Provided by: ghostscript_9.04~dfsg-0ubuntu11_i386 bug


       gs   -   Ghostscript  (PostScript  and  PDF  language  interpreter  and


       gs [ options ] [ files ] ... (Unix, VMS)
       gswin32c [ options ] [ files ] ... (MS Windows)
       gswin32 [ options ] [ files ] ... (MS Windows 3.1)
       gsos2 [ options ] [ files ] ... (OS/2)


       The gs (gswin32c,  gswin32,  gsos2)  command  invokes  Ghostscript,  an
       interpreter  of  Adobe  Systems'  PostScript(tm)  and Portable Document
       Format (PDF) languages.  gs reads "files" in sequence and executes them
       as  Ghostscript programs. After doing this, it reads further input from
       the standard input stream (normally the  keyboard),  interpreting  each
       line  separately.  The  interpreter exits gracefully when it encounters
       the "quit" command (either in a file or from the keyboard), at  end-of-
       file, or at an interrupt signal (such as Control-C at the keyboard).

       The  interpreter  recognizes  many  option  switches, some of which are
       described below.  Please  see  the  usage  documentation  for  complete
       information. Switches may appear anywhere in the command line and apply
       to all files thereafter.  Invoking Ghostscript with the -h or -? switch
       produces a message which shows several useful switches, all the devices
       known to that executable, and the search path for  fonts;  on  Unix  it
       also shows the location of detailed documentation.

       Ghostscript  may be built to use many different output devices.  To see
       which devices your  executable  includes,  run  "gs  -h".   Unless  you
       specify  a  particular device, