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NAME

       strptime  -  convert  a  string  representation  of  time  to a time tm
       structure

SYNOPSIS

       #define _XOPEN_SOURCE /* glibc2 needs this */
       #include <time.h>

       char *strptime(const char *s, const char *format, struct tm *tm);

DESCRIPTION

       The strptime() function is the converse  function  to  strftime(3)  and
       converts  the  character  string  pointed  to  by s to values which are
       stored in the tm structure pointed to by tm, using the format specified
       by  format.   Here  format is a character string that consists of field
       descriptors and text characters, reminiscent of scanf(3).   Each  field
       descriptor consists of a % character followed by another character that
       specifies  the  replacement  for  the  field  descriptor.   All   other
       characters  in  the format string must have a matching character in the
       input string,  except  for  whitespace,  which  matches  zero  or  more
       whitespace  characters in the input string.  There should be whitespace
       or other alphanumeric characters between any two field descriptors.

       The strptime() function processes the input string from left to  right.
       Each  of  the  three  possible  input elements (whitespace, literal, or
       format) are handled one after  the  other.   If  the  input  cannot  be
       matched  to the format string the function stops.  The remainder of the
       format and input strings are not processed.

       The supported input field descriptors are listed below.  In case a text
       string  (such  as  a  weekday  or  month  name)  is  to be matched, the
       comparison is case insensitive.  In case a number  is  to  be  matched,
       leading zeros are permitted but not required.

       %%     The % character.

       %a or %A
              The weekday name according to the current locale, in abbreviated
              form or the full name.

       %b or %B or %h
              The month name according to the current locale,  in  abbreviated
              form or the full name.

       %c     The date and time representation for the current locale.

       %C     The century number (0-99).

       %d or %e
              The day of month (1-31).

       %D     Equivalent  to %m/%d/%y.  (This is the American style date, very
              confusing to non-Americans, especially since %d/%m/%y is  widely
              used in Europe.  The ISO 8601 standard format is %Y-%m-%d.)

       %H     The hour (0-23).

       %I     The hour on a 12-hour clock (1-12).

       %j     The day number in the year (1-366).

       %m     The month number (1-12).

       %M     The minute (0-59).

       %n     Arbitrary whitespace.

       %p     The locale’s equivalent of AM or PM.  (Note: there may be none.)

       %r     The 12-hour clock time (using the locale’s AM or  PM).   In  the
              POSIX  locale equivalent to %I:%M:%S %p.  If t_fmt_ampm is empty
              in the LC_TIME part of the current locale then the  behavior  is
              undefined.

       %R     Equivalent to %H:%M.

       %S     The second (0-60; 60 may occur for leap seconds; earlier also 61
              was allowed).

       %t     Arbitrary whitespace.

       %T     Equivalent to %H:%M:%S.

       %U     The week number with Sunday the first day of  the  week  (0-53).
              The first Sunday of January is the first day of week 1.

       %w     The weekday number (0-6) with Sunday = 0.

       %W     The  week  number  with Monday the first day of the week (0-53).
              The first Monday of January is the first day of week 1.

       %x     The date, using the locale’s date format.

       %X     The time, using the locale’s time format.

       %y     The year within century (0-99).  When a century is not otherwise
              specified,  values  in  the  range  69-99  refer to years in the
              twentieth century (1969-1999); values in the range  00-68  refer
              to years in the twenty-first century (2000-2068).

       %Y     The year, including century (for example, 1991).

       Some  field  descriptors  can  be  modified  by  the  E  or  O modifier
       characters to indicate that  an  alternative  format  or  specification
       should  be  used.   If the alternative format or specification does not
       exist in the current locale, the unmodified field descriptor is used.

       The E modifier specifies that the input string may contain  alternative
       locale-dependent versions of the date and time representation:

       %Ec    The locale’s alternative date and time representation.

       %EC    The  name  of the base year (period) in the locale’s alternative
              representation.

       %Ex    The locale’s alternative date representation.

       %EX    The locale’s alternative time representation.

       %Ey    The offset from %EC (year  only)  in  the  locale’s  alternative
              representation.

       %EY    The full alternative year representation.

       The  O  modifier  specifies  that  the  numerical  input  may  be in an
       alternative locale-dependent format:

       %Od or %Oe
              The day of the month  using  the  locale’s  alternative  numeric
              symbols; leading zeros are permitted but not required.

       %OH    The  hour (24-hour clock) using the locale’s alternative numeric
              symbols.

       %OI    The hour (12-hour clock) using the locale’s alternative  numeric
              symbols.

       %Om    The month using the locale’s alternative numeric symbols.

