Provided by: multistrap_2.1.6ubuntu3_all bug


       multistrap - multiple repository bootstraps


        multistrap [--simulate] -f FICHEIRO_CONFIGURACAO
        multistrap -?|-h|--help|--version


       -?|-h|--help|--version - output the help text and exit successfully.

       --dry-run - recolhe todas as definicoes de configuracao e gera um
       sumario a descoberto.

       --simulate - o mesmo que --dry-run

       (As seguintes opcoes tambem podem ser definidas no ficheiro de

       -a|--arch - architecture of the packages to put into the multistrap.

       -d|--dir - directory into which the bootstrap will be installed.

       -f|--file - configuration file for multistrap [required]

       --tidy-up - remove dados da cache do apt, ficheiros de pacotes
       descarregados e a cache de pacotes do apt. O mesmo que cleanup=true.

       --no-auth - permite o uso de repositorios nao autenticados. O mesmo que

       --source-dir DIR - move the contents of var/cache/apt/archives/ from
       inside the chroot to the specified external directory, then add the
       Debian source packages for each used binary. Same as retainsources=DIR
       If the specified directory does not exist, nothing is done. Requires
       --tidy-up in order to calculate the full list of source packages,
       including dependencies.


       multistrap provides a debootstrap-like method based on apt and extended
       to provide support for multiple repositories, using a configuration
       file to specify the relevant suites, architecture, extra packages and
       the mirror to use for each bootstrap.

       O objectivo e criar um sistema de ficheiros bootstrap / raiz completo
       com todos os pacotes instalados e configurados, em vez de apenas o
       sistema base.

       Exemplo de configuracao:

        # same as --tidy-up option if set to true
        # same as --no-auth option if set to true
        # keyring packages listed in each bootstrap will
        # still be installed.
        # extract all downloaded archives (default is true)
        # whether to add the /suite to be explicit about where apt
        # needs to look for packages. Default is false.
        # aptsources is a list of sections to be used
        # the /etc/apt/sources.list.d/multistrap.sources.list
        # of the target. Order is not important
        # the bootstrap option determines which repository
        # is used to calculate the list of Priority: required packages
        # and which packages go into the rootfs.
        # The order of sections is not important.


       This will result in a completely normal debootstrap of Debian lenny
       from the specified mirror, for armel in '/opt/multistrap/'. (This
       configuration is retained in the package as

       Specify a package to extend the multistrap to include that package and
       all dependencies of that package.

       Specify more repositories for the bootstrap by adding new sections.
       Section names need to be listed in the bootstrap general option for the
       packages to be included in the bootstrap.

       Specify which repositories will be available to the final system at
       boot by listing the section names in the aptsources general option,
       e.g. to exclude some internal sources or when using a local mirror when
       building the rootfs.

       Os nomes das seccoes sao insensiveis a maiusculas/minusculas.

       All dependencies are resolved only by apt, using all bootstrap
       repositories, to use only the most recent and most suitable
       dependencies. Note that multistrap turns off Install-Recommends so if
       the multistrap needs a package that is only a Recommended dependency,
       the recommended package needs to be specified in the packages line
       explicitly. See "Explicit suite specification" for more information on
       getting specific packages from specific suites.

       'Architecture' and 'directory' can be overridden on the command line.
       Some other general options also have command line options.


       "aptsources" lista as seccoes que devem ser usadas para criar as
       /etc/apt/sources.list.d/multistrap.list sources do apt no sistema
       final. Nem todas as "aptsources" tem de aparecer na seccao "bootstrap"
       se voce tiver algumas sources internas ou locais que nao estao
       acessiveis ao sistema de ficheiros raiz instalado.

       "bootstrap" lista as seccoes que serao usadas para criar o proprio
       multistrap. Apenas os pacotes listados em "bootstrap" serao
       descarregados e desempacotados pelo multistrap.

