Provided by: maradns_1.4.02-1_i386 bug

NAME

       maradns - DNS server

SYNOPSIS

       maradns [ -v | -f mararc_file_location ]

TABLE OF CONTENTS

       This man page has the following sections:

           Name
           Synopsis
           Table of Contents
           Description
           Usage
           Firewall Configuration
           Frequently Asked Questions
           Bugs
           Unimplemented Features
           Legal Disclaimer
           Authors

DESCRIPTION

       maradns is a DNS server written with security, simplicity, and
       performance in mind.

       maradns has two forms of arguments, both of which are optional.

       The first is the location of a mararc file which MaraDNS obtains all
       configuration information from.  The default location of this file is
       /etc/mararc.  This is specified in the form maradns -f
       mararc_file_location; mararc_file_location is the location of the
       mararc file.

       It is also possible to have MaraDNS display the version number and
       exit. This is specified by invoking maradns in the form maradns -v or
       maradns --version

USAGE

       If MaraDNS is functioning only as a recursive nameserver, just one file
       needs to be set up: The mararc file.

       In order for MaraDNS to function as an authoritative nameserver, two or
       more files need to be set up: the mararc file and one or more "csv2"
       (or "csv1") zone files.

       The format of a csv2 zone file can be obtained from the csv2(5) manual
       page. The configuration format of the mararc file can be obtained from
       the mararc(5) manual page.

       In order to have MaraDNS run as a daemon, the duende program is used to
       daemonize MaraDNS. See the duende(8) manual page for details.

FIREWALL CONFIGURATION

       If MaraDNS is being used as an authoritative nameserver, allow UDP
       connections from all hosts on the internet to UDP port 53 for the IP
       that the authoritative nameserver uses.

       If MaraDNS is being used as a recursive nameserver, the firewall needs
       to allow the following packets to go to and from the IP the recursive
       nameserver uses:

       * Allow UDP connections from the MaraDNS-running server to any machine
         on the internet where the UDP destination port is 53

       * Allow UDP connections from any machine on the internet to the IP of
         the recursive server, where the source port from the remote server is
         53, and the destination port is between 15000 and 19095 (inclusive)

       * Allow UDP connections from IPs that use MaraDNS as a recursive DNS
         server to port 53 of the MaraDNS server

       MaraDNS uses a strong secure RNG for both the query (16 bits of
       entropy) and the source port of the query (12 bits of entropy). This
       makes spoofing replies to a MaraDNS server more difficult, since the
       attacker has only a one in 250 million chance that a given spoofed
       reply will be considered valid.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

    INDEX

           1. I'm using an older version of MaraDNS

           2. How do I try out MaraDNS?

           3. What license is MaraDNS released under?

           4. How do I report bugs in MaraDNS?

           5. Some of the postings to the mailing list do not talk about
           MaraDNS!

           6. How do I get off the mailing list?

           7. How do I set up reverse DNS on MaraDNS?

           8. I am on a slow network, and MaraDNS can not process recursive
           queries

           9. When I try to run MaraDNS, I get a cryptic error message.

           10. After I start MaraDNS, I can not see the process when I run
           netstat -na

           11. What string library does MaraDNS use?

           12. Why does MaraDNS use a multi-threaded model?

           13. I feel that XXX feature should be added to MaraDNS

           14. I feel that MaraDNS should use another documentation format

           15. Is there any process I need to follow to add a patch to
           MaraDNS?

           16. Can MaraDNS act as a primary nameserver?

           17. Can MaraDNS act as a secondary nameserver?

           18. What is the difference between an authoritative and a recursive
           DNS server?

           19. The getzone client isn't allowing me to add certain hostnames
           to my zone

           20. Is MaraDNS portable?

           21. Can I use MaraDNS in Windows?

           22. MaraDNS freezes up after being used for a while

           23. What kind of Python integration does MaraDNS have

           24. Doesn't "kvar" mean "four" in Esperanto?

           25. How scalable is MaraDNS?

           26. I am having problems setting upstream_servers

           27. Why doesn't the MaraDNS.org web page validate?

           28. How do MX records work?

           29. Does MaraDNS have support for SPF?

           30. I'm having problems resolving CNAMES I have set up.

           31. I have a NS delegation, and MaraDNS is doing strange things.

           32. I am transferring a zone from another server, but the NS
           records are these strange "synth-ip" records.

           33. Where is the root.hints file?

           34. Are there any plans to use autoconf to build MaraDNS?

           35. How do I change the compiler or compile-time flags with
           MaraDNS' build process?

           36. Will you make a package for the particular Linux distribution I
           am using?

           37. I am using the native Windows port of MaraDNS, and some
           features are not working.

           38. MaraDNS isn't starting up

           39. You make a lot of releases of MaraDNS; at our ISP/IT
           department, updating software is non-trivial.

           40. I have star records in my zones, and am having problems with
           NXDOMAINs/IPV6 resolution

           41. I have a zone with only SOA/NS records, and the zone is not
           working.

           42. I am having problems registering my domain with AFNIC (the
           registrar for .fr domains)

           43. I can't see the full answers for subdomains I have delegated

           44. MaraDNS 1 has a problem resolving a domain

           45. MaraDNS 1.2 has issues with NXDOMAINS and case sensitivity.

           46. Can MaraDNS offer protection from phishing and malicious sites?

           47. Does maradns support star (wildcard) records?

    ANSWERS

    1. I'm using an older version of MaraDNS

       Upgrade to MaraDNS 1.4. MaraDNS 1.4 is compatible with older versions
       of MaraDNS, with the relatively few changes need to upgrade documented.

