a and dir/b/file.c [on ports  without
              wildcard expansion in the shell such as MSDOS and Windows

                     zip -r foo . -i dir/*

              is  used.]   Note  that  currently  the trailing / is needed for
              directories (as in

                     zip -r foo . -i dir/

              to include directory dir).

              The long option form of the first example is

                     zip -r foo . --include \*.c

              and does the same thing as the short option form.

              Though the command syntax used to require -i at the end  of  the
              command  line,  this  version  actually allows -i (or --include)
              anywhere.  The list of files terminates  at  the  next  argument
              starting  with  -,  the  end  of  the  command line, or the list
              terminator @ (an argument that is just @).  So the above can  be
              given as

                     zip -i \*.c @ -r foo .

              for  example.   There must be a space between the option and the
              first file of a list.  For just one file you can use the  single
              value form

                     zip -i\*.c -r foo .

              (no space between option and value) or

                     zip --include=\*.c -r foo .

              as   additional  examples.   The  single  value  forms  are  not
              recommended because they can be confusing  and,  in  particular,
              the -ifile format can cause problems if the first letter of file
              combines with i to form a two-letter  option  starting  with  i.
              Use -sc to see how your command line will be parsed.

              Also possible:

                     zip -r foo  . -i@include.lst

              which  will  only include the files in the current directory and
              its  subdirectories  that  match  the  patterns  in   the   file

              Files to -i and -x are patterns matching internal archive paths.
              See -R for more on patterns.

              [Acorn RISC OS] Don’t scan through Image files.  When used,  zip
              will  not  consider  Image  files  (eg.  DOS partitions or Spark
              archives when SparkFS is loaded) as directories but  will  store
              them as single files.

              For example, if you have SparkFS loaded, zipping a Spark archive
              will result  in  a  zipfile  containing  a  directory  (and  its
              content)  while  using  the  ’I’ option will result in a zipfile
              containing a Spark archive. Obviously this second case will also
              be obtained (without the ’I’ option) if SparkFS isn’t loaded.

              [VMS,  WIN32]  Ignore  case when matching archive entries.  This
              option is only available on systems where the case of  files  is
              ignored.  On systems with case-insensitive file systems, case is
              normally ignored when matching files on the file system  but  is
              not  ignored  for  -f  (freshen),  -d  (delete),  -U (copy), and
              similar modes when matching against archive  entries  (currently
              -f  ignores  case  on  VMS)  because archive entries can be from
              systems where case does matter  and  names  that  are  the  same
              except  for  case can exist in an archive.  The -ic option makes
              all matching case insensitive.   This  can  result  in  multiple
              archive entries matching a command line pattern.

              Store  just the name of a saved file (junk the path), and do not
              store directory names. By default, zip will store the full  path
              (relative to the current directory).

              [MacOS] record Fullpath (+ Volname). The complete path including
              volume will be stored. By default  the  relative  path  will  be

              Strip any prepended data (e.g. a SFX stub) from the archive.

              Attempt  to  convert  the  names  and paths to conform to MSDOS,
              store only the MSDOS attribute (just the  user  write  attribute
              from  Unix), and mark the entry as made under MSDOS (even though
              it was not); for compatibility with PKUNZIP  under  MSDOS  which
              cannot handle certain names such as those with two dots.

              Translate  the  Unix  end-of-line  character  LF  into the MSDOS
              convention CR LF. This option  should  not  be  used  on  binary
              files.   This  option  can  be  used  on Unix if the zip file is
              intended for PKUNZIP under MSDOS. If  the  input  files  already
              contain  CR  LF, this option adds an extra CR. This is to ensure
              that unzip -a on Unix  will  get  back  an  exact  copy  of  the
              original  file,  to  undo the effect of zip -l.  See -ll for how
              binary files are handled.

              Append to existing logfile.  Default is to overwrite.

       -lf logfilepath
       --logfile-path logfilepath
              Open a logfile at the given path.  By default any existing  file
              at  that location is overwritten, but the -la option will result
              in an existing file being opened and  the  new  log  information
              appended  to any existing information.  Only warnings and errors
              are written to the log unless the -li option is also given, then
              all information messages are also written to the log.

              Include  information  messages, such as file names being zipped,
              in the log.  The default is to only include  the  command  line,
              any warnings and errors, and the final status.

              Translate the MSDOS end-of-line CR LF into Unix LF.  This option
              should not be used on binary files.  This option can be used  on
              MSDOS  if the zip file is intended for unzip under Unix.  If the
              file is converted and the file is later determined to be  binary
              a warning is issued and the file is probably corrupted.  In this
              release if -ll detects binary in the first buffer  read  from  a
              file,  zip now issues a warning and skips line end conversion on
              the file.  This check seems to catch all  binary  files  tested,
              but  the original check remains and if a converted file is later
              determined to be binary that warning is  still  issued.   A  new
              algorithm  is  now  being  used for binary detection that should
              allow line end conversion of text files  in  UTF-8  and  similar

              Display the zip license.

