Provided by: lintian_2.5.0~rc2ubuntu3_all bug

NAME

       lintian - Static analysis tool for Debian packages

SYNOPSIS

       lintian [action] [options] [packages] ...

DESCRIPTION

       Lintian dissects Debian packages and reports bugs and policy
       violations.  It contains automated checks for many aspects of Debian
       policy as well as some checks for common errors.

       It uses an archive directory, called laboratory, in which it stores
       information about the packages it examines.  It can keep this
       information between multiple invocations in order to avoid repeating
       expensive data-collection operations.

       There are three ways to specify binary, udeb or source packages for
       Lintian to process: by file name (the .deb file for a binary package or
       the .dsc file for a source package), by package name, or by naming a
       .changes file.  If you list packages by package name, you'll have to
       define the LINTIAN_DIST variable in the configuration file (see below).
       Lintian will then search for any binary or source packages in this
       directory for packages with the given name. (You can use the -b
       (--binary), --udeb and -s (--source) options if you only want to
       process binary, udeb or source packages.)

       If you specify a .changes file, Lintian will process all packages
       listed in that file.  This is convenient when checking a new package
       before uploading it.

OPTIONS

       Actions of the lintian command: (Only one action can be specified per
       invocation)

       -c, --check
           Run all checks over the specified packages.  This is the default
           action.

       -C chk1,chk2,..., --check-part chk1,chk2,...
           Run only the specified checks.  You can either specify the name of
           the check script or the abbreviation.  For details, see the
           "CHECKS" section below.

       -F, --ftp-master-rejects
           Run only the checks that issue tags that result in automatic
           rejects from the Debian upload queue.  The list of such tags is
           refreshed with each Lintian release, so may be slightly out of date
           if it has changed recently.  This option does not, as yet, ignore
           overrides for fatal tags for which overrides aren't allowed.

       -r, --remove
           Clean up the lintian directory of the specified packages up to the
           current unpack level.  The default unpack level is 0 for this
           option.

       -R, --remove-lab
           Remove the laboratory directory.

       -S, --setup-lab
           Set up or update the laboratory.

       -T tag1,tag2,..., --tags tag1,tag2,...
           Run only the checks that issue the requested tags.  The tests for
           other tags within the check scripts will be run but the tags will
           not be issued.

       --tags-from-file filename
           Same functionality as --tags, but read the list of tags from a
           file.  Blank lines and lines beginning with # are ignored.  All
           other lines are taken to be tag names or comma-separated lists of
           tag names to (potentially) issue.

       -u, --unpack
           Unpack the specified packages up to the current unpack level.  The
           default and only unpack level is 1 for this option.  See the
           "UNPACK LEVELS" section below.

           Note in this option will also run all collections.  See the
           "COLLECTION" section below.

       -X chk1,chk2,..., --dont-check-part chk1,chk2,...
           Run all but the the specified checks.  You can either specify the
           name of the check script or the abbreviation.  For details, see the
           "CHECKS" section below.

       General options:

       -d, --debug
           Display debugging messages. (Implies -v).

       -h, --help
           Display usage information and exit.

       -q, --quiet
           Suppress all informational messages.  Currently, the only message
           this suppresses is the message at the end of the run giving the
           total count of overrides.

       -v, --verbose
           Display verbose messages.

       -V, --version
           Display lintian version number and exit.

       --print-version
           Print unadorned version number and exit.

       Behaviour options for lintian.

       --allow-root
           Override lintian's warning when it is run with superuser
           privileges.

       --color (never|always|auto|html)
           Whether to colorize tags in lintian output based on their severity.
           The default is "never", which never uses color.  "always" will
           always use color, "auto" will use color only if the output is going
           to a terminal, and "html" will use HTML <span> tags with a color
           style attribute (instead of ANSI color escape sequences).

