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NAME

       arp - Linux ARP kernel module.

DESCRIPTION

       This  kernel protocol module implements the Address Resolution Protocol
       defined in RFC 826.  It is used  to  convert  between  Layer2  hardware
       addresses  and  IPv4 protocol addresses on directly connected networks.
       The user normally doesn’t interact directly with this module except  to
       configure  it; instead it provides a service for other protocols in the
       kernel.

       A user process can receive ARP  packets  by  using  packet(7)  sockets.
       There  is  also a mechanism for managing the ARP cache in user-space by
       using netlink(7) sockets.  The ARP table can  also  be  controlled  via
       ioctl(2) on any AF_INET socket.

       The ARP module maintains a cache of mappings between hardware addresses
       and protocol addresses.  The cache has a limited size so old  and  less
       frequently  used  entries  are  garbage-collected.   Entries  which are
       marked as permanent are never deleted by  the  garbage-collector.   The
       cache can be directly manipulated by the use of ioctls and its behavior
       can be tuned by the /proc interfaces described below.

       When there is no positive feedback for an existing mapping  after  some
       time  (see  the  /proc  interfaces  below),  a  neighbor cache entry is
       considered stale.  Positive feedback can be gotten from a higher layer;
       for  example  from  a  successful  TCP ACK.  Other protocols can signal
       forward progress using the MSG_CONFIRM flag to sendmsg(2).  When  there
       is  no forward progress, ARP tries to reprobe.  It first tries to ask a
       local arp daemon app_solicit times for an updated MAC address.  If that
       fails  and  an  old  MAC  address  is  known,  a  unicast probe is sent
       ucast_solicit times.  If that fails too, it will broadcast  a  new  ARP
       request  to  the  network.   Requests  are only sent when there is data
       queued for sending.

       Linux will automatically add a non-permanent proxy arp  entry  when  it
       receives  a  request  for  an  address  it forwards to and proxy arp is
       enabled on the receiving interface.  When there is a reject  route  for
       the target, no proxy arp entry is added.

   Ioctls
       Three ioctls are available on all AF_INET sockets.  They take a pointer
       to a struct arpreq as their argument.

           struct arpreq {
               struct sockaddr arp_pa;      /* protocol address */
               struct sockaddr arp_ha;      /* hardware address */
               int             arp_flags;   /* flags */
               struct sockaddr arp_netmask; /* netmask of protocol address */
               char            arp_dev[16];
           };

       SIOCSARP, SIOCDARP and SIOCGARP respectively set, delete and get an ARP
       mapping.   Setting  and deleting ARP maps are privileged operations and
       may only be performed by a process with the CAP_NET_ADMIN capability or
       an effective UID of 0.

       arp_pa  must be an AF_INET socket and arp_ha must have the same type as
       the device which is specified in arp_dev.  arp_dev is a zero-terminated
       string which names a device.

              +-------------------------------------+
              |             arp_flags               |
              +----------------+--------------------+
              |flag            | meaning            |
              +----------------+--------------------+
              |ATF_COM         | Lookup complete    |
              +----------------+--------------------+
              |ATF_PERM        | Permanent entry    |
              +----------------+--------------------+
              |ATF_PUBL        | Publish entry      |
              +----------------+--------------------+
              |ATF_USETRAILERS | Trailers requested |
              +----------------+--------------------+
              |ATF_NETMASK     | Use a netmask      |
              +----------------+--------------------+
              |ATF_DONTPUB     | Don’t answer       |
              +----------------+--------------------+

       If  the  ATF_NETMASK  flag  is  set,  then arp_netmask should be valid.
       Linux 2.2 does not support proxy network ARP entries, so this should be
       set  to  0xffffffff,  or  0  to  remove  an  existing  proxy arp entry.
       ATF_USETRAILERS is obsolete and should not be used.

   /proc interfaces
       ARP supports a range of /proc interfaces to configure parameters  on  a
       global  or  per-interface  basis.   The  interfaces  can be accessed by
       reading  or  writing  the  /proc/sys/net/ipv4/neigh/*/*  files.    Each
       interface    in    the    system    has    its    own    directory   in
       /proc/sys/net/ipv4/neigh/.  The setting in the "default"  directory  is
       used  for all newly created devices.  Unless otherwise specified, time-
       related interfaces are specified in seconds.

       anycast_delay (since Linux 2.2)
              The maximum number of jiffies to delay before replying to a IPv6
              neighbor  solicitation  message.   Anycast  support  is  not yet
              implemented.  Defaults to 1 second.

       app_solicit (since Linux 2.2)
              The maximum number of probes to  send  to  the  user  space  ARP
              daemon via netlink before dropping back to multicast probes (see
              mcast_solicit).  Defaults to 0.

