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transpec(5)                                                        transpec(5)

Name

       transpec - translation specification for instant

Synopsis

       file.ts

Description

       The  transpec  file is used by the instant program to translate an SGML
       document instance to a format suitable for  a  formatting  application.
       The convention is to name the file with the suffix .ts.

       A  transpec  file  is  composed  of  a number of individual translation
       specs.  Each translation spec (transpec) is made  up  of  a  number  of
       fields, one per line.  Translation specs are separated by a line with a
       leading dash.  Text after the dash is ignored.  Fields are composed  of
       two  parts,  a  name and a value, separated by a colon.  The colon must
       immediately follow the name, and any amount of whitespace  (blanks  and
       tabs) may be present between the colon and value.  Values should not be
       quoted, and you should be careful of trailing spaces.  (Trailing  space
       will be considered part of the value.)  Quotes, if they appear, will be
       considered part of the value of the  fields.   Lines  that  begin  with
       whitespace  (blanks  and tabs) are a continuation of the previous line;
       the leading space is ignored.  These characteristics are  very  similar
       to those of e-mail headers.  Lines beginning with a # (number sign) are
       comments and blank lines are ignored.

Field Descriptions

       Some  fields  are  for  identifying  criteria  that  determines  if   a
       particular  spec  matches  an  element in the instance.  Others specify
       what action is to take place when a match happens, such as sending text
       to the output stream.

   Criteria fields
       Criteria   fields   restrict   the  conditions  under  which  a  single
       translation spec will apply.  If each field specified in  a  particular
       transpec  matches  an  element  under  consideration  in  the  document
       instance, then that translation spec is said to match. The  appropriate
       actions,  as  specified  in  that  spec,  are then taken.  The program,
       instant, searches the list of transpecs in the order given in the file.
       Therefore, the more restrictive specs (those with more criteria) should
       appear before less restrictive ones.

       For quick reference, this is a brief summary of the  possible  criteria
       fields for translation. A complete discussion of each follows.

       Field Label   Field Value        Description
       GI            gi ...             name of this GI
       AttValue      attname reg-expr   current element has attribute with value
       Content       reg-expr           is reg-expr in char content>
       Context       context            element context, up the tree
       NthChild      number             current element is Nth child of its parent
       PAttSet       attname (val)      parent has this attribute set (optional to value val)
       Relation      relationship gi    gi has relationship to current element
       VarREValue    var REvalue        variable is set to regular expression value
       VarValue      var value          variable is set to value

       GI: gi [...]
              gi  is  the  name of the generic identifier, or element name, to
              consider.  More than one GI may appear in this field.

       AttValue: attname regular-expression
              This is an  attribute  name-value  pair,  where  attname  is  an
              attribute  if  the  GI.   The  regular-expression is of the form
              accepted by the unix program egrep.  This pair  is  compared  to
              the  corresponding  attribute  name-value  pairs of the GI under
              consideration.  To simply test if an attribute us set, use .  (a
              dot)  for  regular-expression.   There  may  be more than one of
              these lines for each transpec.

       Content: regular-expression
              This specifies that the  character  content  of  GI  contains  a
              string matching the regular-expression.

       Context: context
              This  specifies  the  context in which to apply this translation
              spec.  It is either a list of generic identifiers or  a  regular
              expression  describing a list of generic identifiers, looking up
              the hierarchy.  The first is the parent of the GI.

       NthChild: number
              This specifies that the GI is the numberth child element of  its
              parent.   Children  are  numbered  starting  with  1.   Negative
              numbers may be used to indicate order counting  backwards.   For
              example, -1 denotes the last child.

       PAttSet: attname
              This  specifies that the parent has this attribute, attname, set
              to any value (not IMPLIED).  A value to match may optionally  be
              specified after attname.

       Relation: relationship gi
              This  specifies that the current element has the relationship to
              the  named  gi.   The  acceptable  relationships  are:  ancestor
              (anywhere  up  the  tree),  child  (immediate child), descendant
              (anywhere down the tree), parent (immediate  ancestor),  sibling
              (share  same  parent  element),  sibling+  (any  later sibling),
              sibling+1 (the immediately  following  sibling),  sibling-  (any
              earlier sibling), sibling-1 (the immediately following sibling).