       MaraDNS 1.0 and 1.2 are only supported for critical security updates,
       and will no longer be supported on December 21, 2010. MaraDNS 1.3 is
       also only supported for critical security updates, and support will
       stop on December 21, 2012. MaraDNS 1.4 will be fully supported
       (security and other important bug fixes) for the foreseeable future,
       alongside MaraDNS 2.0 when and if it comes out.

    2. How do I try out MaraDNS?

       Read the quick start guide, which is the file named 0QuickStart in the
       MaraDNS distribution.

    3. What license is MaraDNS released under?

       MaraDNS 1.2 is released with the following two-clause BSD-type license:

           Copyright (c) 2002-2009 Sam Trenholme and others

           TERMS

           Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
           modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
           are met:

           1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
           notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

           2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above
           copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
           disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided
           with the distribution.

           This software is provided 'as is' with no guarantees of correctness
           or fitness for purpose.

    4. How do I report bugs in MaraDNS?

       Send an email to the MaraDNS mailing list. Details on how to do this
       are at http://www.maradns.org/

    5. Some of the postings to the mailing list do not talk about MaraDNS!

       Topic drift sometimes happens. It's a part of life.

    6. How do I get off the mailing list?

       Send an email to list-request@maradns.org with "unsubscribe" as the
       subject line.

    7. How do I set up reverse DNS on MaraDNS?

       Reverse DNS (sometimes called "reverse mapping") is set up by using PTR
       (pointer) records. For example, the PTR record which performs the
       reverse DNS lookup for the ip 10.2.3.4 looks like this in a CSV2 zone
       file:

           4.3.2.10.in-addr.arpa. PTR www.example.com.

       It is also possible to use a special "FQDN4" which automatically sets
       up the reverse mapping of a given record:

           www.example.com. FQDN4 10.2.3.4

       If you wish to have a PTR (reverse DNS lookup; getting a DNS name from
       a numeric IP) record work on the internet at large, it is not a simple
       matter of just adding a record like this to a MaraDNS zonefile. One
       also needs control of the appropriate in-addr.arpa. domain.

       While it can make logical sense to contact the IP 10.11.12.13 when
       trying to get the reverse DNS lookup (fully qualified domain name) for
       a given IP, DNS servers don't do this. DNS server, instead, contact the
       root DNS servers for a given in-addr.arpa name to get the reverse DNS
       lookup, just like they do with any other record type.

       When an internet service provider is given a block of IPs, they are
       also given control of the DNS zones which allow them to control reverse
       DNS lookups for those IPs. While it is possible to obtain a domain and
       run a DNS server without the knowledge or intervention of an ISP, being
       able to control reverse DNS lookups for those IPs requires ISP
       intervention.

    8. I am on a slow network, and MaraDNS can not process recursive queries

       MaraDNS, by default, only waits two seconds for a reply from a remote
       DNS server. This default can be increased by adding a line like this in
       the mararc file:

           timeout_seconds = 5

       Note that making this too high will slow MaraDNS down when DNS servers
       are down, which is, alas, all too common on today's internet.

    9. When I try to run MaraDNS, I get a cryptic error message.

       There is usually some context of where there is a syntax error in a
       data file before the cryptic error message. For example, when there is
       a syntax error in a csv2 zone file, MaraDNS will tell you exactly at
       what point it had to terminate parsing of the zone file.

       If MaraDNS does return a cryptic error message without letting you know
       what is wrong, let us know on the mailing list so that we can fix the
       bug. MaraDNS is designed to be easy to use; cryptic error messages go
       against this spirit.

    10. After I start MaraDNS, I can not see the process when I run netstat
    -na

       Udp services do not have a prominent "LISTEN" when netstat is run.

       When MaraDNS is up, the relevant line in the netstat output looks like
       this: udp 0 0 127.0.0.1:53 0.0.0.0:*

       While on the topic of netstat, if you run netstat -nap as root on Linux
       and some other *nix operating systems, you can see the names of the
       processes which are providing internet services.

    11. What string library does MaraDNS use?

       MaraDNS uses its own string library, which is called the "js_string"
       library. Man pages for most of the functions in the js_string library
       are in the folder doc/man of the MaraDNS distribution

    12. Why does MaraDNS use a multi-threaded model?

       The multi-threaded model is, plain and simple, the simplest way to
       write a functioning recursive DNS server. There is a reason why
       MaraDNS, pdnsd, and BIND 9 all use the multi-threaded model.

       MaraDNS 2.0, when and if it is released, will not use threads.

    13. I feel that XXX feature should be added to MaraDNS

       The only thing that will convince me to implement a given feature for
       MaraDNS is cold, hard cash. If you want me to keep a given feature
       proprietary, you better have lots of cold hard cash.

       Keep in mind that both the BIND and NSD name servers were developed by
       having the programmers paid to work on the programs.  PowerDNS was
       originally commercial software with the author only reluctantly made
       GPL after seeing that the market for a commercial DNS server is very
       small. All of the other DNS servers which have been developed as
       hobbyist projects (Posadis, Pdnsd, and djbdns) are no longer being
       actively worked on by the primary developer.

