Provided by: xauth_1.0.4-1_i386 bug

NAME

       xauth - X authority file utility

SYNOPSIS

       xauth [ -f authfile ] [ -vqibn ] [ command arg ... ]

DESCRIPTION

       The  xauth  program  is  used  to  edit  and  display the authorization
       information used in connecting  to  the  X  server.   This  program  is
       usually  used  to  extract  authorization  records from one machine and
       merge them in on another (as is the case when using  remote  logins  or
       granting  access  to  other  users).  Commands (described below) may be
       entered interactively, on the xauth command line, or in scripts.   Note
       that  this  program  does  not  contact  the  X  server except when the
       generate command is used.  Normally xauth is not  used  to  create  the
       authority  file entry in the first place; the program that starts the X
       server (often xdm or startx) does that.

OPTIONS

       The following options may be  used  with  xauth.   They  may  be  given
       individually (e.g., -q -i) or may combined (e.g., -qi).

       -f authfile
               This  option  specifies  the name of the authority file to use.
               By default, xauth will use the file specified by the XAUTHORITY
               environment   variable   or  .Xauthority  in  the  user’s  home
               directory.

       -q      This option indicates that xauth should operate quietly and not
               print  unsolicited  status messages.  This is the default if an
               xauth command is given on the command line or if  the  standard
               output is not directed to a terminal.

       -v      This  option  indicates that xauth should operate verbosely and
               print  status  messages  indicating  the  results  of   various
               operations (e.g., how many records have been read in or written
               out).  This is the default if xauth is  reading  commands  from
               its  standard  input  and  its standard output is directed to a
               terminal.

       -i      This option indicates that xauth should  ignore  any  authority
               file  locks.   Normally,  xauth will refuse to read or edit any
               authority  files  that  have  been  locked  by  other  programs
               (usually xdm or another xauth).

       -b      This  option  indicates  that xauth should attempt to break any
               authority file locks before proceeding.  Use this  option  only
               to clean up stale locks.

       -n      This  option indicates that xauth should not attempt to resolve
               any hostnames, but should simply always print the host  address
               as stored in the authority file.

COMMANDS

       The following commands may be used to manipulate authority files:

       add displayname protocolname hexkey
               An  authorization  entry  for  the  indicated display using the
               given protocol and key data is added to the authorization file.
               The data is specified as an even-lengthed string of hexadecimal
               digits, each pair representing one octet.  The first  digit  of
               each  pair  gives the most significant 4 bits of the octet, and
               the second digit of the pair  gives  the  least  significant  4
               bits.   For  example,  a  32 character hexkey would represent a
               128-bit value.  A protocol name consisting  of  just  a  single
               period is treated as an abbreviation for MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1.

       generate displayname protocolname [trusted|untrusted]
               [timeout seconds] [group group-id] [data hexdata]

               This  command  is  similar to add.  The main difference is that
               instead of requiring the  user  to  supply  the  key  data,  it
               connects  to  the  server specified in displayname and uses the
               SECURITY extension in order to get the key data to store in the
               authorization file.  If the server cannot be contacted or if it
               does not support the SECURITY  extension,  the  command  fails.
               Otherwise,  an  authorization  entry  for the indicated display
               using the given protocol is added to the authorization file.  A
               protocol  name consisting of just a single period is treated as
               an abbreviation for MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1.

               If the trusted option is used, clients that connect using  this
               authorization  will have full run of the display, as usual.  If
               untrusted  is   used,   clients   that   connect   using   this
               authorization  will  be considered untrusted and prevented from
               stealing or tampering with data belonging to  trusted  clients.
               See  the  SECURITY  extension specification for full details on
               the restrictions imposed on untrusted clients.  The default  is
               untrusted.

               The   timeout   option  specifies  how  long  in  seconds  this
               authorization will be  valid.   If  the  authorization  remains
               unused  (no clients are connected with it) for longer than this
               time period, the server purges the  authorization,  and  future
               attempts  to connect using it will fail.  Note that the purging
               done by the server does not delete the authorization entry from
               the authorization file.  The default timeout is 60 seconds.

               The  group  option specifies the application group that clients
               connecting with this authorization should belong to.   See  the
               application  group  extension  specification  for more details.
               The default is to not belong to an application group.