       VarREValue: varname REvalue
              This  specifies  that  the global variable varname has the value
              REvalue, where REvalue is a regular expression (see the VarValue
              statement).

       VarValue: varname value
              This   specifies  that  the  global  variable  varname  has  the
              (literal) value value (see the VarREValue statement).

       There are two special GIs.  If specified, _Start and _End are processed
       as  if  they  were  GIs  in  the  instance  at the start and end of the
       translation, respectively.  Their criteria  are  never  checked.   Only
       their actions are performed.

   Action fields
       For  quick  reference, this is a brief summary of the action fields for
       translation. They are only performed if all the criteria are satisfied.
       A complete discussion of each follows.

       Field Label   Field Value   Description
       Action        spec-id       use transpec whose spec ID is `spec-id'
       EndText       text          text for end of element
       Increment     name          increment variable `name'
       Ignore        key           flag for ignoring element's children and/or data
       Message       text          text to send to stderr
       Quit          text          print text and quit program
       Replace       text          replace this subtree with text
       Set           name value    set variable name to value
       SpecID        spec-id       unique Spec ID (int) of this spec
       StartText     text          text for start of element

       Action: spec-id
              Use  the  actions  of  the  spec  identified  by the SpecID with
              matching identifier spec-id.

       EndText: text
              This specifies text to be output when the end tag is processed.

       Ignore: key
              This specifies that the data or children for this element are to
              be  ignored.   Set  key  to  all to ignore the element (data and
              child elements), to data to ignore the immediate character  data
              content  (child  elements  are  still  descended  into),  and to
              children to process the immediate character data content but not
              descended  into child elements.  Other actions specified in this
              transpec are still performed, however.

       Increment: name
              This is used to increment a variable whose value  is  a  number.
              If  the  variable is not a number, no action will be taken.  The
              variable must have been previously defined.  This action is done
              immediately before EndText.  There may be more than one of these
              lines for each transpec.

       Message: text
              This specifies a string to be printed to the standard error when
              the matching element is processed.  It is intended for informing
              the user of the progress of the translation.  It  is  also  used
              for  validation  of instances (see the -v flag of instant(1)); a
              spec would be written to  recognize  a  construct  that  is  not
              allowed.   This  action  is  done  immediately  after StartText.
              Messages are also useful for debugging spec files; one  is  able
              to  easily  tell  when  a  matching  spec  is processed, without
              looking at the actual output of the translation.  Note that  the
              spec  writer  is  responsible  for  putting newlines (\n) in the
              message text.

       Replace: text
              This specifies text to replace the current subtree  with.   This
              is equivalent to StartText and Ignore.

       Quit: text
              This  specifies  text  to be printed to the standard error.  The
              program then terminates with exit status 1.   This  is  intended
              for  bailing  out  when  an  undesirable instance is encountered
              (such as when it is known that the  formatting  application  can
              never handle a class of components, like tables).

       Set: name value
              This  is  used to set a variable whose name is name and value is
              value.  Names that would  be  valid  for  GIs  in  the  document
              instance are valid for variable names.  value is the rest of the
              line and may be any string.   This action  is  done  immediately
              before  EndText.   There may be more than one of these lines for
              each transpec.  See the discussion on variables below.

       SpecID: spec-id
              This names the spec with the number  spec-id.  Other  specs  may
              refer  to  this  one  by  this  number  by an Action field or an
              _action special variable.  This is used for cases where  several
              specs to perform the exact same action.

       StartText: text
              This  specifies  text  to  be  output  when  the  start  tag  is
              processed.

   Other Fields
       These  fields  may  appear  anywhere.   The  action  occurs  when   the
       translation  spec  file  is  read,  before any elements are translated.
       Theses are independent of any element processing.

       Var: name value
              This is used to define a variable whose name is name  and  value
              is  value.   It  is similar to Set, but it may occur anywhere in
              the file and takes effect when the spec file is read.