    14. I feel that MaraDNS should use another documentation format

       The reason that MaraDNS uses its own documentation format is to satisfy
       both the needs of translators to have a unified document format and my
       own need to use a documentation format that is simple enough to be
       readily understood and which I can add features on an as needed basis.

       The documentation format is essentially simplified HTML with some
       special tags added to meet MaraDNS' special needs.

       This gives me more flexibility to adapt the documentation format to
       changing needs. For example, when someone pointed out that it's not a
       good idea to have man pages with hi-bit characters, it was a simple
       matter to add a new HIBIT tag which allows man pages to be without hi-
       bit characters, and other document formats to retain hi-bit characters.

       Having a given program have its own documentation format is not without
       precedent; Perl uses its own "pod" documentation format.

    15. Is there any process I need to follow to add a patch to MaraDNS?

       Yes.

       Here is the procedure for making a proper patch:

       * Enter the directory that the file is in, for example
         maradns-1.4.01/server

       * Copy over the file that you wish to modify to another file name. For
         example: cp MaraDNS.c MaraDNS.c.orig

       * Edit the file in question, e.g: vi MaraDNS.c

       * After editing, do something like this:
         diff -u MaraDNS.c.orig MaraDNS.c > maradns.patch

       * Make sure the modified version compiles cleanly

       Send a patch to the MaraDNS mailing list, along with a statement that
       you place the contents of the patch under MaraDNS' BSD license. If I
       find that the patch works well, I will integrate it in to MaraDNS.

    16. Can MaraDNS act as a primary nameserver?

       Yes.

       The zoneserver program serves zones so that other DNS servers can be
       secondaries for zones which MaraDNS serves. This is a separate program
       from the maradns server, which processes both authoritative and
       recursive UDP DNS queries.

       See the DNS master document in the MaraDNS tutorial for details.

    17. Can MaraDNS act as a secondary nameserver?

       Yes.

       Please read the DNS slave document, which is part of the MaraDNS
       tutorial.

    18. What is the difference between an authoritative and a recursive DNS
    server?

       A recursive DNS server is a DNS server that is able to contact other
       DNS servers in order to resolve a given domain name label. This is the
       kind of DNS server one points to in /etc/resolve.conf

       An authoritative DNS server is a DNS server that a recursive server
       contacts in order to find out the answer to a given DNS query.

    19. The fetchzone client isn't allowing me to add certain hostnames to my
    zone

       For security reasons, MaraDNS' fetchzone client does not add records
       which are not part of the zone in question. For example, if someone has
       a zone for example.com, and this record in the zone:

       1.1.1.10.in-addr.arpa. PTR dns.example.com.

       MaraDNS will not add the record, since the record is out-of-bailiwick.
       In other words, it is a host name that does not end in .example.com.

       There are two workarounds for this issue:

       * Create a zone file for 1.1.10.in-addr.arpa., and put the PTR records
         there.

       * Use rcp, rsync, or another method to copy over the zone files in
         question.

    20. Is MaraDNS portable?

       MaraDNS is developed on a CentOS 5 and Windows XP dual boot laptop.
       MaraDNS may or may not compile and run on other systems.

    21. Can I use MaraDNS in Windows?

       Yes. There is both a partial mingw32 (native win32 binary) port and a
       full Cygwin port of MaraDNS; both of these ports are part of the native
       build of MaraDNS. Deadwood has full Windows support, including the
       ability to run as a service.

    22. MaraDNS freezes up after being used for a while

       There is a bug with the Linux kernel which causes UDP clients to freeze
       unless code is written to work around the kernel bug. This workaround
       was first introduced in MaraDNS 1.0.28 and 1.1.35 and accidently
       disabled in 1.2.03.1.

       If using your ISP's name servers or some other name servers which are
       not, in fact, root name servers, please make sure that you are using
       the upstream_servers dictionary variable instead of the root_servers
       dictionary variable.

       If you still see MaraDNS freeze up after making this correction, please
       send a bug report to the mailing list.

    23. What kind of Python integration does MaraDNS have

       The mararc file uses the same syntax that Python uses; in fact, Python
       can parse a properly formatted mararc file.

       There is currently no other integration with Python.

    24. Doesn't "kvar" mean "four" in Esperanto?

       Indeed, it does. However the use of "kvar" in the MaraDNS source code
       only coincidentally is an Esperanto word. "kvar" is short for "Kiwi
       variable"; a lot of the parsing code comes from the code used in the
       Kiwi spam filter project.

    25. How scalable is MaraDNS?

       MaraDNS is optimized for serving a small number of domains as quickly
       as possible. That said, MaraDNS is remarkably efficnent for serving a
       large number of domains, as long as the server MaraDNS is on has the
       memory to fit all of the domains, and as long as the startup time for
       loading a large number of domains can be worked around.

       The "big-O" or "theta" growth rates for various MaraDNS functions are
       as follows, where N is the number of authoritative host names being
       served:

       Startup time                            N
       Memory usage                            N
       Processing incoming DNS requests        1

       As can be seen, MaraDNS will process 1 or 100000 domains in the same
       amount of time, once the domain names are loaded in to memory.