       Certifica que "bootstrap" lista todas as seccoes que precisa para o apt
       ser capaz de encontrar todos os pacotes a serem desempacotados para o

       (Older versions of multistrap supported the same option under the
       "debootstrap" name - this spelling is still supported but new
       configuration files should be "bootstrap" instead.

Defini,c~oes gerais:

       'arch' can be overridden on the command line using the "--arch" option.

       'directory' specifies the top level directory where the bootstrap will
       be created - it is not packed into a .tgz once complete.

       'bootstrap' lists the Sections which will be used to specify the
       packages which will be downloaded (and optionally unpacked) into the

       'aptsources' lists the Sections which will be used to specify the apt
       sources in the final system, e.g. if you need to use a local repository
       to generate the rootfs which will not be available to the device at
       runtime, list that section in "bootstrap" but not in "aptsources".

       If you want a package to be in the rootfs, it must be specified in the
       "bootstrap" list under General.

       The order of section names in either list is not important.

       As with debootstrap, multistrap will continue after errors, as long as
       the configuration file can be correctly parsed.

       O multistrap tambem implementa o suporte a machine:variant usado
       originalmente em Emdebian Crush, apesar de ser uma implementacao
       diferente. Usando o suporte de configuracao em cascata, podem ser
       suportadas combinacoes particulares de machine:variant atraves de
       alteracoes simples na linha de comandos.

       Definir "tarballname" para verdadeiro tambem empacota o sistema de
       ficheiros final num tarball.

       Note that multistrap ignores any unrecognised options in the config
       file - this allows for backwards-compatible behaviour as well as
       overloading the multistrap config files to support other tools (like
       pbuilder). Use the "--simulate" option to see the combined
       configuration settings.

Section settings


       The section name (in [] brackets) needs to be unique for this
       configuration file and any configuration files which this file
       includes. Section names are case insensitive (all comparisons happen
       after conversion to lower case).

       'packages' is the list of packages to be added when this Section is
       listed in "bootstrap".

       'source' is the apt source to use for this Section. (To use a local
       source on the same machine, ensure you use "copy://" not "file://", so
       that apt is told to copy the packages into the rootfs instead of
       assuming it can try to download them later - because that "later" will
       never actually happen.

       'keyring' lists the package which contains the key used by the source
       listed in this Section. If no keyring is specified, the "noauth" option
       must be set to true. See Secure Apt.

       'suite' is the suite to use from this source. Note that this must be
       the suite, not the codename.

       Suites change from time to time: (oldstable, stable, testing, sid)  The
       codename (etch, lenny, squeeze, sid) does not change.

Seguran,ca do Apt

       To use authenticated apt repositories, multistrap either needs to be
       able to install an appropriate keyring package from the existing apt
       sources outside the multistrap environment or have the relevant keys
       already configured using apt-key on the host system.

       Se existirem pacotes relevantes, especifique-os na opcao 'keyring' para
       cada repositorio. O multistrap ira entao verificar se o apt ja instalou
       este pacote para que o repositorio possa ser autenticado antes que
       quaisquer pacotes sejam descarregados dele.

       Note that all repositories to be used with multistrap must be
       authenticated or apt will fail. Similarly, secure apt can only be
       disabled for all repositories (by using the --no-auth command line
       option or setting the general noauth option in the configuration file),
       even if only one repository does not have a suitable keyring available.
       Not all packages need keyring packages, if you configure apt-key

       O(s) pacote(s) chaveiro (keyring) serao tambem instalados dentro do
       ambiente multistrap para coincidir com as fontes apt instaladas para o

       Todas as configuracoes do apt-key precisam ser feitas para a maquina
       correndo o proprio multistrap.