              Move  the  specified  files into the zip archive; actually, this
              deletes the target directories/files after making the  specified
              zip  archive.  If a directory becomes empty after removal of the
              files, the directory is also  removed.  No  deletions  are  done
              until zip has created the archive without error.  This is useful
              for conserving disk space, but is potentially dangerous so it is
              recommended to use it in combination with -T to test the archive
              before removing all input files.

              All input patterns must match at least one file  and  all  input
              files  found  must  be readable.  Normally when an input pattern
              does not match a file the "name not matched" warning  is  issued
              and  when  an  input file has been found but later is missing or
              not readable a missing or not readable warning  is  issued.   In
              either  case zip continues creating the archive, with missing or
              unreadable new files being skipped  and  files  already  in  the
              archive  remaining  unchanged.  After the archive is created, if
              any files were not readable zip returns the OPEN error code  (18
              on most systems) instead of the normal success return (0 on most
              systems).  With -MM set, zip exits as soon as an  input  pattern
              is not matched (whenever the "name not matched" warning would be
              issued) or when an input file is not readable.  In  either  case
              zip exits with an OPEN error and no archive is created.

              This option is useful when a known list of files is to be zipped
              so any missing or unreadable files will result in an error.   It
              is less useful when used with wildcards, but zip will still exit
              with an error if any input pattern doesn’t match  at  least  one
              file  and  if  any matched files are unreadable.  If you want to
              create the archive anyway and only need to know  if  files  were
              skipped, don’t use -MM and just check the return code.  Also -lf
              could be useful.

       -n suffixes
       --suffixes suffixes
              Do not attempt to compress files named with the given  suffixes.
              Such  files are simply stored (0% compression) in the output zip
              file, so that zip doesn’t waste  its  time  trying  to  compress
              them.    The   suffixes   are  separated  by  either  colons  or
              semicolons.  For example:

                     zip -rn  foo foo

              will copy everything from foo into, but will  store  any
              files  that end in .Z, .zip, .tiff, .gif, or .snd without trying
              to compress them (image and sound files  often  have  their  own
              specialized  compression  methods).   By  default,  zip does not
              compress    files    with     extensions     in     the     list
       Such files are stored directly in
              the output archive.  The environment variable ZIPOPT can be used
              to change the default options. For example under Unix with csh:

                     setenv ZIPOPT "-n"

              To attempt compression on all files, use:

                     zip -n : foo

              The  maximum  compression option -9 also attempts compression on
              all files regardless of extension.

              On Acorn RISC OS systems the suffixes are actually filetypes  (3
              hex  digit format). By default, zip does not compress files with
              filetypes in the list DDC:D96:68E (i.e. Archives, CFS files  and
              PackDir files).

              Do not perform internal wildcard processing (shell processing of
              wildcards is still done by the shell unless  the  arguments  are
              escaped).   Useful  if  a  list  of  paths  is being read and no
              wildcard substitution is desired.

              [Amiga,  MacOS]  Save  Amiga  or  MacOS  filenotes  as   zipfile
              comments.  They can be restored by using the -N option of unzip.
              If -c is used also, you are prompted for comments only for those
              files that do not have filenotes.

              Set  the  "last  modified" time of the zip archive to the latest
              (oldest) "last modified" time found among the entries in the zip
              archive.   This  can  be  used  without any other operations, if
              desired.  For example:

              zip -o foo

              will change the last modified time of to the latest time
              of the entries in

       -O output-file
       --output-file output-file
              Process  the  archive  changes as usual, but instead of updating
              the existing archive, output the  new  archive  to  output-file.
              Useful  for  updating  an  archive without changing the existing
              archive and the input archive must be a different file than  the
              output archive.

              This  option  can  be used to create updated split archives.  It
              can also be used with  -U  to  copy  entries  from  an  existing
              archive to a new archive.  See the EXAMPLES section below.

              Another  use  is  converting  zip  files  from one split size to
              another.  For instance, to convert an archive  with  700  MB  CD
              splits to one with 2 GB DVD splits, can use:

                     zip -s 2g --out

              which uses copy mode.  See -U below.  Also:

                     zip -s 0 --out

              will convert a split archive to a single-file archive.

              Copy  mode  will  convert stream entries (using data descriptors
              and which should be  compatible  with  most  unzips)  to  normal
              entries  (which should be compatible with all unzips), except if
              standard encryption  was  used.   For  archives  with  encrypted
              entries,  zipcloak  will decrypt the entries and convert them to
              normal entries.

              Include relative file paths as part of the names of files stored
              in  the  archive.  This is the default.  The -j option junks the
              paths and just stores the names of the files.

       -P password
       --password password
              Use password to encrypt  zipfile  entries  (if  any).   THIS  IS
              INSECURE!   Many  multi-user  operating systems provide ways for
              any user to see the current command line of any other user; even
              on  stand-alone  systems there is always the threat of over-the-
              shoulder peeking.  Storing the plaintext password as part  of  a
              command  line  in  an  automated script is even worse.  Whenever
              possible, use  the  non-echoing,  interactive  prompt  to  enter
              passwords.   (And  where security is truly important, use strong
              encryption such as Pretty Good Privacy instead of the relatively
              weak standard encryption provided by zipfile utilities.)

              Quiet   mode;   eliminate  informational  messages  and  comment
              prompts.  (Useful, for example, in shell scripts and  background

       --Q-flag n
              [QDOS]  store information about the file in the file header with
              n defined as
              bit  0: Don’t add headers for any file
              bit  1: Add headers for all files
              bit  2: Don’t wait for interactive key press on exit

              Travel the directory structure recursively; for example:

                     zip -r foo

              or more concisely

                     zip -r foo foo

              In this case, all the files and directories in foo are saved  in
              a zip archive named, including files with names starting
              with ".", since the recursion does not use the shell’s file-name
              substitution  mechanism.  If you wish to include only a specific
              subset of the files in directory foo and its subdirectories, use
              the  -i  option  to specify the pattern of files to be included.
              You should not use -r with the name  ".*",  since  that  matches
              ".."   which  will  attempt  to  zip  up  the  parent  directory
              (probably not what was intended).

              Multiple source directories are allowed as in

                     zip -r foo foo1 foo2

              which first  zips  up  foo1  and  then  foo2,  going  down  each

              Note  that  while  wildcards  to -r are typically resolved while
              recursing down directories in the file system, any -R,  -x,  and
              -i  wildcards are applied to internal archive pathnames once the
              directories are scanned.  To have wildcards apply  to  files  in
              subdirectories  when recursing on Unix and similar systems where
              the  shell  does  wildcard  substitution,  either   escape   all
              wildcards  or  put all arguments with wildcards in quotes.  This
              lets zip see the wildcards and  match  files  in  subdirectories
              using them as it recurses.

              Travel  the  directory  structure  recursively  starting  at the
              current directory; for example:

                     zip -R foo "*.c"

              In this case, all the files matching *.c in the tree starting at
              the  current  directory  are  stored  into  a  zip archive named
      Note that *.c will match file.c, a/file.c and  a/b/.c.
              More than one pattern can be listed as separate arguments.  Note
              for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is

                     pkzip -rP foo *.c

              Patterns are relative file paths as they appear in the  archive,
              or  will after zipping, and can have optional wildcards in them.
              For example, given the current directory is foo and under it are
              directories foo1 and foo2 and in foo1 is the file bar.c,

                     zip -R foo/*

              will zip up foo, foo/foo1, foo/foo1/bar.c, and foo/foo2.

                     zip -R */bar.c

              will  zip  up  foo/foo1/bar.c.   See the note for -r on escaping

              [WIN32]  Before zip 3.0, regular expression  list  matching  was
              enabled  by  default on Windows platforms.  Because of confusion
              resulting from the need to escape "[" and "]" in  names,  it  is
              now  off  by  default for Windows so "[" and "]" are just normal
              characters in names.  This option enables [] matching again.

       -s splitsize
       --split-size splitsize
              Enable creating a split archive and set the split size.  A split
              archive  is  an archive that could be split over many files.  As
              the archive is created, if the size of the archive  reaches  the
              specified  split  size,  that split is closed and the next split
              opened.  In general all splits but the last will  be  the  split
              size  and  the  last  will  be  whatever is left.  If the entire
              archive is smaller than the split size a single-file archive  is

              Split  archives  are  stored in numbered files.  For example, if
              the output  archive  is  named  archive  and  three  splits  are
              required,  the  resulting  archive  will  be  in the three files
              archive.z01, archive.z02, and  Do  not  change  the
              numbering  of these files or the archive will not be readable as
              these are used to determine the order the splits are read.

              Split size is a number  optionally  followed  by  a  multiplier.
              Currently  the  number  must  be an integer.  The multiplier can
              currently be one of k (kilobytes), m (megabytes), g (gigabytes),
              or  t  (terabytes).   As  64k is the minimum split size, numbers
              without multipliers  default  to  megabytes.   For  example,  to
              create  a  split archive called foo with the contents of the bar
              directory with splits of 670 MB that might be useful for burning
              on CDs, the command:

                     zip -s 670m -r foo bar

              could be used.

              Currently  the  old  splits  of a split archive are not excluded
              from a new archive, but they can be specifically  excluded.   If
              possible,  keep  the  input  and output archives out of the path
              being zipped when creating split archives.

              Using -s without -sp as above creates all the splits  where  foo
              is  being  written,  in  this  case the current directory.  This
              split mode updates the splits as the archive is  being  created,
              requiring  all  splits  to  remain  writable,  but creates split
              archives that are readable by  any  unzip  that  supports  split
              archives.   See  -sp  below  for enabling split pause mode which
              allows splits to be written directly to removable media.

              The option -sv can be  used  to  enable  verbose  splitting  and
              provide  details  of  how  the splitting is being done.  The -sb
              option can be used to ring the bell when zip pauses for the next
              split destination.

              Split  archives cannot be updated, but see the -O (--out) option
              for how a split archive can be updated as it is copied to a  new
              archive.   A  split archive can also be converted into a single-
              file archive using a split size of 0 or negating the -s option:

                     zip -s 0 --out

              Also see -U (--copy) for more on using copy mode.

              If splitting and using split pause mode, ring the bell when  zip
              pauses for each split destination.

              Show  the  command line starting zip as processed and exit.  The
              new command parser permutes the arguments, putting  all  options
              and  any  values  associated  with  them  before  any non-option
              arguments.  This allows an option  to  appear  anywhere  in  the
              command  line  as  long as any values that go with the option go
              with it.  This option displays the command line as zip sees  it,
              including  any  arguments  from the environment such as from the
              ZIPOPT variable.  Where allowed, options later  in  the  command
              line can override options earlier in the command line.

              Show  the  files  that  would  be  operated  on, then exit.  For
              instance, if creating a new archive, this will  list  the  files
              that  would  be  added.   If the option is negated, -sf-, output
              only to an open log file.  Screen display is not recommended for
              large lists.

              Show  all  available options supported by zip as compiled on the
              current system.  As this command  reads  the  option  table,  it
              should include all options.  Each line includes the short option
              (if defined), the long option (if defined), the  format  of  any
              value  that  goes with the option, if the option can be negated,
              and a small description.  The value  format  can  be  no  value,
              required  value,  optional value, single character value, number
              value, or a list of values.  The output of this  option  is  not
              intended  to  show  how  to  use  any  option but only show what
              options are available.

              If splitting is enabled with -s, enable split pause mode.   This
              creates split archives as -s does, but stream writing is used so
              each split can be closed as soon as it is written and  zip  will
              pause  between each split to allow changing split destination or

              Though  this  split  mode  allows  writing  splits  directly  to
              removable  media,  it uses stream archive format that may not be
              readable by some unzips.  Before relying on splits created  with
              -sp, test a split archive with the unzip you will be using.

              To  convert  a  stream  split  archive  (created  with -sp) to a
              standard archive see the --out option.

              As -sf, but also show Unicode version of the path if exists.

              As -sf, but only show Unicode version of  the  path  if  exists,
              otherwise show the standard version of the path.

              Enable various verbose messages while splitting, showing how the
              splitting is being done.

              [MSDOS, OS/2, WIN32 and ATARI] Include system and hidden  files.
              [MacOS]  Includes  finder  invisible  files,  which  are ignored

       -t mmddyyyy
       --from-date mmddyyyy
              Do not operate on files modified prior to  the  specified  date,
              where  mm  is  the  month  (00-12),  dd  is the day of the month
              (01-31), and  yyyy  is  the  year.   The  ISO 8601  date  format
              yyyy-mm-dd is also accepted.  For example:

                     zip -rt 12071991 infamy foo

                     zip -rt 1991-12-07 infamy foo

              will  add  all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were
              last modified on or after 7 December 1991, to  the  zip  archive

       -tt mmddyyyy
       --before-date mmddyyyy
              Do not operate on files modified after or at the specified date,
              where mm is the month (00-12),  dd  is  the  day  of  the  month
              (01-31),  and  yyyy  is  the  year.   The  ISO 8601  date format
              yyyy-mm-dd is also accepted.  For example:

                     zip -rtt 11301995 infamy foo

                     zip -rtt 1995-11-30 infamy foo

              will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories  that  were
              last  modified  before  30  November  1995,  to  the zip archive

              Test the integrity of the new zip file. If the check fails,  the
              old  zip  file  is  unchanged  and (with the -m option) no input
              files are removed.

       -TT cmd
       --unzip-command cmd
              Use command cmd instead of ’unzip -tqq’ to test an archive  when
              the  -T  option is used.  On Unix, to use a copy of unzip in the
              current directory instead of the standard  system  unzip,  could

               zip archive file1 file2 -T -TT "./unzip -tqq"

              In  cmd,  {}  is  replaced by the name of the temporary archive,
              otherwise the name of the archive is appended to the end of  the
              command.  The return code is checked for success (0 on Unix).

              Replace (update) an existing entry in the zip archive only if it
              has been modified more recently than the version already in  the
              zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -u stuff *

              will  add any new files in the current directory, and update any
              files which have been modified since the zip  archive
              was  last  created/modified  (note that zip will not try to pack
     into itself when you do this).

              Note that the -u option with no input file arguments  acts  like
              the -f (freshen) option.

              Copy  entries  from  one archive to another.  Requires the --out
              option to  specify  a  different  output  file  than  the  input
              archive.  Copy mode is the reverse of -d delete.  When delete is
              being used with --out, the selected entries are deleted from the
              archive  and  all  other  entries are copied to the new archive,
              while copy mode selects the files to include in the new archive.
              Unlike -u update, input patterns on the command line are matched
              against archive entries only and not the file system files.  For

                     zip inarchive "*.c" --copy --out outarchive

              copies  entries  with  names  ending  in  .c  from  inarchive to
              outarchive.  The wildcard must be escaped  on  some  systems  to
              prevent the shell from substituting names of files from the file
              system which may  have  no  relevance  to  the  entries  in  the

              If  no input files appear on the command line and --out is used,
              copy mode is assumed:

                     zip inarchive --out outarchive

              This is useful for changing split size for instance.  Encrypting
              and  decrypting  entries  is  not yet supported using copy mode.
              Use zipcloak for that.

       -UN v
       --unicode v
              Determine what zip should do with Unicode file names.   zip 3.0,
              in  addition  to  the standard file path, now includes the UTF-8
              translation of the path if the entry path is not entirely  7-bit
              ASCII.   When  an entry is missing the Unicode path, zip reverts
              back to the standard file path.   The  problem  with  using  the
              standard  path is this path is in the local character set of the
              zip that created the entry, which may  contain  characters  that
              are  not  valid  in  the  character set being used by the unzip.
              When zip is reading an archive, if an entry also has  a  Unicode
              path, zip now defaults to using the Unicode path to recreate the
              standard path using the current local character set.

              This option can be used to determine what  zip  should  do  with
              this  path  if  there  is a mismatch between the stored standard
              path and the stored UTF-8 path (which can happen if the standard
              path  was  updated).  In all cases, if there is a mismatch it is
              assumed that the standard path is  more  current  and  zip  uses
              that.  Values for v are

                     q - quit if paths do not match

                     w - warn, continue with standard path

                     i - ignore, continue with standard path

                     n - no Unicode, do not use Unicode paths

              The default is to warn and continue.

              Characters  that  are not valid in the current character set are
              escaped as #Uxxxx and #Lxxxxxx, where x is  an  ASCII  character
              for a hex digit.  The first is used if a 16-bit character number
              is sufficient to represent the Unicode character and the  second
              if  the  character  needs  more  than  16 bits to represent it’s
              Unicode character code.  Setting -UN to

                     e - escape

              as in

                     zip archive -sU -UN=e

              forces zip to escape all characters that are not printable 7-bit

              Normally zip stores UTF-8 directly in the standard path field on
              systems where UTF-8 is the current character set and stores  the
              UTF-8 in the new extra fields otherwise.  The option

                     u - UTF-8

              as in

                     zip archive dir -r -UN=UTF8

              forces  zip  to store UTF-8 as native in the archive.  Note that
              storing UTF-8 directly is  the  default  on  Unix  systems  that
              support  it.   This  option  could  be useful on Windows systems
              where the escaped path is too large to be a valid path  and  the
              UTF-8  version  of  the path is smaller, but native UTF-8 is not
              backward compatible on Windows systems.

              Verbose mode or print diagnostic version info.

              Normally, when applied to real operations, this  option  enables
              the  display of a progress indicator during compression (see -dd
              for more on dots) and requests  verbose  diagnostic  info  about
              zipfile structure oddities.

              However,  when -v is the only command line argument a diagnostic
              screen is printed instead.  This should now work even if  stdout
              is redirected to a file, allowing easy saving of the information
              for sending with bug reports to Info-ZIP.   The  version  screen
              provides  the help screen header with program name, version, and
              release  date,  some  pointers  to   the   Info-ZIP   home   and
              distribution  sites,  and  shows  information  about  the target
              environment (compiler type and version, OS version,  compilation
              date  and  the  enabled optional features used to create the zip

              [VMS] Save VMS file attributes.  (Files are  truncated at  EOF.)
              When  a  -V  archive is unpacked on a non-VMS system,  some file
              types (notably Stream_LF text  files   and   pure  binary  files
              like  fixed-512)  should be extracted intact.  Indexed files and
              file types with embedded record sizes  (notably  variable-length
              record types) will probably be seen as corrupt elsewhere.

              [VMS]  Save  VMS file attributes, and  all allocated blocks in a
              file,  including  any  data beyond EOF.  Useful for moving  ill-
              formed  files   among   VMS  systems.    When  a  -VV archive is
              unpacked on a non-VMS  system,  almost  all  files  will  appear

              [VMS]  Append  the  version  number  of  the  files to the name,
              including multiple versions of files.  Default is  to  use  only
              the most recent version of a specified file.

              [VMS]  Append  the  version  number  of  the  files to the name,
              including multiple versions of files,  using  the  .nnn  format.
              Default  is  to  use only the most recent version of a specified

              Wildcards match only at a directory level.  Normally zip handles
              paths as strings and given the paths



              an input pattern such as


              normally  would match both paths, the * matching dir/file1.c and
              file2.c.  Note that in the first case a directory  boundary  (/)
              was  crossed in the match.  With -ws no directory bounds will be
              included in the match, making  wildcards  local  to  a  specific
              directory  level.   So,  with  -ws enabled, only the second path
              would be matched.

              When using -ws, use ** to match across directory boundaries as *
              does normally.

       -x files
       --exclude files
              Explicitly exclude the specified files, as in:

                     zip -r foo foo -x \*.o

              which  will  include  the  contents  of  foo  in  while
              excluding all the files that end in .o.   The  backslash  avoids
              the  shell  filename  substitution, so that the name matching is
              performed by zip at all directory levels.