    26. I am having problems setting upstream_servers

       The upstream_servers mararc variable is set thusly:

           upstream_servers["."] = "10.3.28.79, 10.2.19.83"

       Note the ["."]. The reason for this is so future versions of MaraDNS
       may have more fine-grained control over the upstream_servers and
       root_servers values.

       Note that the upstream_servers variable needs to be initialized before
       being used via upstream_servers = {} (the reason for this is so that a
       mararc file has 100% Python-compatible syntax). A complete mararc file
       that uses upstream_servers may look like this:

       ipv4_bind_addresses = "127.0.0.1"
       chroot_dir = "/etc/maradns"
       recursive_acl = "127.0.0.1/8"
       upstream_servers = {}
       upstream_servers["."] = "10.1.2.3, 10.2.4.6"

    27. Why doesn't the MaraDNS.org web page validate?

       HTML pages on the MaraDNS.org web site should validate as HTML 4.0
       Transitional. However, the CSS will not validate.

       I have designed MaraDNS' web page to be usable and as attractive as
       possible in any major browser released in the last ten years. Cross-
       browser support is more important than strict W3 validation. The reason
       why the CSS does not validate is because I need a way to make sure
       there is always a scrollbar on the web page, even if the content is not
       big enough to merit one; this is to avoid the content jumping from page
       to page. There is no standard CSS tag that lets me do this. I'm using a
       non-standard tag to enable this in Gecko (Firefox's rendering engine);
       this is enabled by default in Trident (Internet Explorer's rendering
       engine). The standards are deficient and blind adherence to them would
       result in an inferior web site.

       There are also two validation warnings generated by redefinitions which
       are needed as part of the CSS filters used to make the site attractive
       on older browsers with limited CSS support.

       On a related note, the reason why I use tables instead of CSS for some
       of the layout is because Microsoft Internet Explorer 6 and other
       browsers do not have support for the max-width CSS property. Without
       this property, the web page will not scale down correctly without using
       tables.  Additionally, tables allow a reasonably attractive header in
       browsers without CSS support.

    28. How do MX records work?

       How MX records work:

       * The mail transport agent (Sendmail, Postfix, Qmail, MS Exchange,
         etc.)  looks up the MX record for the domain

       * For each of the records returned, the MTA (mail transport agent)
         looks up the IP for the names.

       * It will choose, at random, any of the MXes with the lowest priority
         number.

       * Should that server fail, it will try another server with the same
         priority number.

       * Should all MX records with a given priority number fail, the MTA will
         try sending email to any of the MX records with the second-lowest
         priority value.

       As an aside, do not have MX records point to CNAMEs.

    29. Does MaraDNS have support for SPF?

       SPF, or sender policy framework, is method of using DNS that makes it
       more difficult to forge email. MaraDNS has full support for SPF, both
       via TXT records and, starting with MaraDNS 1.2.08, via RFC4408 SPF
       records.

       SPF configuration is beyond the scope of MaraDNS' documentation.
       However, at the time of this FAQ entry being written (June, 2006),
       information and documentation concerning SPF is available at
       http://openspf.org. The BIND examples will work in MaraDNS csv2 zone
       files as long as the double quotes (") are replaced by single quotes
       ('). For example, a SPF TXT record that looks like example.net. IN TXT
       "v=spf1 +mx a:colo.example.com/28 -all" in a BIND zone file will look
       like example.net. TXT 'v=spf1 +mx a:colo.example.com/28 -all' in a
       MaraDNS zone file. MaraDNS version 1.2.08 and higher can also make the
       corresponding SPF record, which will have the syntax example.net. SPF
       'v=spf1 +mx a:colo.example.com/28 -all'.

    30. I'm having problems resolving CNAMES I have set up.

       This is probably because you have set up what MaraDNS calls a dangling
       CNAME record.

       Let us suppose we have a CNAME record without an A record in the local
       DNS server's database, such as:

            google.example.com. CNAME www.google.com.

       This record, which is a CNAME record for "google.example.com", points
       to "www.google.com". Some DNS servers will recursively look up
       www.google.com, and render the above record like this:

            google.example.com. CNAME www.google.com.
            www.google.com. CNAME 66.102.7.104

       For security reasons, MaraDNS doesn't do this. Instead, MaraDNS will
       simply output:

            google.example.com. CNAME www.google.com.

       Some stub resolvers will be unable to resolve google.example.com as a
       consequence.

       If you set up MaraDNS to resolve CNAMEs thusly, you will get a warning
       in your logs about having a dangling CNAME record.

       If you want to remove these warnings, add the following to your mararc
       file:

            no_cname_warnings = 1

       Information about how to get MaraDNS to resolve dangling CNAME records
       is in the tutorial file dangling.html

    31. I have a NS delegation, and MaraDNS is doing strange things.

       In the case of there being a NS delegation, MaraDNS handles recursive
       queries and non-recursive DNS queries differently. Basically, unless
       you use askmara with the -n option, dig with the +norecuse option, or
       nslookup with the -norec option, MaraDNS will try to recursively
       resolve the record that is delegated.

       The thinking is this: A normal recursive DNS query is usually one where
       one wants to know the final DNS output. So, if MaraDNS delegates a
       given record to another DNS server, and gets a recursive request for
       said query, MaraDNS will recursively resolve the query for you.