   Text Strings
       The text referred to in the StartText, EndText,  Replace,  and  Message
       actions is more than simple character strings.  Special sequences allow
       more complex output.

       One type of special sequence is for C-style  string  processing.   Most
       special characters are escaped with a \ (backslash). Like in C or shell
       programs, to print a \ (backslash), you must  escape  it  with  another
       backslash. These special character strings are:

       \n (backslash-n)
              This  specifies that a newline character is to be printed to the
              output stream.

       \r (backslash-r)
              This specifies that a carriage return character is to be printed
              to the output stream.

       \t (backslash-t)
              This  specifies  that  a  tab  character is to be printed to the
              output stream.

       \s (backslash-s)
              This specifies that a space is  to  be  printed  to  the  output
              stream.  This is useful for the end of a transpec line, where it
              can be difficult to tell if a blank is present at the end.

       \007 (backslash-007)
              This specifies that the character whose octal value is 007 is to
              be  printed  to  the  output  stream.   This works for any octal
              character value.

       ^ (caret)
              This specifies the that position in the string will  be  at  the
              start of a line in the output stream.

       If  the  first  token  of  the text string is #include, then the second
       token is taken to be a file name and that file  is  included.   If  the
       file  is  not  found,  the  library  directory,  as mentioned above, is
       searched.  If the text string starts with a ! (exclamation point),  the
       rest  of  the  line  is  taken  to  be a command and the output of that
       command is inserted.

       An element's attributes may also be used in the text of output  fields.
       To use an attribute value, precede its name with a ${ (dollar sign-left
       curly bracket) and follow it with a }  (right  curly  bracket).   (This
       style  is followed by the Bourne shell.)  For example, ${TYPE}.  If the
       attribute is not set (not IMPLIED), nothing  will  be  printed  to  the
       output  stream.  To specify a value to use if the attribute is not set,
       place the value after the attribute name, separated  by  a  space.   To
       return  the  attribute  value  in  lower-case,  add a colon followed by
       lower-case l (${TYPE:l}.

Variables

       Variables in instant are similar to those in many other string-oriented
       programming  languages, such as sh and awk.  They are set by: Var: name
       value and Set: name value.  Values may be set and reset to any  string.
       In  a Var line, if the value begins with a !, then the rest of the line
       is executed as a command, and its output is taken as the value.

       A reference to the value of a variable follows the  same  syntax  as  a
       reference to the value of an attribute:  ${name}.  If that variable has
       not been defined, a null value will be returned.  A default  value  can
       be  returned  instead  of  null  for an undefined variable by using the
       form:  ${name default}.

       Variables may be used as attributes are, that is in  any  of  the  text
       strings  mentioned above.  In fact, if an attribute name is referred to
       and it is not set for a given element, instant  looks  for  a  variable
       with  the same name.  This way global defaults can be set.  If you want
       to be sure that you are  accessing  a  local  variable  value,  not  an
       attribute  value,  you  can  use  lower or mixed case names.  Attribute
       names, as passed by nsgmls, are in upper case.

       Any number of Var actions may appear in the spec file.  These  set  the
       values  of  the  variables before any translation takes place.  The Set
       actions within transpecs are performed when that spec is processed when
       an element matches the given criteria.

   Preset Variables
       Several  variables  are  preset  by  instant upon start of the program.
       Their values may be overridden in transpec  files  or  on  the  command
       line.

       date   This  is  the date and time that the program started. The format
              is: Tue 10 Aug 1993, 16:52.

       host   This is the name of the host where the program is  run.   It  is
              what is returned by the gethostname library call.

       transpec
              This is the translation spec filename.

       user   This is the login name of the user running the program.

   Special Variables
       There  is  a  collection of special variables called special variables.
       These are identified by starting the names with a _ (underscore).  This
       is  a  summary of the special variables.  A complete discussion of each
       special variable follows.  spec-id refers to a number  specified  in  a
       SpecID field.  When used in a special variable, it means to perform the
       action in that translation spec.