       O multistrap nao tem estado - se o directorio existir, ira simplesmente
       prosseguir como normalmente e o apt ira tentar prosseguir de onde

Root Filesystem Configuration

       o multistrap desempacota os pacotes descarregados mas nao serao
       tentados outros estagios da configuracao do sistema. Os exemplos


       Any device-specific device nodes will also need to be created using
       MAKEDEV or "" - a helper script that can work around
       some of the issues with MAKEDEV. requires a device
       table file along the lines of the one in the mtd-utils source package.
       See /usr/share/doc/multistrap/examples/device_table.txt

       Apos o multistrap ter criado com sucesso a disposicao basica de
       ficheiros e oesquema de directorios, sao necessarios outros scripts
       especificos do dispositivo antes que o sistema de ficheiros possa ser
       empacotado e instalado no dispositivo de destino.

       Apos instalados, os proprios pacotes precisam de ser configurados
       usando os scripts do responsavel do pacote e "dpkg --configure -a", a
       menos que isto seja um multistrap nativo.

       Para que o "dpkg" funcione, /proc e /sysfs precisam de estar montados
       (ou serem montaveis), tambem e recomendado /dev/pts.

       Veja tambem:


       Para configurar os pacotes desempacotados (seja em modo nativo ou
       cruzado), sao necessarias certas variaveis de ambiente:

       O debconf precisa que lho digam para aceitar que a interaccao com o
       utilizador nao e desejada:


       O Perl precisa que lho digam para aceitar que nao ha locales
       disponiveis dentro da chroot e nao se queixar:


       Depois, o dpkg pode configurar os pacotes.

       metodo de chroot (PATH = directorio de topo da chroot):

        LC_ALL=C LANGUAGE=C LANG=C chroot /PATH/ dpkg --configure -a

       numa shell de login:

        # export DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive DEBCONF_NONINTERACTIVE_SEEN=true
        # export LC_ALL=C LANGUAGE=C LANG=C
        # dpkg --configure -a

       (Como em cima, o dpkg precisa de /proc e /sysfs montados primeiro.)

Modo nativo - multistrap

       o multistrap nao foi destinado a suporte nativo, foi desenvolvido para
       suporte a compilacao de outras arquitecturas. De modo a se usar
       multiplos repositorios, o multistrap apenas desempacota os pacotes
       seleccionados pelo apt.

       Em modo nativo, e provavel serem necessarias varias operacoes post-
       multistrap que o debootstrap faria por si:

        1. copiar /etc/hosts para a chroot
        2. limpar o ambiente para apagar as variaveis LANGUAGE, LC_ALL e LANG
           para silenciar avisos sem sentido do perl que escondem outros erros

       (Uma alternativa a apagar as variaveis de localizacao e adicionar
       locales ao seu ficheiro de configuracao multistrap na opcao

       Um multistrap nativo pode ser usado directamente com a chroot, de modo
       a que "multistrap" corra "dpkg --configure -a" no final do processo

Configura,c~ao em cascata

       Para suportar multiplas variantes duma configuracao basica (comum),
       "multistrap" permite ficheiros de configuracao para incluir outros
       ficheiros de configuracao (mais gerais). Isto e, o ficheiro de
       configuracao mais detalhado / especifico e especificado na linha de
       comandos e esse ficheiro inclui outro ficheiro que e partilhado por
       outras configuracoes.

       Ficheiro base:




       Especificar apenas o ficheiro armel.conf ira obter o resto das
       definicoes de crosschroot.conf para que as alteracoes comuns so
       precisem ser feitas num unico ficheiro.

       E fortemente recomendado que quaisquer modificacoes nos ficheiros de
       configuracao envolvidas em qualquer cascata particular sejam testadas
       usando a opcao "--simulate" do multistrap o que ira gerar um sumario
       das opcoes que foram definidas apos a cascata estar completa. Note que
       o multistrap n~ao o avisa se um ficheiro de configuracao conter uma
       opcao nao reconhecida (para compatibilidade futura com configuracoes
       backport), portanto um simples erro de escrita pode resultar numa opcao
       nao definida.