              Also possible:

                     zip -r foo foo -x@exclude.lst

              which  will  include  the  contents  of  foo  in  while
              excluding  all  the  files  that  match the patterns in the file

              The long option forms of the above are

                     zip -r foo foo --exclude \*.o


                     zip -r foo foo --exclude @exclude.lst

              Multiple patterns can be specified, as in:

                     zip -r foo foo -x \*.o \*.c

              If there is no space between -x and the pattern, just one  value
              is assumed (no list):

                     zip -r foo foo -x\*.o

              See -i for more on include and exclude.

              Do  not save extra file attributes (Extended Attributes on OS/2,
              uid/gid and file times on Unix).   The  zip  format  uses  extra
              fields  to  include additional information for each entry.  Some
              extra fields are specific to particular systems while others are
              applicable to all systems.  Normally when zip reads entries from
              an existing archive, it reads the extra fields it knows,  strips
              the  rest,  and adds the extra fields applicable to that system.
              With -X, zip strips all old fields and only includes the Unicode
              and  Zip64 extra fields (currently these two extra fields cannot
              be disabled).

              Negating this  option,  -X-,  includes  all  the  default  extra
              fields, but also copies over any unrecognized extra fields.

              For  UNIX and VMS (V8.3 and later), store symbolic links as such
              in the zip archive, instead of compressing and storing the  file
              referred  to  by  the  link.   This can avoid multiple copies of
              files  being  included  in  the  archive  as  zip  recurses  the
              directory trees and accesses files directly and by links.

              Prompt for a multi-line comment for the entire zip archive.  The
              comment is ended by a line containing just a period, or  an  end
              of file condition (^D on Unix, ^Z on MSDOS, OS/2, and VMS).  The
              comment can be taken from a file:

                     zip -z foo < foowhat

       -Z cm
       --compression-method cm
              Set the default compression method.  Currently the main  methods
              supported  by zip are store and deflate.  Compression method can
              be set to:

              store - Setting the compression method to store  forces  zip  to
              store  entries  with  no  compression.  This is generally faster
              than compressing entries, but results in no space savings.  This
              is the same as using -0 (compression level zero).

              deflate - This is the default method for zip.  If zip determines
              that storing is better than deflation, the entry will be  stored

              bzip2 - If bzip2 support is compiled in, this compression method
              also becomes  available.   Only  some  modern  unzips  currently
              support the bzip2 compression method, so test the unzip you will
              be  using  before  relying  on  archives   using   this   method
              (compression method 12).

              For   example,   to   add  bar.c  to  archive  foo  using  bzip2

                     zip -Z bzip2 foo bar.c

              The compression method can be abbreviated:

                     zip -Zb foo bar.c

       (-0, -1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7, -8, -9)
              Regulate the speed of compression using the specified  digit  #,
              where   -0  indicates  no  compression  (store  all  files),  -1
              indicates the fastest compression speed (less  compression)  and
              -9 indicates the slowest compression speed (optimal compression,
              ignores the suffix list). The default compression level is -6.

              Though still being worked, the intention is  this  setting  will
              control   compression   speed   for   all  compression  methods.
              Currently only deflation is controlled.

              [WIN32] Use privileges (if granted) to  obtain  all  aspects  of
              WinNT security.

              Take  the  list  of  input  files  from standard input. Only one
              filename per line.

              [MSDOS, OS/2, WIN32] Include the  volume  label  for  the  drive
              holding the first file to be compressed.  If you want to include
              only the volume label or to force  a  specific  drive,  use  the
              drive name as first file name, as in:

                     zip -$ foo a: c:bar


       The simplest example:

              zip stuff *

       creates the archive (assuming it does not exist) and puts all
       the files in the current directory in it, in compressed form (the  .zip
       suffix  is  added automatically, unless the archive name contains a dot
       already; this allows the explicit specification of other suffixes).

       Because of the way the shell on Unix does filename substitution,  files
       starting with "." are not included; to include these as well:

              zip stuff .* *

       Even  this  will  not  include  any  subdirectories  from  the  current

       To zip up an entire directory, the command:

              zip -r foo foo

       creates the archive, containing all the files  and  directories
       in the directory foo that is contained within the current directory.

       You  may  want  to  make  a zip archive that contains the files in foo,
       without recording the directory name, foo.  You can use the  -j  option
       to leave off the paths, as in:

              zip -j foo foo/*

       If  you are short on disk space, you might not have enough room to hold
       both the  original  directory  and  the  corresponding  compressed  zip
       archive.   In  this case, you can create the archive in steps using the
       -m option.  If foo contains the subdirectories tom,  dick,  and  harry,
       you can:

              zip -rm foo foo/tom
              zip -rm foo foo/dick
              zip -rm foo foo/harry

       where  the  first  command creates, and the next two add to it.
       At the completion of each zip command,  the  last  created  archive  is
       deleted, making room for the next zip command to function.

