Provided by: util-linux_2.19.1-2ubuntu3_i386
fdisk - partition table manipulator for Linux
fdisk [-uc] [-b sectorsize] [-C cyls] [-H heads] [-S sects] device
fdisk -l [-u] [device...]
fdisk -s partition...
fdisk (in the first form of invocation) is a menu-driven program for
creation and manipulation of partition tables. It understands DOS-type
partition tables and BSD- or SUN-type disklabels.
fdisk does not understand GUID partition tables (GPTs) and it is not
designed for large partitions. In these cases, use the more advanced
fdisk does not use DOS-compatible mode and cylinders as display units
by default. The old deprecated DOS behavior can be enabled with the
'-c=dos -u=cylinders' command-line options.
Hard disks can be divided into one or more logical disks called
partitions. This division is recorded in the partition table, found in
sector 0 of the disk. (In the BSD world one talks about `disk slices'
and a `disklabel'.)
Linux needs at least one partition, namely for its root file system.
It can use swap files and/or swap partitions, but the latter are more
efficient. So, usually one will want a second Linux partition
dedicated as swap partition. On Intel-compatible hardware, the BIOS
that boots the system can often only access the first 1024 cylinders of
the disk. For this reason people with large disks often create a third
partition, just a few MB large, typically mounted on /boot, to store
the kernel image and a few auxiliary files needed at boot time, so as
to make sure that this stuff is accessible to the BIOS. There may be
reasons of security, ease of administration and backup, or testing, to
use more than the minimum number of partitions.
The device is usually /dev/sda, /dev/sdb or so. A device name refers
to the entire disk. Old systems without libata (a library used inside
the Linux kernel to support ATA host controllers and devices) make a
difference between IDE and SCSI disks. In such cases the device name
will be /dev/hd* (IDE) or /dev/sd* (SCSI).
The partition is a device name followed by a partition number. For
example, /dev/sda1 is the first partition on the first hard disk in the
system. See also Linux kernel documentation (the
A BSD/SUN-type disklabel can describe 8 partitions, the third of which
should be a `whole disk' partition. Do not start a partition that
actually uses its first sector (like a swap partition) at cylinder 0,
since that will destroy the disklabel.
An IRIX/SGI-type disklabel can describe 16 partitions, the eleventh of
which should be an entire `volume' partition, while the ninth should be
labeled `volume header'. The volume header will also cover the
partition table, i.e., it starts at block zero and extends by default
over five cylinders. The remaining space in the volume header may be
used by header directory entries. No partitions may overlap with the
volume header. Also do not change its type or make some filesystem on
it, since you will lose the partition table. Use this type of label
only when working with Linux on IRIX/SGI machines or IRIX/SGI disks
A DOS-type partition table can describe an unlimited number of
partitions. In sector 0 there is room for the description of 4
partitions (called `primary'). One of these may be an extended
partition; this is a box holding logical partitions, with descriptors
found in a linked list of sectors, each preceding the corresponding
logical partitions. The four primary partitions, present or not, get
numbers 1-4. Logical partitions start numbering from 5.
In a DOS-type partition table the starting offset and the size of each
partition is stored in two ways: as an absolute number of sectors
(given in 32 bits), and as a Cylinders/Heads/Sectors triple (given in
10+8+6 bits). The former is OK -- with 512-byte sectors this will work
up to 2 TB. The latter has two problems. First, these C/H/S fields
can be filled only when the number of heads and the number of sectors
per track are known. And second, even if we know what these numbers
should be, the 24 bits that are available do not suffice. DOS uses
C/H/S only, Windows uses both, Linux never uses C/H/S.
If possible, fdisk will obtain the disk geometry automatically. This
is not necessarily the physical disk geometry (indeed, modern disks do
not really have anything like a physical geometry, certainly not
something that can be described in simplistic Cylinders/Heads/Sectors
form), but it is the disk geometry that MS-DOS uses for the partition
Usually all goes well by default, and there are no problems if Linux is
the only system on the disk. However, if the disk has to be shared
with other operating systems, it is often a good idea to let an fdisk
from another operating system make at least one partition. When Linux
boots it looks at the partition table, and tries to deduce what (fake)
geometry is required for good cooperation with other systems.