               The data option specifies data that the server  should  use  to
               generate  the  authorization.   Note  that this is not the same
               data  that  gets  written  to  the  authorization  file.    The
               interpretation  of  this  data  depends  on  the  authorization
               protocol.  The hexdata is in the  same  format  as  the  hexkey
               described  in the add command.  The default is to send no data.

       [n]extract filename displayname...
               Authorization entries for each of the  specified  displays  are
               written  to  the  indicated  file.   If the nextract command is
               used, the entries are written in a numeric format suitable  for
               non-binary  transmission (such as secure electronic mail).  The
               extracted entries can be read  back  in  using  the  merge  and
               nmerge  commands.   If  the  filename consists of just a single
               dash, the entries will be written to the standard output.

       [n]list [displayname...]
               Authorization entries for each of the  specified  displays  (or
               all  if  no  displays  are  named)  are printed on the standard
               output.  If the nlist command is used, entries will be shown in
               the  numeric  format  used  by the nextract command; otherwise,
               they are shown  in  a  textual  format.   Key  data  is  always
               displayed in the hexadecimal format given in the description of
               the add command.

       [n]merge [filename...]
               Authorization entries are read from the specified files and are
               merged   into   the  authorization  database,  superseding  any
               matching existing entries. If the nmerge command is  used,  the
               numeric  format given in the description of the extract command
               is used.  If a filename consists of just  a  single  dash,  the
               standard input will be read if it hasn’t been read before.

       remove displayname...
               Authorization  entries  matching  the  specified  displays  are
               removed from the authority file.

       source filename
               The specified file is treated  as  a  script  containing  xauth
               commands  to  execute.   Blank lines and lines beginning with a
               sharp sign (#) are ignored.  A  single  dash  may  be  used  to
               indicate the standard input, if it hasn’t already been read.

       info    Information  describing  the authorization file, whether or not
               any changes have been made, and from where xauth  commands  are
               being read is printed on the standard output.

       exit    If  any  modifications  have  been  made, the authority file is
               written out (if allowed), and the program  exits.   An  end  of
               file is treated as an implicit exit command.

       quit    The  program  exits, ignoring any modifications.  This may also
               be accomplished by pressing the interrupt character.

       help [string]
               A description of all commands that begin with the given  string
               (or  all  commands  if  no  string  is given) is printed on the
               standard output.

       ?       A short list of the valid commands is printed on  the  standard
               output.

DISPLAY NAMES

       Display  names  for  the add, [n]extract, [n]list, [n]merge, and remove
       commands use the same format as the DISPLAY  environment  variable  and
       the   common   -display   command   line   argument.   Display-specific
       information (such as the screen number)  is  unnecessary  and  will  be
       ignored.   Same-machine connections (such as local-host sockets, shared
       memory, and the Internet Protocol hostname localhost) are  referred  to
       as  hostname/unix:displaynumber  so  that  local  entries for different
       machines may be stored in one authority file.

EXAMPLE

       The most common use for xauth is to extract the entry for  the  current
       display,  copy  it  to  another  machine,  and merge it into the user’s
       authority file on the remote machine:

               %  xauth extract - $DISPLAY | ssh otherhost xauth merge -

       The following command contacts the server :0 to create an authorization
       using  the MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1 protocol.  Clients that connect with this
       authorization will be untrusted.
            %  xauth generate :0 .

ENVIRONMENT

       This xauth program uses the following environment variables:

       XAUTHORITY
               to get the name of the authority file to use if the  -f  option
               isn’t used.

       HOME    to get the user’s home directory if XAUTHORITY isn’t defined.

FILES

       $HOME/.Xauthority
               default authority file if XAUTHORITY isn’t defined.

SEE ALSO

       X(7), Xsecurity(7), xhost(1), Xserver(1), xdm(1), startx(1), Xau(3).

BUGS

       Users  that  have  unsecure  networks should take care to use encrypted
       file  transfer  mechanisms  to  copy  authorization   entries   between
       machines.   Similarly,  the  MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1  protocol  is  not very
       useful  in  unsecure  environments.   Sites  that  are  interested   in
       additional  security may need to use encrypted authorization mechanisms
       such as Kerberos.

       Spaces are currently not allowed in the protocol name.   Quoting  could
       be added for the truly perverse.

AUTHOR

       Jim Fulton, MIT X Consortium