       Use  -s  to set the split size and create a split archive.  The size is
       given as a number followed optionally by one of k (kB), m (MB), g (GB),
       or t (TB).  The command

              zip -s 2g -r foo

       creates a split archive of the directory foo with splits no bigger than
       2 GB each.  If foo contained 5 GB of contents  and  the  contents  were
       stored  in  the split archive without compression (to make this example
       simple), this would create three splits, split.z01 at  2 GB,  split.z02
       at 2 GB, and at a little over 1 GB.

       The  -sp  option  can  be  used  to  pause  zip between splits to allow
       changing removable media, for example, but read  the  descriptions  and
       warnings for both -s and -sp below.

       Though  zip does not update split archives, zip provides the new option
       -O (--output-file) to allow split archives to be updated and saved in a
       new archive.  For example,

              zip foo.c bar.c --out

       reads  archive,  even if split, adds the files foo.c and
       bar.c,  and  writes  the  resulting  archive  to    If  is  split then defaults to the same split
       size.  Be aware that  and  any  split  files  that  are
       created  with  it  are always overwritten without warning.  This may be
       changed in the future.


       This section applies only to Unix.  Watch this  space  for  details  on
       MSDOS  and  VMS  operation.  However, the special wildcard characters *
       and [] below apply to at least MSDOS also.

       The Unix shells (sh,  csh,  bash,  and  others)  normally  do  filename
       substitution  (also called "globbing") on command arguments.  Generally
       the special characters are:

       ?      match any single character

       *      match any number of characters (including none)

       []     match any character in the range indicated within  the  brackets
              (example:  [a-f], [0-9]).  This form of wildcard matching allows
              a user to specify a list of characters between  square  brackets
              and  if any of the characters match the expression matches.  For

                     zip archive "*.[hc]"

              would archive all files in the current directory that end in  .h
              or .c.

              Ranges of characters are supported:

                     zip archive "[a-f]*"

              would  add  to  the  archive all files starting with "a" through

              Negation is also supported, where any character in that position
              not in the list matches.  Negation is supported by adding ! or ^
              to the beginning of the list:

                     zip archive "*.[!o]"

              matches files that don’t end in ".o".

              On WIN32, [] matching needs to be turned on with the -RE  option
              to avoid the confusion that names with [ or ] have caused.

       When  these  characters  are  encountered (without being escaped with a
       backslash or quotes), the shell will look for  files  relative  to  the
       current  path  that  match the pattern, and replace the argument with a
       list of the names that matched.

       The zip program can do the same matching on names that are in  the  zip
       archive  being  modified  or,  in  the  case  of the -x (exclude) or -i
       (include) options, on the list of files to be  operated  on,  by  using
       backslashes  or  quotes to tell the shell not to do the name expansion.
       In general, when zip encounters a name in the list of files to  do,  it
       first  looks  for the name in the file system.  If it finds it, it then
       adds it to the list of files to do.  If it does not find it,  it  looks
       for  the  name  in the zip archive being modified (if it exists), using
       the pattern matching characters described above, if present.  For  each
       match,  it  will  add  that  name to the list of files to be processed,
       unless this name matches one given with the  -x  option,  or  does  not
       match any name given with the -i option.

       The pattern matching includes the path, and so patterns like \*.o match
       names that end in ".o", no matter what the path prefix is.   Note  that
       the  backslash must precede every special character (i.e. ?*[]), or the
       entire argument must be enclosed in double quotes ("").

       In general, use backslashes  or  double  quotes  for  paths  that  have
       wildcards  to  make  zip  do  the  pattern matching for file paths, and
       always for paths and strings that have spaces or wildcards for -i,  -x,
       -R, -d, and -U and anywhere zip needs to process the wildcards.


       The  following  environment  variables  are  read  and  used  by zip as

              contains default options that will be  used  when  running  zip.
              The  contents of this environment variable will get added to the
              command line just after the zip command.

              [Not on RISC OS and VMS] see ZIPOPT

              [RISC OS] see ZIPOPT

              [RISC OS] contains extensions separated by a : that  will  cause
              native  filenames  with  one  of  the specified extensions to be
              added to the zip file with basename and extension swapped.

              [VMS] see ZIPOPT


       compress(1), shar(1), tar(1), unzip(1), gzip(1)


       The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by
       PKWARE and takes on the following values, except under VMS:

              0      normal; no errors or warnings detected.

              2      unexpected end of zip file.

              3      a  generic  error  in  the  zipfile  format was detected.
                     Processing may have completed successfully  anyway;  some
                     broken  zipfiles  created  by other archivers have simple

              4      zip was unable to allocate memory for one or more buffers
                     during program initialization.

              5      a  severe  error  in  the  zipfile  format  was detected.
                     Processing probably failed immediately.