       Note that when a spec-id is given in a special variable, the default is
       to  perform  the  translation spec named by the spec-id ignoring of any
       criteria statements found there.  For most special variables that use a
       spec-id, postpending a "t" to the spec-id (with no spaces between them,
       eg,  "${_followrel  child  TITLE  15t}"),  will  cause   the   criteria
       statements  in  the  named  translation  spec  to evaluate successfully
       before that translation spec will be processed.

       Variable Usage                       Description
       _action spec-id                      do spec with id spec-id
       _allatts                             print all attribute/value pairs
       _attval att [value] spec-id          use spec-id if attribute matches
       _chasetogi gi spec-id                follow IDREFs until gi found
       _eachatt att spec-id [spec-id]       do spec-id for each word of attribute value
       _eachcon spec-id [spec-id]           do spec-id for each word of content
       _env env-variable                    return value of env variable
       _filename                            filename of notation
       _find rel gi spec-id                 find gi based on relationship
       _followlink [attname] spec-id        follow IDREFs [attname] and use spec-id
       _followrel rel gi spec-id            do spec-id on rel if it matches
       _gi [M|L|U]                          return GI name; M, L, U case
       _id id [spec-id]                     find element with ID and use spec-id
       _include filename                    insert file here
       _infile [line]                       instance filename [and line number]
       _insertnode S|E spec-id              do spec-id when element is traversed

       _isset var [value] spec-id           do spec-id if variable matches
       _location                            print location of current element
       _namelist spec-id [spec-id]          content is namelist, do spec-id for each
       _nchild [gi]                         number of child elements [named attname]
       _osftable format [flag]              print table format specification
       _path                                print path to current element
       _pattr attname                       value of parent's attribute
       _pfind args ...                      same as _find, but start at parent
       _relation rel gi spec-id [spec-id]   do spec-id if relation matches
       _set var value                       set variable to value
       _!command                            command to run

       _action spec-id
              Use the actions of  the  spec  identified  by  the  SpecID  with
              matching  identifier  spec-id.   This  behaves  similarly to the
              Action action, but is in addition  to  the  present  translation
              spec.

       _allatts
              Print  all  attribute name-value pairs of the current element to
              the output stream.  The name and value  are  separated  by  a  =
              (equals  sign), and the value is surrounded by quotes.  This can
              be useful for creating a normalized version of the instance.

       _attval attname [value] spec-id
              If  the  current  element  has  an  attribute   named   attname,
              optionally  whose  value  matches  value, use the actions of the
              transpec identified by spec-id.

       _chasetogi gi spec-id
              Follow IDREF attributes until if finds an element whose GI is gi
              or  which  has  a child element with that GI.  It will apply the
              transpec spec-id to that element.  By default,  instant  assumes
              the  attributes  named  LINKEND, LINKENDS, and IDREF are of type
              IDREF or IDREFS.  (This corresponds with the OSF DTDs.)  You can
              change  this  by  setting  the  variable  link_atts  to a space-
              separated list of attribute names.

       _eachatt att spec-id [spec-id2]
              The transpec named by spec-id is  invoked  once  per  each  word
              found  in  the  value  of  the attribute att.  Inside the target
              transpec, the current word being processed is available  in  the
              variable named each_A (${each_A}).  If spec-id2 is specified, it
              will use spec-id for the first word in the attribute  and  spec-
              id2 for the others.

       _eachcon spec-id [spec-id2]
              The  transpec  named  by  spec-id  is invoked once per each word
              found in the content of the current element.  Inside the  target
              transpec,  the  current word being processed is available in the
              variable named each_C (${each_C}).  If spec-id2 is specified, it
              will  use spec-id for the first word in the content and spec-id2
              for the others.

       _env env-variable
              Print the value of the environment variable env-variable to  the
              output stream.

       _filename
              Print the filename of the notation associated with this element,
              if any.  This is  used  to  get  the  filename  of  an  external
              notation  entity  reference.  For example, to print the filename
              in  the  latex  macro  from  the   epsf   macro   package,   use
              \\epsfboxi{${_filename}}.