       %OM    The minutes using the locale’s alternative numeric symbols.

       %OS    The seconds using the locale’s alternative numeric symbols.

       %OU    The  week  number  of  the  year (Sunday as the first day of the
              week) using the locale’s alternative numeric symbols.

       %Ow    The  number  of  the  weekday  (Sunday=0)  using  the   locale’s
              alternative numeric symbols.

       %OW    The  week  number  of  the  year (Monday as the first day of the
              week) using the locale’s alternative numeric symbols.

       %Oy    The year (offset from %C) using the locale’s alternative numeric
              symbols.

       The broken-down time structure tm is defined in <time.h> as follows:

           struct tm {
               int tm_sec;        /* seconds */
               int tm_min;        /* minutes */
               int tm_hour;       /* hours */
               int tm_mday;       /* day of the month */
               int tm_mon;        /* month */
               int tm_year;       /* year */
               int tm_wday;       /* day of the week */
               int tm_yday;       /* day in the year */
               int tm_isdst;      /* daylight saving time */
           };

RETURN VALUE

       The  return  value  of the function is a pointer to the first character
       not processed in this function call.  In case the input string contains
       more  characters  than  required  by the format string the return value
       points right after the last consumed  input  character.   In  case  the
       whole input string is consumed the return value points to the null byte
       at the end of the string.  If strptime() fails  to  match  all  of  the
       format  string  and  therefore  an  error occurred the function returns
       NULL.

CONFORMING TO

       SUSv2, POSIX.1-2001.

NOTES

       In principle, this function does not initialize tm but only stores  the
       values  specified.  This means that tm should be initialized before the
       call.  Details differ a bit between different Unix systems.  The  glibc
       implementation  does  not  touch  those fields which are not explicitly
       specified, except that it recomputes the tm_wday and tm_yday  field  if
       any of the year, month, or day elements changed.

       This  function  is  available  since libc 4.6.8.  Linux libc4 and libc5
       includes define the prototype unconditionally; glibc2 includes  provide
       a prototype only when _XOPEN_SOURCE or _GNU_SOURCE are defined.

       Before  libc 5.4.13 whitespace (and the 'n' and 't' specifications) was
       not handled, no 'E' and 'O' locale modifier characters  were  accepted,
       and the 'C' specification was a synonym for the 'c' specification.

       The  'y'  (year in century) specification is taken to specify a year in
       the 20th century by libc4 and libc5.  It is taken to be a year  in  the
       range  1950-2049  by  glibc 2.0.  It is taken to be a year in 1969-2068
       since glibc 2.1.

   Glibc Notes
       For reasons of symmetry, glibc tries to support for strptime() the same
       format characters as for strftime(3).  (In most cases the corresponding
       fields are parsed, but no field in tm is changed.)  This leads to

       %F     Equivalent to %Y-%m-%d, the ISO 8601 date format.

       %g     The year corresponding to the ISO week number, but  without  the
              century (0-99).

       %G     The  year  corresponding  to the ISO week number.  (For example,
              1991.)

       %u     The day of the week as a decimal number (1-7, where Monday = 1).

       %V     The  ISO  8601:1988  week number as a decimal number (1-53).  If
              the week (starting on Monday) containing 1 January has  four  or
              more  days  in  the  new  year,  then  it  is considered week 1.
              Otherwise, it is the last week of the  previous  year,  and  the
              next week is week 1.

       %z     An RFC-822/ISO 8601 standard timezone specification.

       %Z     The timezone name.

       Similarly,  because of GNU extensions to strftime(3), %k is accepted as
       a synonym for %H, and %l should be accepted as a synonym for %I, and %P
       is accepted as a synonym for %p.  Finally

       %s     The number of seconds since the Epoch, that is, since 1970-01-01
              00:00:00 UTC.  Leap seconds are not counted unless  leap  second
              support is available.

       The  glibc implementation does not require whitespace between two field
       descriptors.

EXAMPLE

       The  following  example  demonstrates  the  use   of   strptime()   and
       strftime(3).

       #define _XOPEN_SOURCE
       #include <stdio.h>
       #include <stdlib.h>
       #include <time.h>

       int
       main(void)
       {
           struct tm tm;
           char buf[255];

           strptime("2001-11-12 18:31:01", "%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S", &tm);
           strftime(buf, sizeof(buf), "%d %b %Y %H:%M", &tm);
           puts(buf);
           exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
       }

SEE ALSO

       time(2),     getdate(3),     scanf(3),    setlocale(3),    strftime(3),
       feature_test_macros(7)

COLOPHON

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       description  of  the project, and information about reporting bugs, can
       be found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.