       --display-source X
           Only display tags from the source X (e.g. the Policy Manual or the
           Developer Reference).  This option can be used multiple times to
           add additional sources.  Example sources are "policy" or "devref"
           being the Policy Manual and the Developer Reference (respectively).

           The entire list of sources can be found in
           $LINTIAN_ROOT/data/output/manual-references

       -E, --display-experimental
           Display experimental ("X:") tags as well.  They are normally
           suppressed.

           If a tag is marked experimental, this means that the code that
           generates this message is not as well tested as the rest of
           Lintian, and might still give surprising results.  Feel free to
           ignore Experimental messages that do not seem to make sense, though
           of course bug reports are always welcomed (particularly if they
           include fixes).

       --fail-on-warnings
           By default, lintian exits with 0 status if only warnings were
           found.  If this flag is given, exit with a status of 1 if either
           warnings or errors are found.

       -i, --info
           Print explanatory information about each problem discovered in
           addition to the lintian error tags. To print a long tag description
           without running lintian, see lintian-info(1).

       -I, --display-info
           Display informational ("I:") tags as well.  They are normally
           suppressed.  (This is equivalent to -L ">=wishlist").

       --keep-lab
           By default, temporary labs will be removed after lintian is
           finished.  Specifying this options will leave the lab behind, which
           might be useful for debugging purposes.  You can find out where the
           temporary lab is located by running lintian with the --verbose
           option.

           For static (non-temporary) labs this option causes Lintian to skip
           the automatical clean up of some collections.

       -l n, --unpack-level n
           Set unpack level to n.  See the "UNPACK LEVELS" section, below.

           Note that the UNPACK LEVEL system is deprecated in favour of the
           "COLLECTION" system.

       -L [+|-|=][>=|>|<|<=][S|C|S/C], --display-level
       [+|-|=][>=|>|<|<=][S|C|S/C]
           Fine-grained selection of tags to be displayed. It is possible to
           add, remove or set the levels to display, specifying a severity (S:
           serious, important, normal, minor, wishlist), a certainty (C:
           certain, possible, wild-guess), or both (S/C).  The default
           settings are equivalent to -L ">=important" -L "+>=normal/possible"
           -L +minor/certain).

       -m, --md5sums, --checksums
           Check checksums when processing a .changes file.  Normally, Lintian
           only checks the checksums for .dsc files when processing a .changes
           file.

       -o, --no-override
           Don't use the overrides file.

       --pedantic
           Display pedantic ("P:") tags as well.  They are normally
           suppressed.

           Pedantic tags are Lintian at its most pickiest and include checks
           for particular Debian packaging styles and checks that many people
           disagree with.  Expect false positives and Lintian tags that you
           don't consider useful if you use this option.  Adding overrides for
           pedantic tags is probably not worth the effort.

       --show-overrides
           Output tags that have been overridden.

       --suppress-tags tag1,tag2,...
           Suppress the listed tags.  They will not be reported if they occur
           and will not affect the exit status of Lintian.

       --suppress-tags-from-file file
           Suppress all tags listed in the given file.  Blank lines and lines
           beginning with # are ignored.  All other lines are taken to be tag
           names or comma-separated lists of tag names to suppress.  The
           suppressed tags will not be reported if they occur and will not
           affect the exit status of Lintian.

       -U info1,info2,..., --unpack-info info1,info2,...
           Collect information info1, info2, etc. even if these are not
           required by the checks.

       Configuration options:

       --arch arch
           When scanning for packages in the distdir, select only packages for
           architecture arch.  This option overrides the LINTIAN_ARCH
           environment variable and the configuration file entry of the same
           name.

       --area area
           When scanning for packages in the distdir, select only packages
           from the comma-separated list of archive areas (e.g. main,
           contrib).  This option overrides the LINTIAN_AREA environment
           variable and the configuration file entry of the same name.