Suporte a Machine:variant

       As variaveis packages-conf antigas de emsandbox podem ser convertidas
       em variaveis de configuracao "multistrap". O suporte a machine:variant
       em "multistrap" concentra-se nos scripts e

       Once "multistrap" has unpacked the downloaded packages, the ""
       can be called, passing the location and architecture of the root
       filesystem, so that other fine tuning can take place. At this stage,
       any operations inside the rootfs must not try to execute any binaries
       within the rootfs. As the final stage of the multistrap process,
       "" is copied into the root directory of the rootfs.

       Uma vantagem de usar suporte a machine:variant e que o sistema de
       ficheiros raiz completo pode ser gerido por uma unica chamada ao
       multistrap - isto e util quando se constroi sistemas de ficheiros raiz
       no espaco do utilizador.

       Para activar suporte a machine:variant, especifique o caminho para os
       scripts a serem chamados no ficheiro de configuracao de variantes
       (seccao General):


Restringindo a selec,c~ao de pacotes

       "multistrap" inclui os pacotes necessarios (Required) por predefinicao,
       a lista actual de pacotes pode ser vista usando:

        grep-available  -FPriority 'required' -sPackage

       Se a opcao OmitRequired for definida para true, estes pacotes nao serao
       adicionados - embora util, esta opcao pode levar facilmente a um rootfs
       inutil. Apenas os pacotes especificados manualmente nos ficheiros de
       configuracao serao usados nos calculos - as dependencias desses pacotes
       serao adicionadas mas mais nenhuns.

       Packages with Priority: important or standard are never included by
       "multistrap" unless specifically included in a "packages=" option in a
       section specified in the "bootstrap" general option.

Recommends behaviour

       The Debian default behaviour after the Lenny release was to consider
       recommended packages as extra packages to be installed when any one
       package is selected. Recommended packages are those which the
       maintainer considers that would be present on "most" installations of
       that package and allowing Recommends means allowing Recommends of
       recommended packages and so on.

       The multistrap default is to turn recommends OFF.

       Set the allowrecommends option to true in the General section to use
       typical Debian behaviour.

Explicit suite specification

       Sometimes, apt needs to be told to get a particular package from a
       particular suite, ignoring a more recent version in another suite in
       the same set of sources.

       "multistrap" can operate with and without the explicit suite option,
       the default is to let apt use the most recent version from the
       collection of specified bootstrap sources.

       Explicit suite specification has no effect on the final installed
       system - if your aptsources includes a repository which in turn
       includes a newer version of the package(s) specified explicitly, the
       next "apt-get upgrade" on the device will bring in the newer version.

       Also, when specifying packages to get from a specific suite, apt will
       also try and ensure that the dependencies for that package are also
       from the same suite and this can cause apt to be unable to resolve the
       complete set of dependencies. In this situation, being explicit about
       one package selection may require being explicit about some (not
       necessarily all) of the dependencies of that package as well.

       When using this support in Lenny, ensure that each section uses the
       suite (oldstable, stable, testing, sid) and not the codename (etch,
       lenny, squeeze, sid) in the "suite" configuration item as the version
       of apt in Lenny and previous cannot use the codename.

       To test, on Lenny, try:

        $ sudo apt-get install apt/stable

       Compare with

        $ sudo apt-get install apt/lenny

Omitting deb-src listings

       Some multistrap environments do not need access to the Debian sources
       of packages being installed, typically this is required when preparing
       a build (or cross-build) chroot using multistrap.

       To turn off this additional source (and save both download time and
       apt-cache size), use the omitdebsrc field in each Section.



       Foreign architecture bootstraps can operate under "fakeroot"
       ("multistrap" is designed to do as much as it can within a single call
       to make this easier) but the configuration stage which normally happens
       with a native architecture bootstrap requires "chroot" and "chroot"
       itself will not operate under "fakeroot".

       Therefore, if "multistrap" detects that "fakeroot" is in use, native
       mode configuration is skipped with a reminder warning.

       The same problem applies to "apt-get install" and therefore the
       installation of the keyring package on the host system is also skipped
       if fakeroot is detected.