       base_reachable_time (since Linux 2.2)
              Once a neighbor has been found, the entry is  considered  to  be
              valid  for at least a random value between base_reachable_time/2
              and  3*base_reachable_time/2.   An  entry’s  validity  will   be
              extended  if  it  receives  positive  feedback from higher level
              protocols.  Defaults to 30 seconds.  This file is  now  obsolete
              in favor of base_reachable_time_ms.

       base_reachable_time_ms (since Linux 2.6.12)
              As  for  base_reachable_time, but measures time in milliseconds.
              Defaults to 30000 milliseconds.

       delay_first_probe_time (since Linux 2.2)
              Delay before first probe  after  it  has  been  decided  that  a
              neighbor is stale.  Defaults to 5 seconds.

       gc_interval (since Linux 2.2)
              How frequently the garbage collector for neighbor entries should
              attempt to run.  Defaults to 30 seconds.

       gc_stale_time (since Linux 2.2)
              Determines how often to check for stale neighbor entries.   When
              a  neighbor  entry  is  considered  stale,  it is resolved again
              before sending data to it.  Defaults to 60 seconds.

       gc_thresh1 (since Linux 2.2)
              The minimum number of entries to keep in  the  ARP  cache.   The
              garbage  collector  will  not  run  if there are fewer than this
              number of entries in the cache.  Defaults to 128.

       gc_thresh2 (since Linux 2.2)
              The soft maximum number of entries to keep  in  the  ARP  cache.
              The garbage collector will allow the number of entries to exceed
              this  for  5  seconds  before  collection  will  be   performed.
              Defaults to 512.

       gc_thresh3 (since Linux 2.2)
              The  hard  maximum  number  of entries to keep in the ARP cache.
              The garbage collector will always run if  there  are  more  than
              this number of entries in the cache.  Defaults to 1024.

       locktime (since Linux 2.2)
              The minimum number of jiffies to keep an ARP entry in the cache.
              This prevents ARP cache thrashing if  there  is  more  than  one
              potential  mapping  (generally due to network misconfiguration).
              Defaults to 1 second.

       mcast_solicit (since Linux 2.2)
              The  maximum  number  of  attempts  to  resolve  an  address  by
              multicast/broadcast  before  marking  the  entry as unreachable.
              Defaults to 3.

       proxy_delay (since Linux 2.2)
              When an ARP request for a known proxy-ARP address  is  received,
              delay  up  to proxy_delay jiffies before replying.  This is used
              to prevent network flooding in  some  cases.   Defaults  to  0.8
              seconds.

       proxy_qlen (since Linux 2.2)
              The  maximum  number of packets which may be queued to proxy-ARP
              addresses.  Defaults to 64.

       retrans_time (since Linux 2.2)
              The number of jiffies to delay before retransmitting a  request.
              Defaults  to  1  second.   This file is now obsolete in favor of
              retrans_time_ms.

       retrans_time_ms (since Linux 2.6.12)
              The number of milliseconds  to  delay  before  retransmitting  a
              request.  Defaults to 1000 milliseconds.

       ucast_solicit (since Linux 2.2)
              The  maximum  number  of  attempts to send unicast probes before
              asking the ARP daemon (see app_solicit).  Defaults to 3.

       unres_qlen (since Linux 2.2)
              The maximum number of packets  which  may  be  queued  for  each
              unresolved address by other network layers.  Defaults to 3.

VERSIONS

       The  struct  arpreq  changed in Linux 2.0 to include the arp_dev member
       and the ioctl numbers changed at the same time.  Support  for  the  old
       ioctls was dropped in Linux 2.2.

       Support   for  proxy  arp  entries  for  networks  (netmask  not  equal
       0xffffffff) was dropped in Linux 2.2.   It  is  replaced  by  automatic
       proxy  arp  setup  by  the  kernel  for  all  reachable  hosts on other
       interfaces  (when  forwarding  and  proxy  arp  is  enabled   for   the
       interface).

       The neigh/* interfaces did not exist before Linux 2.2.

BUGS

       Some  timer  settings  are specified in jiffies, which is architecture-
       and kernel version-dependent; see time(7).

       There is no way to signal positive  feedback  from  user  space.   This
       means  connection-oriented  protocols  implemented  in  user space will
       generate excessive ARP traffic, because ndisc  will  regularly  reprobe
       the  MAC  address.   The same problem applies for some kernel protocols
       (e.g., NFS over UDP).

       This man page mashes IPv4 specific and shared  between  IPv4  and  IPv6
       functionality together.

SEE ALSO

       capabilities(7), ip(7)

       RFC 826 for a description of ARP.
       RFC 2461  for  a  description  of  IPv6 neighbor discovery and the base
       algorithms used.

       Linux 2.2+ IPv4 ARP uses the IPv6 algorithms when applicable.

COLOPHON

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       description  of  the project, and information about reporting bugs, can
       be found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.