Whenever a partition table is printed out, a consistency check is
performed on the partition table entries. This check verifies that the
physical and logical start and end points are identical, and that each
partition starts and ends on a cylinder boundary (except for the first
Some versions of MS-DOS create a first partition which does not begin
on a cylinder boundary, but on sector 2 of the first cylinder.
Partitions beginning in cylinder 1 cannot begin on a cylinder boundary,
but this is unlikely to cause difficulty unless you have OS/2 on your
A sync() and an ioctl(BLKRRPART) (reread partition table from disk) are
performed before exiting when the partition table has been updated.
Long ago it used to be necessary to reboot after the use of fdisk. I
do not think this is the case anymore -- indeed, rebooting too quickly
might cause loss of not-yet-written data. Note that both the kernel
and the disk hardware may buffer data.
DOS 6.x WARNING
The DOS 6.x FORMAT command looks for some information in the first
sector of the data area of the partition, and treats this information
as more reliable than the information in the partition table. DOS
FORMAT expects DOS FDISK to clear the first 512 bytes of the data area
of a partition whenever a size change occurs. DOS FORMAT will look at
this extra information even if the /U flag is given -- we consider this
a bug in DOS FORMAT and DOS FDISK.
The bottom line is that if you use cfdisk or fdisk to change the size
of a DOS partition table entry, then you must also use dd to zero the
first 512 bytes of that partition before using DOS FORMAT to format the
partition. For example, if you were using cfdisk to make a DOS
partition table entry for /dev/sda1, then (after exiting fdisk or
cfdisk and rebooting Linux so that the partition table information is
valid) you would use the command "dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sda1 bs=512
count=1" to zero the first 512 bytes of the partition.
BE EXTREMELY CAREFUL if you use the dd command, since a small typo can
make all of the data on your disk useless.
For best results, you should always use an OS-specific partition table
program. For example, you should make DOS partitions with the DOS
FDISK program and Linux partitions with the Linux fdisk or Linux cfdisk
Specify the sector size of the disk. Valid values are 512,
1024, 2048 or 4096. (Recent kernels know the sector size. Use
this only on old kernels or to override the kernel's ideas.)
Since util-linux-2.17, fdisk differentiates between logical and
physical sector size. This option changes both sector sizes to
Specify the compatiblity mode, 'dos' or 'nondos'. The default
is non-DOS mode. For backward compatibility, it is possible to
use the option without the <mode> argument -- then the default
is used. Note that the optional <mode> argument cannot be
separated from the -c option by a space, the correct form is for
Specify the number of cylinders of the disk. I have no idea why
anybody would want to do so.
Specify the number of heads of the disk. (Not the physical
number, of course, but the number used for partition tables.)
Reasonable values are 255 and 16.
Specify the number of sectors per track of the disk. (Not the
physical number, of course, but the number used for partition
tables.) A reasonable value is 63.
-h Print help and then exit.
-l List the partition tables for the specified devices and then
exit. If no devices are given, those mentioned in
/proc/partitions (if that exists) are used.
Print the size (in blocks) of each given partition.
When listing partition tables, show sizes in 'sectors' or in
'cylinders'. The default is to show sizes in sectors. For
backward compatibility, it is possible to use the option without
the <units> argument -- then the default is used. Note that the
optional <unit> argument cannot be separated from the -u option
by a space, the correct form is for example '-u=cylinders'.
-v Print version number of fdisk program and exit.
There are several *fdisk programs around. Each has its problems and
strengths. Try them in the order cfdisk, fdisk, sfdisk. (Indeed,
cfdisk is a beautiful program that has strict requirements on the
partition tables it accepts, and produces high quality partition
tables. Use it if you can. fdisk is a buggy program that does fuzzy
things - usually it happens to produce reasonable results. Its single
advantage is that it has some support for BSD disk labels and other
non-DOS partition tables. Avoid it if you can. sfdisk is for hackers
only -- the user interface is terrible, but it is more correct than
fdisk and more powerful than both fdisk and cfdisk. Moreover, it can
be used noninteractively.)
These days there also is parted. The cfdisk interface is nicer, but
parted does much more: it not only resizes partitions, but also the
filesystems that live in them.
The IRIX/SGI-type disklabel is currently not supported by the kernel.
Moreover, IRIX/SGI header directories are not fully supported yet.
The option `dump partition table to file' is missing.
cfdisk(8), sfdisk(8), mkfs(8), parted(8), partprobe(8), kpartx(8)
The fdisk command is part of the util-linux package and is available