       For example, let us suppose we have a mararc file that looks like this:

       chroot_dir = "/etc/maradns"
       ipv4_bind_addresses = "10.1.2.3"
       chroot_dir = "/etc/maradns"
       recursive_acl = "127.0.0.1/8, 10.0.0.0/8"
       csv2 = {}
       csv2["example.com."] = "db.example.com"

       And a db.example.com file that looks like this:

       www.example.com.    10.1.2.3
       joe.example.com.    NS ns.joe.example.com.
       ns.joe.example.com. A 10.1.2.4

       Next, you are trying to find out why www.joe.example.com is not
       resolving. If you naively send a query to 10.1.2.3 for
       www.joe.example.com as askmara Awww.joe.example.com. 10.1.2.3 or as dig
       @10.1.2.3 www.joe.example.com. or as nslookup www.joe.example.com.
       10.1.2.3, you will not get any information that will help you solve the
       problem, since 10.1.2.3 will try to contact 10.1.2.4 to resolve
       www.joe.example.com.

       The solution is to run your DNS query client thusly:

       * Askmara would be run thusly:

       askmara -n Awww.joe.example.com. 10.1.2.3

       * Dig would be run thusly:

       dig +norecurse @10.1.2.3 www.joe.example.com

       * Nslookup would be run thusly:

       nslookup -norec www.joe.example.com 10.1.2.3

       This will allow you to see that packets MaraDNS actually sends to a
       recursive DNS server.

       As an aside, this particular problem will not happen if MaraDNS is run
       only as an authoritative nameserver.

    32. I am transferring a zone from another server, but the NS records are
    these strange "synth-ip" records.

       MaraDNS expects, in csv2 zone files, for all delegation NS records to
       be between the SOA record and the first non-NS record.

       If a zone looks like this:

       example.net. +600 soa ns1.example.net.
       hostmaster@example.net 10 10800 3600 604800 1080
       example.net. +600 mx 10 mail.example.net.
       example.net. +600 a 10.2.3.5
       example.net. +600 ns ns1.example.net.
       example.net. +600 ns ns3.example.net.
       mail.example.net. +600 a 10.2.3.7
       www.example.net. +600 a 10.2.3.11

       Then the NS records will be "synth-ip" records.

       The zone should look like this:

       example.net. +600 soa ns1.example.net.
       hostmaster@example.net 10 10800 3600 604800 1080
       example.net. +600 ns ns1.example.net.
       example.net. +600 ns ns3.example.net.
       example.net. +600 mx 10 mail.example.net.
       example.net. +600 a 10.2.3.5
       mail.example.net. +600 a 10.2.3.7
       www.example.net. +600 a 10.2.3.11

       This will remove the "synth-ip" records.

       To automate this process, this awk script is useful:

       fetchzone whatever.zone.foo 10.1.2.3 | awk '
       {if($3 ~ /ns/ || $3 ~ /soa/){print}
       else{a = a "\n" $0}}
       END{print a}' > zonefile.csv2

       Replace "whatever.zone.foo" with the name of the zone you are fetchin
       10.1.2.3 with the IP address of the DNS master, and zonefile.csv2 with
       the name of the zone file MaraDNS loads.

    33. Where is the root.hints file?

       MaraDNS, unlike BIND, does not need a complicated root.hints file in
       order to have custom root servers. In order to change the root.hints
       file, add something like this to your mararc file:

       root_servers["."] =  "131.161.247.232,"
       root_servers["."] += "208.185.249.250,"
       root_servers["."] += "66.227.42.140,"
       root_servers["."] += "66.227.42.149,"
       root_servers["."] += "65.243.92.254"

       Note that there is no "+=" in the first line, and the last line does
       not have a comma at the end. Read the recursive tutorial document for
       more information.

    34. Are there any plans to use autoconf to build MaraDNS?

       No. OK, let me qualify that: I won't do it unless you pay me enough
       money.

       In more detail, MaraDNS does not use autoconf for the following
       reasons:

       * Autoconf is designed to solve a problem that existed in the mid 1990s
         but does not exist today: A large number of different incompatible C
         compilers and libc implementations. These days, most systems are
         using gcc as the compiler and some version of glibc as the libc.
         There is no longer a need, for example, to figure out whether a given
         implementation of getopt() allows '--' options.  MaraDNS's
         ./configure script can be run in only a second or two; compare this
         to the 3-5 minute process autoconf's ./configure needs.

       * Autoconf leaves GPL-tained files in a program's build tree. MaraDNS
         is licensed under a BSD license that is not GPL-compatible, so
         MaraDNS can not be distributed with these GPL-licensed files.

       This leads us to the next question:

    35. How do I change the compiler or compile-time flags with MaraDNS' build
    process?

       To change the compiler used by MaraDNS:

       * Run the ./configure script

       * Open up the file Makefile with an editor

       * Look for a line that starts with CC

       * If there is no line that starts with CC, create one just before the
         line that starts with FLAGS

       * Change (or create) that line to look something like CC=gcc296 In this
         example, the 2.96 version of gcc is used to compile MaraDNS.

       * Note that it is important to not remove anything from this line you
         do not understand; doing so will make MaraDNS unable to compile or
         run. So, if the CC line looks like
         CC=gcc $(LDFLAGS) -DNO_FLOCK and you want to compile with
         gcc 2.96, change the line to look like
         CC=gcc296 $(LDFLAGS) -DNO_FLOCK retaining the flags added
         by the configuration script.