       _find [top] relationship args ... spec-id
              Descend  the  document hierarchy finding elements that match one
              of several criteria.  When one is found, the action specified by
              spec-id is performed.  If top is specified, the search starts at
              the top of the document hierarchy, rather than  at  the  current
              element.   The  possible  values  for  relationship  are gi, gi-
              parent,  parent,  and  attr,  and  take   different   arguments.
              Explanations  may  be best done by example: _find gi CHAPTER 123
              means to find elements whose GI is CHAPTER, and  perform  action
              123;  _find  gi-parent  TITLE CHAPTER 124 means to find elements
              whose GI is TITLE and  whose  parent  is  CHAPTER,  and  perform
              action  124;  _find parent BODY 125 means to find elements whose
              parent's GI is BODY, and perform action  125;  _find  attr  TYPE
              UGLY  125  means  to find elements whose attribute named TYPE is
              set to UGLY, and perform action 126.

       _followlink [attname] spec-id
              When processing  an  element,  instant  will  follow  the  IDREF
              attributes  until  an element with no IDREF attributes is found.
              It will then apply the transpec specified  by  spec-id  to  that
              element.   If  specified,  it will follow the link pointed to by
              attname.  By  default,  instant  assumes  the  attributes  named
              LINKEND  and  LINKENDS  are  if  type  IDREF or IDREFS.  You can
              change this by  setting  the  variable  link_atts  to  a  space-
              separated list of attribute names.

       _followrel relationship gi spec-id
              If the gi has the specified relationship to the current element,
              perform the action specified by spec-id on the related  element.
              See the discussion of the criteria field Relation for acceptable
              relationship names.

       _gi [M|L|U]
              Print the name of the current  GI  to  the  output  stream.   If
              specified,  M,  L,  or  U  will ensure the GI name is printed in
              mixed, lower, or upper case, respectively.

       _id id [spec-id]
              Find the element with id and use spec-id, if set.  If  not  set,
              use the spec for that element's context.

       _include filename
              Insert the file filename into the output stream.

       _infile [line]
              Print  the  name of the sgml instance file to the output stream.
              If line is specified, also print the line number.  This  depends
              on nsgmls being called with the -l option.

       _insertnode S|E spec-id
              Do  spec-id  when  the  current  element is traversed at a later
              pass.  This can be considered inserting a node, without content,
              into  the  hierarchy.   This  is only useful if done to elements
              before they are processed.  Typically _chasetogi or  _followlink
              is specified early in an instance's processing, so that when the
              elements found by one of these actions are  processed  in  their
              turn,  the  added  actions  are performed.  _insertnode would be
              specified as the action of a spec-id pointed to in a  _chasetogi
              or _followlink usage.

       _location
              The  location  of  the  current element is printed to the output
              stream in several ways: the path to the element (see  _path),  a
              position  hint,  which is the nearest title, the line number, if
              the ESIS (output from nsgmls) contains line numbers, and the  ID
              of  the  element, if it has one.  This is especially useful when
              using the Message action to validate an instance.

       _namelist spec-id [spec-id2]
              This assumes that the  content  of  the  current  element  is  a
              namelist  (a  list of element IDs), and applies the action based
              on  spec-id  for  each  element  pointed  to.   If  spec-id2  is
              specified,  it will use spec-id for the first ID in the namelist
              and spec-id2 for the others.

       _nchild [gi]
              Print the number of child elements of the element to the  output
              stream.   If  gi is specified, print the number of child element
              with that name.

       _osftable tex|tbl|check [flag]
              Print table markup into the output stream.  The  format  depends
              on  whether  tex  or  tbl  is specified.  The flag may be one of
              cellstart, cellend, rowstart, rowend, top, or bottom.  The value
              determines  what markup or text will be generated.  If cellstart
              is specified, the correct markup for the beginning of a cell  is
              output.   If  top,  bottom, or rowend are specified, the correct
              markup for the end of the appropriate position is printed to the
              output  stream.  If check is specified, the attributes and child
              elements are checked for errors and consistency.