       --archivedir archivedir
           Location of Debian archive to scan for packages.  (See the "FILES"
           section for complete information on how the path is constructed.)
           Use this if you want Lintian to check the whole Debian archive
           instead of just single packages. This option overrides the
           LINTIAN_ARCHIVEDIR environment variable and the configuration file
           entry of the same name.

       --cfg configfile
           Read the configuration from configfile rather than the default
           locations.  This option overrides the LINTIAN_CFG environment
           variable.

       --dist distdir
           Scan for packages in the distdir directory.  (See the "FILES"
           section for complete information on how the path is constructed.)
           Use this if you want Lintian to check the whole Debian archive
           instead of just single packages.  This option overrides the
           LINTIAN_DIST environment variable and the configuration file entry
           of the same name.

       --section area
           This is an old name for the --area option and accepted as a synonym
           for that option.

       --lab labdir
           Use labdir as the permanent laboratory.  This is where Lintian
           keeps information about the packages it checks.  This option
           overrides the LINTIAN_LAB environment variable and the
           configuration file entry of the same name.

       --root rootdir
           Look for lintian's support files (such as check scripts and
           collection scripts) in rootdir.  This overrides the LINTIAN_ROOT
           environment variable.  The default location is /usr/share/lintian.

       Package selection options:

       -a, --all
           Check all packages in the distribution. (This requires that the
           LINTIAN_DIST variable is defined in the configuration file.)

       -b, --binary
           The following packages listed on the command line are binary
           packages.

       -p X, --packages-file X
           Process all packages which are listed in file X.  Each package has
           to be listed in a single line using the following format:

           type package version file

           where type is either `b', `u', or `s' (binary, udeb, or source
           package), package is the package name, version is the package's
           version, and file is the package file name (absolute path
           specification).

       -s, --source
           The following packages listed on the command line are source
           packages.

       --udeb
           The following packages listed on the command line are udeb
           packages.

UNPACK LEVELS

       Note that the UNPACK LEVEL system is deprecated in favour of the
       "COLLECTION" system.

       0 (none)
           The package does not exist in the laboratory at all.

       1 (basic)
           A directory for this package exists in the laboratory and basic
           information is extracted.  This does not take much space.

           For binary and udeb packages, the control and fields directories
           and the index file are unpacked, and symbolic links are made to the
           .deb file and to the lintian directory for the source package.

           For source packages, the binary and fields directories are
           unpacked, and symbolic links are made to the source package files.

       2 (contents)
           This unpack level is deprecated and no longer functional. The
           unpacked collection script replaced it.

       Lintian will unpack packages as far as is necessary to do its checks,
       but it will leave the package in whatever unpack level was specified
       when it is done.

       The default unpack level can be overwritten by setting the
       LINTIAN_UNPACK_LEVEL variable in the configuration file.

CHECKS

       binaries (bin)
           This script checks binaries and object files for bugs.

       changelog-file (chg)
           This script checks if a binary package conforms to policy with
           regards to changelog files.

           Each binary package with a /usr/share/doc/<foo> directory must have
           a Debian changelog file in changelog.Debian.gz unless the Debian
           changelog and the upstream one is the same file; in this case, it
           must be in changelog.gz.

           If there is an upstream changelog file, it must be named
           "changelog.gz".

           Both changelog files should be compressed using "gzip -9".  Even if
           they start out small, they will become large with time.

       changes-file (chng)
           This script checks for various problems with .changes files

       conffiles (cnf)
           This script checks if the conffiles control file of a binary
           package is correct.

       control-file (dctl)
           This script checks debian/control files in source packages

       control-files (ctl)
           Check for unknown control files in the binary package.

       copyright-file (cpy)
           This script checks if a binary package conforms to policy with
           regard to copyright files.