              6      entry too large to be  processed  (such  as  input  files
                     larger  than  2 GB when not using Zip64 or trying to read
                     an existing archive that is too large) or entry too large
                     to be split with zipsplit

              7      invalid comment format

              8      zip -T failed or out of memory

              9      the  user  aborted  zip  prematurely  with  control-C (or

              10     zip encountered an error while using a temp file

              11     read or seek error

              12     zip has nothing to do

              13     missing or empty zip file

              14     error writing to a file

              15     zip was unable to create a file to write to

              16     bad command line parameters

              18     zip could not open a specified file to read

              19     zip was compiled  with  options  not  supported  on  this

       VMS  interprets  standard Unix (or PC) return values as other, scarier-
       looking things, so zip instead maps them into VMS-style  status  codes.
       In  general,  zip  sets  VMS  Facility  =  1955  (0x07A3),  Code  =  2*
       Unix_status, and an appropriate Severity (as  specified  in  ziperr.h).
       More  details  are  included  in  the  VMS-specific documentation.  See
       [.vms]NOTES.TXT and [.vms]vms_msg_gen.c.


       zip 3.0 is not compatible with PKUNZIP 1.10. Use zip 1.1 to produce zip
       files which can be extracted by PKUNZIP 1.10.

       zip  files  produced by zip 3.0 must not be updated by zip 1.1 or PKZIP
       1.10, if they contain encrypted members or if they have  been  produced
       in a pipe or on a non-seekable device. The old versions of zip or PKZIP
       would create an archive with an incorrect format.  The old versions can
       list the contents of the zip file but cannot extract it anyway (because
       of the new compression algorithm).  If you do not  use  encryption  and
       use regular disk files, you do not have to care about this problem.

       Under  VMS, not all of the odd file formats are treated properly.  Only
       stream-LF format zip files are expected to work with zip.   Others  can
       be  converted  using  Rahul  Dhesi’s BILF program.  This version of zip
       handles some of  the  conversion  internally.   When  using  Kermit  to
       transfer  zip  files  from  VMS to MSDOS, type "set file type block" on
       VMS.  When transferring from MSDOS to VMS, type "set file  type  fixed"
       on VMS.  In both cases, type "set file type binary" on MSDOS.

       Under  some  older  VMS  versions, zip may hang for file specifications
       that use DECnet syntax foo::*.*.

       On OS/2, zip cannot match  some  names,  such  as  those  including  an
       exclamation  mark  or  a  hash sign.  This is a bug in OS/2 itself: the
       32-bit DosFindFirst/Next don’t find such names.  Other programs such as
       GNU tar are also affected by this bug.

       Under  OS/2, the amount of Extended Attributes displayed by DIR is (for
       compatibility)  the  amount  returned  by   the   16-bit   version   of
       DosQueryPathInfo().  Otherwise  OS/2 1.3 and 2.0 would report different
       EA sizes when DIRing a file.  However, the structure layout returned by
       the 32-bit DosQueryPathInfo() is a bit different, it uses extra padding
       bytes and link pointers (it’s a linked list)  to  have  all  fields  on
       4-byte  boundaries  for  portability  to  future  RISC  OS/2  versions.
       Therefore the value reported by zip (which uses this 32-bit-mode  size)
       differs  from  that  reported by DIR.  zip stores the 32-bit format for
       portability, even the 16-bit MS-C-compiled version running on OS/2 1.3,
       so even this one shows the 32-bit-mode size.


       Copyright (C) 1997-2008 Info-ZIP.

       Currently distributed under the Info-ZIP license.

       Copyright (C) 1990-1997 Mark Adler, Richard B. Wales, Jean-loup Gailly,
       Onno van der Linden, Kai Uwe Rommel, Igor Mandrichenko, John  Bush  and
       Paul Kienitz.

       Original copyright:

       Permission is granted to any individual or institution to use, copy, or
       redistribute this software so long as all of  the  original  files  are
       included,  that  it  is  not  sold  for profit, and that this copyright
       notice is retained.


       Please  send  bug reports and comments using the web page at:  For bug reports, please  include  the  version  of  zip  (see
       zip -h),  the make options used to compile it (see zip -v), the machine
       and operating system in use, and  as  much  additional  information  as


       Thanks  to  R. P. Byrne for his Shrink.Pas program, which inspired this
       project, and from which the shrink algorithm was stolen; to  Phil  Katz
       for  placing  in  the  public  domain  the zip file format, compression
       format, and .ZIP filename extension, and for accepting minor changes to
       the  file  format;  to  Steve  Burg  for  clarifications on the deflate
       format; to Haruhiko Okumura and  Leonid  Broukhis  for  providing  some
       useful  ideas  for  the  compression algorithm; to Keith Petersen, Rich
       Wales, Hunter Goatley and Mark Adler for providing a mailing  list  and
       ftp  site  for  the Info-ZIP group to use; and most importantly, to the
       Info-ZIP group itself (listed in the file  infozip.who)  without  whose
       tireless  testing  and bug-fixing efforts a portable zip would not have
       been possible.  Finally we should  thank  (blame)  the  first  Info-ZIP
       moderator, David Kirschbaum, for getting us into this mess in the first
       place.  The manual page was rewritten for Unix by R. P. C. Rodgers  and
       updated by E. Gordon for zip 3.0.