       _path  Print the path to current GI to the output stream.   A  path  is
              each  element,  going down the tree from the topmost element.  A
              number in parentheses after each element name shows which  child
              element  the  next  one  is  in  the  order of children for that
              element.   Ordering  starts  at  0.   For  example:  OSF-BOOK(3)
              BODY(0)  CHAPTER(4) SECTION.  This says the path is <OSF-BOOK>'s
              third child, <BODY>'s zeroth, and <CHAPTER>'s fourth,  which  is
              named <SECTION>.

       _pattr name
              Print  the value of parent's attribute whose name is name to the
              output stream.

       _pfind rel gi spec-id
              This is exactly the same as _find except that the search  starts
              at the current element's parent.

       _relation relationship gi spec-id [spec-id2]
              If the gi has the specified relationship to the current element,
              perform the action specified by spec-id on the current  element.
              If  the  relationship  test  fails  and  spec-id2  is specified,
              perform that action.  See the discussion of the  criteria  field
              Relation for acceptable relationship names.

       _set varname value
              Set the value of the variable varname to value.

       _isset varname [value] spec-id
              If  the  value  of  the  variable  varname is set to value, then
              perform  action  referred  to  by  spec-id.   If  value  is  not
              specified,  action  will  be  performed if varname is set to any
              value.

       _! command
              Run the command command, directing its standard output into  the
              output stream.

   Immediate Variables
       Immediate  variables  are  like special variables, except that they are
       expanded when the transpec is originally processed  (special  variables
       are  processed  later,  near when the final output is being generated).
       The     general     syntax     of      immediate      variables      is
       ${+immediate_variable ...}.

       There is currently only one immediate variable defined:

       +content
              This  special  variable  is  replaced by the data content of the
              current element.

Examples

       The following will output the given string for elements  whose  generic
       identifier  is  P  (for  paragraph).   At  the start of processing this
       element, the program ensures that the output starts on a new line,  the
       troff macro <.P> is output, then a newline.  At the end of this element
       processing, the program ensures that the output starts on a new line.
       GI:             P
       StartText:      ^.P^
       EndText:        ^
       -

       The following will output the given string for elements  whose  generic
       identifier  is CMD-ARGUMENT and which have an attribute PRESENCE set to
       the value OPTIONAL.
       GI:             CMD-ARGUMENT
       AttValue:       PRESENCE OPTIONAL
       StartText:      $\\[
       EndText:        $\\]
       -

       The following prints the section number, title, and page number of  the
       target  of  a  cross reference.  Assume the cross reference points to a
       section element, which contains a title element.  The criteria for this
       spec  to  match  is  that  the  attribute  OSFROLE  is set to the value
       getfull.  The action is to replace the content of  the  <XREF>  element
       with the given string.  When processing the string, instant will follow
       the  IDREF  attributes  of  <XREF>  until  an  element  with  no  IDREF
       attributes  is  found.  It  will then apply the transpec numbered 87 to
       that element, which will print the name of the GI in  mixed  case  into
       the  output stream.  It will then print the LaTeX reference instruction
       with the value of the LINKEND attribute as  an  argument.   (This  will
       become  the  section  number  after processing by LaTeX.)  It will then
       follow IDREFs until if finds an element whose GI is TITLE or which  has
       a child element with that GI.  It will apply the transpec numbered 1 to
       that element, which copies the title into the output stream  where  the
       cross  reference occurs.  Finally, it will print the word page followed
       by the LaTeX instruction to obtain the page number of a reference.
       GI:             XREF
       AttValue:       OSFROLE getfull
       Replace:        ${_followlink 87} \\ref{${LINKEND}},\s
                       {\\bf ${_chasetogi TITLE 1}}, page \\pageref{${LINKEND}}
       -
       # Print GI name, in mixed case
       GI:             _pr_gi_name
       SpecID:         87
       Ignore:         1
       EndText:        ${_gi M}
       -
       GI:             _pass-text
       SpecID:         1
       -

Related Information

       instant(1), nsgmls(1), egrep(1).

                                  file format                      transpec(5)