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NAME

     ieee80211_radiotap - 802.11 device packet capture support

SYNOPSIS

     #include <net80211/ieee80211_var.h>

     void
     ieee80211_radiotap_attach(struct ieee80211com *,
             struct ieee80211_radiotap_header *th, int tlen,
             uint32_t tx_radiotap, struct ieee80211_radiotap_header *rh,
             int rlen, uint32_t rx_radiotap);

     int
     ieee80211_radiotap_active_vap(struct ieee80211vap *);

     int
     ieee80211_radiotap_active(struct ieee80211com *);

     void
     ieee80211_radiotap_tx(struct ieee80211vap *, struct mbuf *);

DESCRIPTION

     The net80211 layer used by 802.11 drivers includes support for a device-
     independent packet capture format called radiotap that is understood by
     tools such as tcpdump(1).  This facility is designed for capturing 802.11
     traffic, including information that is not part of the normal 802.11
     frame structure.

     Radiotap was designed to balance the desire for a hardware-independent,
     extensible capture format against the need to conserve CPU and memory
     bandwidth on embedded systems.  These considerations led to a format
     consisting of a standard preamble followed by an extensible bitmap
     indicating the presence of optional capture fields.  A net80211 device
     driver supporting radiotap defines two packed structures that it shares
     with net80211.  These structures embed an instance of a
     ieee80211_radiotap_header structure at the beginning, with subsequent
     fields in the appropriate order, and macros to set the bits of the
     it_present bitmap to indicate which fields exist and are filled in by the
     driver.  This information is then supplied through the
     ieee80211_radiotap_attach() call after a successful ieee80211_ifattach()
     request.

     With radiotap setup, drivers just need to fill in per-packet capture
     state for frames sent/received and dispatch capture state in the transmit
     path (since control is not returned to the net80211 layer before the
     packet is handed to the device).  To minimize overhead this work should
     be done only when one or more processes are actively capturing data; this
     is checked with one of ieee80211_radiotap_active_vap() and
     ieee80211_radiotap_active().  In the transmit path capture work looks
     like this:

           if (ieee80211_radiotap_active_vap(vap)) {
                   ... /* record transmit state */
                   ieee80211_radiotap_tx(vap, m); /* capture transmit event */
           }

     While in the receive path capture is handled in net80211 but state must
     be captured before dispatching a frame:

           if (ieee80211_radiotap_active(ic)) {
                   ... /* record receive state */
           }
           ...
           ieee80211_input(...);   /* packet capture handled in net80211 */

     The following fields are defined for radiotap, in the order in which they
     should appear in the buffer supplied to net80211.

     IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_TSFT
             This field contains the unsigned 64-bit value, in microseconds,
             of the MAC’s 802.11 Time Synchronization Function (TSF).  In
             theory, for each received frame, this value is recorded when the
             first bit of the MPDU arrived at the MAC.  In practice, hardware
             snapshots the TSF otherwise and one cannot assume this data is
             accurate without driver adjustment.

     IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_FLAGS
             This field contains a single unsigned 8-bit value, containing one
             or more of these bit flags:

             IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_F_CFP
                     Frame was sent/received during the Contention Free Period
                     (CFP).

             IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_F_SHORTPRE
                     Frame was sent/received with short preamble.

             IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_F_WEP
                     Frame was encrypted.

             IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_F_FRAG
                     Frame was an 802.11 fragment.

             IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_F_FCS
                     Frame contents includes the FCS.

             IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_F_DATAPAD
                     Frame contents potentially has padding between the 802.11
                     header and the data payload to align the payload to a
                     32-bit boundary.

             IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_F_BADFCS
                     Frame was received with an invalid FCS.

             IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_F_SHORTGI
                     Frame was sent/received with Short Guard Interval.

     IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_RATE
             This field contains a single unsigned 8-bit value that is the
             data rate.  Legacy rates are in units of 500Kbps.  MCS rates
             (used on 802.11n/HT channels) have the high bit set and the MCS
             in the low 7 bits.

     IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_CHANNEL
             This field contains two unsigned 16-bit values.  The first value
             is the center frequency for the channel the frame was
             sent/received on.  The second value is a bitmap containing flags
             that specify channel properties.