           Each binary package must either have a
           /usr/share/doc/<foo>/copyright file or must have a symlink
           /usr/share/doc/<foo> -> <bar>, where <bar> comes from the same
           source package and pkg foo declares a "Depends" relation on bar.

       cruft (deb)
           This looks for cruft in Debian packaging or upstream source

       deb-format (dfmt)
           This script checks the format of the deb ar archive itself.

       debconf (dc)
           This looks for common mistakes in packages using debconf.

       debhelper (dh)
           This looks for common mistakes in debhelper source packages.

       debian-readme (drm)
           This script checks the README.Debian file for various problems.

       debian-source-dir (dsd)
           This script looks for mistakes in debian/source/* files.

       description (des)
           Check if the Description control field of a binary package conforms
           to the rules in the Policy Manual (section 3.4).

       etcfiles (etc)
           Checks if all files in /etc that are shipped with the package are
           marked as conffiles as required by policy.

       fields (fld)
           This script checks the syntax of the fields in package control
           files, as described in the Policy Manual.

       files (fil)
           This script checks if a binary package conforms to policy WRT to
           files and directories.

       huge-usr-share (hus)
           This script checks whether an architecture-dependent package has
           large amounts of data in /usr/share.

       infofiles (info)
           This script checks if a binary package conforms to info document
           policy.

       init.d (ini)
           Check if a binary package conforms to policy with respect to
           scripts in /etc/init.d.

       manpages (man)
           This script checks if a binary package conforms to manual page
           policy.

       md5sums (md5)
           This script checks if md5sum control files are valid, if they are
           provided by a binary package.

       menu-format (mnf)
           This script validates the format of menu files.

       menus (men)
           Check if a binary package conforms to policy with respect to menu
           and doc-base files.

       nmu (nmu)
           This script checks if a source package is consistent about its NMU-
           ness.

       ocaml (ocaml)
           This looks for common mistakes in OCaml binary packages.

       patch-systems (pat)
           This script checks for various possible problems when using patch
           systems

       po-debconf (pd)
           This looks for common mistakes in packages using po-debconf(7).

       rules (rul)
           Check targets and actions in debian/rules.

       scripts (scr)
           This script checks the #! lines of scripts in a package.

       shared-libs (shl)
           This script checks if a binary package conforms to shared library
           policy.

       standards-version (std)
           This script checks if a source package contains a valid Standards-
           Version field.

       version-substvars (v-s)
           This script checks for correct use of the various *Version
           substvars, e.g. deprecated substvars, or usage that can cause un-
           binNMUability

       watch-file (watch)
           Check debian/watch files in source packages.

COLLECTION

       ar-info
           This script runs the "ar t" command over all .a files of package.

       changelog-file
           This script copies the changelog file and NEWS.Debian file (if any)
           of a package into the lintian directory.

       copyright-file
           This script copies the copyright file of a package into the lintian
           directory.

       debfiles
           This script collects files shipped in the source of the package.

       debian-readme
           This script copies the README.Debian file of a package into the
           lintian directory.

       diffstat
           This script extracts the Debian diff of a source package, and runs
           diffstat on it, leaving the result in the diffstat output file

       doc-base-files
           This script copies the contents of /usr/share/doc-base into the
           lintian doc-base/ directory.

       file-info
           This script runs the file(1) command over all files of any kind of
           package.

       init.d
           This script copies the etc/init.d directory into the lintian
           directory.

       md5sums
           This script runs the md5sums(1) over all files in a binary package.

       menu-files
           This script copies the contents of /usr/lib/menu into the lintian
           menu/ directory.

       objdump-info
           This script runs objdump(1) over all binaries and object files of a
           binary package.

       override-file
           This script copies the override file of a package into the lintian
           directory.

       scripts
           This script scans a binary package for scripts that start with #!
           and lists their filenames together with the interpreter named by
           their first line.