       Changing compile-time flags is a similar process:

       * Run the ./configure script

       * Open up the file Makefile with an editor

       * Look for a line that starts with FLAGS

       * Change (or create) that line to look something like FLAGS=-O3 In this
         example, MaraDNS is compiled with the -O3 option.

       * Note that it is important to not remove anything from this line you
         do not understand; doing so will make MaraDNS unable to compile or
         run. So, if the FLAGS line looks like
         FLAGS=-O2 -Wall -DSELECT_PROBLEM and you want to compile at
         optimization level three, change this line to look like
         FLAGS=-O2 -Wall -DSELECT_PROBLEM retaining the flags added
         by the configuration script. -DSELECT_PROBLEM for example, is needed
         in the Linux compile or MaraDNS will have problems with freezing up.

    36. Will you make a package for the particular Linux distribution I am
    using?

       No. OK, let me qualify that: I won't do it unless you pay me enough
       money.

       There is, however, a CentOS 5-compatible RPM spec file in the build
       directory.

    37. I am using the native Windows port of MaraDNS, and some features are
    not working.

       Since Windows 32 does not have some features that *NIX OSes have, the
       native Windows port does not have all of the features of the *NIX
       version of MaraDNS. In particular, the following features are disabled:

       * ipv6 (this is actually a mingw32, not a Windows deficiency)

       * The chroot_dir mararc variable

       * The maradns_gid and maradns_uid mararc variables

       * The maxprocs mararc variable

       * The synth_soa_serial variable can not have a value of 2

       If any of the above features are desired, try compiling MaraDNS using
       Cygwin. Note that the Cygwin port of MaraDNS does not have ipv6
       support, and that while chroot_dir works in Cygwin, it does not have
       the security that the *NIX chroot() call has.

    38. MaraDNS isn't starting up

       This is usually caused by a syntax error in one's mararc file, or by
       another MaraDNS process already running. To see what is happening, look
       at your system log (/var/log/messages in Centos 3) to see what errors
       MaraDNS reports. If you do not know how to look at a system log, you
       can also invoke MaraDNS from the command line as root; any errors will
       be visible when starting MaraDNS.

    39. You make a lot of releases of MaraDNS; at our ISP/IT department,
    updating software is non-trivial.

       The number of releases seen in the changelog is not an accurate
       reflection of how often someone using a stable branch of MaraDNS will
       need to update.

       MaraDNS 1.2 and 1.3.07, the older stable branches of MaraDNS, were last
       updated in August of 2008.

       I go to a great deal of effort to make sure MaraDNS releases are as
       painless to update as possible. I ensure configuration file format
       compatibility, even between major versions of MaraDNS. With the
       exception of configuration file parser bugfixes, MaraDNS 1.0
       configuration files are compatible with MaraDNS 1.4.

       It is impossible to make code that is bug-free or without security
       problems. This is especially true with code that runs on the public
       internet.<sup><font size=-2>1</font></sup> Code has to be updated from
       time to time. What I do in order to minimize the disruption caused by
       an update is to always have a stable bugfix-only branch of MaraDNS
       (right now I have two bugfix-only branches), and to, as much as
       possible, evenly space out the bugfix updates.

       Footnote 1: Even DJB's code has security problems. Both Qmail and
       DjbDNS have known security problems, and need to be patched before put
       on a public internet server.

    40. I have star records in my zones, and am having problems with
    NXDOMAINs/IPV6 resolution

       This was a bug in MaraDNS 1.2 which has long since been fixed.

    41. I have a zone with only SOA/NS records, and the zone is not working.

       MaraDNS 1.2 has a bug where it does not correctly process zones without
       any "normal" records. For example, suppose a zone like this:

       % SOA localhost. root@localhost. 1 7200 600 1209600 3600
       % NS localhost.

       This zone will not work until some non-SOA/NS record is added, such as
       in this zone file:

       % SOA localhost. root@localhost. 1 7200 600 1209600 3600
       % NS localhost.
       foo.% TXT 'MaraDNS 1.2 needs this record.'

       This bug has been fixed in MaraDNS 1.3 and 1.4; since this is not a
       security bug (there is a perfectly good workaround), this bug will not
       be fixed in MaraDNS 1.2 unless you pay me to fix it.

    42. I am having problems registering my domain with AFNIC (the registrar
    for .fr domains)

       Because of an issue with AFNIC (who, annoyingly enough, check the RA
       bit when registering a domain), in order to register a domain with
       AFNIC using MaraDNS as your DNS server, the following steps need to be
       followed:

       * MaraDNS version 1.4 needs to be used; if you're using an older
         version of MaraDNS, upgrade.

       * It is necessary to have recursion disabled. This can be done either
         by compiling MaraDNS without recursive support (./configure
         --authonly ; make), or by making sure MaraDNS does not have recursion
         enabled (by not having recursive_acl set in one's mararc file)

       If one wishes to both register domains with AFNIC and use MaraDNS as a
       recursive DNS server, it is required to have the recursive server be a
       separate instance of MaraDNS on a separate IP. It is not possible to
       have the same DNS server both send DNS packets in a way that both makes
       AFNIC happy and allows recursive queries.