             This field is deprecated in favor of IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_XCHANNEL
             but may be used to save space in the capture file for legacy
             devices.

     IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_DBM_ANTSIGNAL
             This field contains a single signed 8-bit value that indicates
             the RF signal power at the antenna, in decibels difference from
             1mW.

     IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_DBM_ANTNOISE
             This field contains a single signed 8-bit value that indicates
             the RF noise power at the antenna, in decibels difference from
             1mW.

     IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_DBM_TX_POWER
             Transmit power expressed as decibels from a 1mW reference.  This
             field is a single signed 8-bit value.  This is the absolute power
             level measured at the antenna port.

     IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_ANTENNA
             This field contains a single unsigned 8-bit value that specifies
             which antenna was used to transmit or receive the frame.  Antenna
             numbering is device-specific but typically the primary antenna
             has the lowest number.  On transmit a value of zero may be seen
             which typically means antenna selection is left to the device.

     IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_DB_ANTSIGNAL
             This field contains a single unsigned 8-bit value that indicates
             the RF signal power at the antenna, in decibels difference from
             an arbitrary, fixed reference.

     IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_DB_ANTNOISE
             This field contains a single unsigned 8-bit value that indicates
             the RF noise power at the antenna, in decibels difference from an
             arbitrary, fixed reference.

     IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_XCHANNEL
             This field contains four values: a 32-bit unsigned bitmap of
             flags that describe the channel attributes, a 16-bit unsigned
             frequency in MHz (typically the channel center), an 8-bit
             unsigned IEEE channel number, and a signed 8-bit value that holds
             the maximum regulatory transmit power cap in .5 dBm (8 bytes
             total).  Channel flags are defined in: #include
             <net80211/_ieee80211.h>
             (only a subset are found in This property supersedes
             IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_CHANNEL and is the only way to completely
             express all channel attributes and the mapping between channel
             frequency and IEEE channel number.

EXAMPLES

     Radiotap receive definitions for the Intersil Prism driver:

           #define WI_RX_RADIOTAP_PRESENT \
                   ((1 << IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_TSFT) \
                    (1 << IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_FLAGS) | \
                    (1 << IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_RATE) | \
                    (1 << IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_CHANNEL) | \
                    (1 << IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_DB_ANTSIGNAL) | \
                    (1 << IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_DB_ANTNOISE))

           struct wi_rx_radiotap_header {
                   struct ieee80211_radiotap_header wr_ihdr;
                   uint64_t       wr_tsf;
                   uint8_t        wr_flags;
                   uint8_t        wr_rate;
                   uint16_t       wr_chan_freq;
                   uint16_t       wr_chan_flags;
                   uint8_t        wr_antsignal;
                   uint8_t        wr_antnoise;
           } __packed;

     and transmit definitions for the Atheros driver:

           #define ATH_TX_RADIOTAP_PRESENT (               \
                   (1 << IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_TSFT)          | \
                   (1 << IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_FLAGS)         | \
                   (1 << IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_RATE)          | \
                   (1 << IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_DBM_TX_POWER)  | \
                   (1 << IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_ANTENNA)       | \
                   (1 << IEEE80211_RADIOTAP_XCHANNEL)      | \
                   0)

           struct ath_tx_radiotap_header {
                   struct ieee80211_radiotap_header wt_ihdr;
                   uint64_t       wt_tsf;
                   uint8_t        wt_flags;
                   uint8_t        wt_rate;
                   uint8_t        wt_txpower;
                   uint8_t        wt_antenna;
                   uint32_t       wt_chan_flags;
                   uint16_t       wt_chan_freq;
                   uint8_t        wt_chan_ieee;
                   int8_t         wt_chan_maxpow;
           } __packed;

SEE ALSO

     tcpdump(1), bpf(4), ieee80211(9)

HISTORY

     The ieee80211_radiotap definitions first appeared in NetBSD 1.5.

AUTHORS

     The original version of this manual page was written by Bruce M. Simpson
     〈bms@FreeBSD.org〉 and Darron Broad 〈darron@kewl.org〉.