            The format is: scriptpath filename

           Note that the filename might contain spaces, but the scriptpath
           will not, because linux only looks at the first word when executing
           a script.

       source-control-file
           Collects information about binary packages from debian/control in
           source packages

       strings
           This script runs the strings(1) command over all files of a binary
           package.

       unpacked
           This script unpacks the package under the unpacked/ directory

FILES

       Lintian looks for its configuration file in the following locations:

       The directory given with the --cfg option

       $LINTIAN_CFG
       $LINTIAN_ROOT/lintianrc
       $HOME/.lintianrc
       /etc/lintianrc

       Lintian uses the following directories:

       /tmp
           If no lab location is specified via the LINTIAN_LAB environment
           variable, configuration, or the --lab command-line option, lintian
           defaults to creating a temporary lab directory in /tmp.  To change
           the directory used, set the TMPDIR environment variable to a
           suitable directory.

       /usr/share/lintian/checks
           Scripts that check aspects of a package.

       /usr/share/lintian/collection
           Scripts that collect information about a package and store it for
           use by the check scripts.

       /usr/share/lintian/data
           Supporting data used by Lintian checks and for output formatting.

       /usr/share/lintian/lib
           Utility scripts used by the other lintian scripts.

       /usr/share/lintian/unpack
           Scripts that manage the laboratory.

       The /usr/share/lintian directory can be overridden with the
       LINTIAN_ROOT environment variable or the --root option.

       When looking for packages in a Debian archive, lintian constructs the
       path to the archive from the archivedir, distdir, release, and arch as
       follows:

        I<archivedir>/dists/I<distdir>/I<release>/I<arch>

       Lintian always expects the "/dists/" path component in paths to Debian
       archives.

       For binary packages, Lintian looks for overrides in a file named
       usr/share/lintian/overrides/<package> inside the binary package, where
       <package> is the name of the binary package.  For source packages,
       Lintian looks for overrides in debian/source/lintian-overrides and then
       in debian/source.lintian-overrides if the first file is not found.  The
       first path is preferred.  See the Lintian User's Manual for the syntax
       of overrides.

EXIT STATUS

       0   No policy violations or major errors detected.  (There may have
           been warnings, though.)

       1   Policy violations or major errors detected.

       2   Lintian run-time error. An error message is sent to stderr.

EXAMPLES

       $ lintian foo.deb
           Check binary package foo given by foo.deb.

       $ lintian foo.dsc
           Check source package foo given by foo.dsc.

       $ lintian foo.dsc -L +minor/possible
           Check source package foo given by foo.dsc, including minor/possible
           tags.

       $ lintian foo
           Search for package foo in the Debian archive and check it.
           (Depending on what is found, this command will check either the
           source or binary package foo, or both.)

       $ lintian --archivedir /var/packages --dist custom --section main
           Check all packages found in the Debian archive at
           /var/packages/dists/custom/main.

       $ lintian -i foo.changes
           Check the changes file and, if listed, the source and binary
           package of the upload. The output will contain detailed information
           about the reported tags.

       $ lintian -c --binary foo
           Search for binary package foo in the Debian archive and check it.

       $ lintian -C cpy --source foo
           Run the copyright checks on source package foo.

       $ lintian -u foo
           Unpack package foo in the Lintian laboratory up to level 1. (If
           it's already unpacked at level 1 or 2, nothing is done.)

       $ lintian -l1 -r foo
           Search for package foo in the Debian archive and, if found, reduce
           the package disk usage in the laboratory to level 1.

       $ lintian -r foo
           Remove package foo from the Lintian laboratory.

BUGS

       Lintian does not have any locking mechanisms yet.  (Running several
       checks simultaneously is likely to fail.)

       If you discover any other bugs in lintian, please contact the authors.

SEE ALSO

       lintian-info(1), Lintian User Manual
       (file:/usr/share/doc/lintian/lintian.html/index.html)

       Packaging tools: debhelper(7), dh_make(8), dpkg-buildpackage(1).

AUTHORS

       Niels Thykier <niels@thykier.net>

       Richard Braakman <dark@xs4all.nl>

       Christian Schwarz <schwarz@monet.m.isar.de>

       Please use the email address <lintian-maint@debian.org> for Lintian
       related comments.