       Note also: AFNIC gives warnings about reverse DNS lookups; more
       information about this issue can be found in the FAQ entry about
       reverse DNS mappings (question 7). In addition, AFNIC requires DNS-
       over-TCP to work; information on configuring MaraDNS to have this can
       be found in the DNS-over-TCP tutorial.

    43. I can't see the full answers for subdomains I have delegated

       To have the subdomains be visible to recursive nameservers, add the
       following to your mararc file:

       recurse_delegation = 1

    44. MaraDNS 1 has a problem resolving a domain

       This issue should be fixed when and if I release MaraDNS 2.0.

       Here's what happening: I'm rewriting the recursive resolver for
       MaraDNS.  The old code was always designed to be a placeholder until I
       wrote a new recursive resolver.

       The new recursive resolver is called "Deadwood"; right now it's a fully
       functional non-recursive DNS cache. More information is here:

       http://maradns.blogspot.com/search/label/Deadwood

       http://maradns.org/deadwood/

       Since the old recursive code is a bit difficult to maintain, and since
       I in the process of rewriting the recursive code, my rule is that I
       will only resolve issues where an Alexa top 500 site can not resolve
       with MaraDNS' current recursive resolver at all.

       If resolving a given domain with MaraDNS' code is an urgent issue for
       you, please consider sponsoring MaraDNS:

       http://www.maradns.org/products.html

    45. MaraDNS 1.2 has issues with NXDOMAINS and case sensitivity.

       There is a known bug in MaraDNS 1.2.12 where, should a client ask for a
       non-existent record in all caps, MaraDNS 1.2.12 will return a NXDOMAIN
       instead of a "not there" reply. This can cause there to be problems
       delivering email to the host in question if a mail transport agent asks
       for a name in all caps.

       If this is an issue for your organization, please upgrade to a newer
       version of MaraDNS; MaraDNS 1.4 does not have this bug. If you want to
       see this bug fixed in MaraDNS 1.2, please help sponsor MaraDNS.

    46. Can MaraDNS offer protection from phishing and malicious sites?

       Yes.

       Here is a webpage that explains how its done:

       http://www.malwaredomains.com/?p=288

       Should that website be down, I have made a local mirror of the Perl
       script here:

       createmaradns-pl.txt

    47. Does maradns support star (wildcard) records?

       Yes.

       MaraDNS supports both having stars at the beginning of records and the
       end of records. For example, to have anything.example.com.  have the IP
       10.1.2.3, add this line to the zone file for example.com:

       *.example.com. A 10.1.2.3

       To have stars at the end of records, csv2_default_zonefile has to be
       set. The mararc parameter bind_star_handling affects how star records
       are handled. More information is in the mararc man page.

BUGS

       In the unusual case of having a csv2 zone file with Macintosh-style
       newlines (as opposed to DOS or UNIX newlines), while the file will
       parse, any errors in the file will be reported as being on line 1.

       The maximum allowed number of threads is 5000.

       The system startup script included with MaraDNS assumes that the only
       MaraDNS processes running are started by the script; it stops all
       MaraDNS processes running on the server when asked to stop MaraDNS.

       When a resolver asks for an A record, and the A record is a CNAME which
       points to a list of IPs, MaraDNS' recursive resolver only returns the
       first IP listed along with the CNAME. This is somewhat worked around by
       having a CNAME record only stay in the recursive cache for 15 minutes.

       When a resolver asks for an A record, and the A record is a CNAME that
       points to another CNAME (and possibly a longer CNAME chain), while
       MaraDNS returns the correct IP (as long as the glueless level is not
       exceeded), MaraDNS will incorrectly state that the first CNAME in the
       chain directly points to the IP.

       If a NS record points to a list of IPs, and the NS record in question
       is a "glueless" record (MaraDNS had to go back to the root servers to
       find out the IP of the machine in question), MaraDNS' recursive
       resolver only uses the first listed IP as a name server.

       When MaraDNS' recursive resolver receives a "host not there" reply,
       instead of using the SOA minimum of the "host not there" reply as the
       TTL (Look at RFC1034 section 4.3.4), MaraDNS uses the TTL of the SOA
       reply.

       MaraDNS keeps referral NS records in the cache for one day instead of
       the TTL specified by the remote server.

       MaraDNS needs to use the zoneserver program to serve DNS records over
       TCP. See zoneserver(8) for usage information.

       MaraDNS does not use the zone file ("master file") format specified in
       chapter 5 of RFC1035.

       MaraDNS default behavior with star records is not RFC-compliant.  In
       more detail, if a wildcard MX record exists in the form
       "*.example.com", and there is an A record for "www.example.com", but no
       MX record for "www.example.com", the correct behavior (based on RFC1034
       section 4.3.3) is to return "no host" (nothing in the answer section,
       SOA in the authority section, 0 result code) for a MX request to
       "www.example.com".  Instead, MaraDNS returns the MX record attached to
       "*.example.com".  This can be changed by setting bind_star_handling to
       1.

       Star records (what RFC1034 calls "wildcards") can not be attached to NS
       records.

       MaraDNS recursive resolver treats any TTL shorter than min_ttl seconds
       (min_ttl_cname seconds when the record is a CNAME record) as if the TTL
       in question was min_ttl (or min_ttl_cname) seconds long when
       determining when to expire a record from MaraDNS' cache.

       TTLs which are shorter than 20 seconds long are given a TTL of 20
       seconds; TTLs which are more than 63072000 (2 years) long are given a
       TTL of 2 years.

       MaraDNS' recursive resolver's method of deleting not recently accessed
       records from the cache when the cache starts to fill up can deleted
       records from the cache before they expire. Some people consider this
       undesirable behavior; I feel it is necessary behavior if one wishes to
       place a limit on the memory resources a DNS server may use.

       MaraDNS' recursive resolver stops resolving when it finds an answer in
       the AR section. This is a problem in the case where a given host name
       and IP is registered with the root name servers, and the registered IP
       is out of date. When this happens, a server "closer" to the root server
       will give an out-of-date IP, even though the authoritative DNS servers
       for the host in question have the correct IP. Note that resolving this
       will result in increased DNS traffic.

       MaraDNS, like every other known DNS implementation, only supports a
       QDCOUNT of 0 or 1.

       MaraDNS spawns a new thread for every single recursive DNS request when
       the data in question is not in MaraDNS' cache; this makes MaraDNS an
       excellent stress tester for pthread implementations.  Many pthread
       implementations can not handle this kind of load; symptoms include high
       memory usage and termination of the MaraDNS process.

       MaraDNS does not handle the case of a glueless in-bailiwick NS referral
       very gracefully; this usually causes the zone pointed to by the
       offending NS record to be unreachable by MaraDNS, even if other DNS
       servers for the domain have correct NS referrals.

UNIMPLEMENTED FEATURES

       These are features which I do not plan to implement in MaraDNS. If you
       wish to see these features, consider sponsoring MaraDNS development:

       MaraDNS does not have a disk-based caching scheme for authoritative
       zones.

       MaraDNS' UDP server only loads zone files while MaraDNS is first
       started.  UDP Zone information can only be updated by stopping MaraDNS,
       and restarting MaraDNS again. Note that TCP zone files are loaded from
       the filesystem at the time the client requests a zone.

       MaraDNS does not have support for allowing given host names to only
       resolve for a limited range of IPs querying the DNS server, or for host
       names to resolve differently, depending on the IP querying the host
       name.

       MaraDNS 1.4 only has authoritative-only support for IPv6. Deadwood,
       however, has full IPv6 support.

       MaraDNS only allows wildcards at the beginning or end of a host name.
       E.g. names with wildcards like "foo.*.example.com". "www.*" will work,
       however, if a default zonefile is set up.

       MaraDNS does not have support for MRTG or any other SNMP-based logging
       mechanism.

LEGAL DISCLAIMER

       THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHORS ''AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR
       IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
       WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
       DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR
       ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
       DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
       OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
       HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
       STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING
       IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
       POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

AUTHORS

       Sam Trenholme (http://www.samiam.org) is responsible for this man page.

       MaraDNS is written by me, Sam Trenholme, with a little help from my
       friends. Naturally, all errors in MaraDNS are my own (but read the
       disclaimer above).

       Here is a partial list of people who have provided assistance:

       Floh has generously set up a FreeBSD 4, FreeBSD 6, and Mac OS X system
       so that I can port MaraDNS to more platforms.

       Albert Lee has provided countless bug reports, and, nicely enough,
       patches to fix said bugs. He has also made improvements to the code in
       the tcp "zoneserver".

       Franky Van Liedekerke has provided much invaluable assistance. As just
       one example, he provided invaluable assistance in getting MaraDNS to
       compile on Solaris. In addition, he has provided much valuable SQA
       help.

       Christian Kurz, who has provided invaluable bug reports, especially
       when I had to re-implement the core hashing algorithm.

       Remmy, who is providing both the web space and a mailing list for
       maradns.org.

       Phil Homewood, who provided invaluable assistance with finding and
       fixing bugs in the authoritative portion of the MaraDNS server. He
       helped me plug memory leaks, find uninitialized variables being used,
       and found a number of bugs I was unable to find.

       Albert Prats kindly provided Spanish translations for various text
       files.

       Shin Zukeran provided a patch to recursive.c which properly makes a
       normal null-terminated string from a js_string object, to send as an
       argument to open() so we can get the rijndael key for the PRNG.

       D Richard Felker III has provided invaluable bug reports. By looking at
       his bug reports, I have been able to hunt down and fix many problems
       that the recursive nameserver had, in addition to at least one problem
       with the authoritative nameserver.

       Ole Tange has also given me many valuable MaraDNS bug reports.

       Florin Iucha provided a tip in the FAQ for how to compile MaraDNS on
       OpenBSD.

       Roy Arends (one of the BIND developers, as it turns out) found a
       serious security problem with MaraDNS, where MaraDNS would answer
       answers, and pointed it out to me.

       Code used as the basis for the psudo-random-number generator was
       written by Vincent Rijmen, Antoon Bosselaers, and Paulo Barreto. I
       appreciate these programmers making the code public domain, which is
       the only license under which I can add code to MaraDNS under.

       Ross Johnson and others have made a Win32 port of the Pthreads library;
       this has made a native win32 port of MaraDNS possible.

       I also appreciate the work of Dr. Brian Gladman and Fritz Schneider,
       who have both written independent implementations of AES from which I
       obtained test vectors. With the help of their hard work, I was able to
       discover a subtle security problem that previous releases of MaraDNS
       had.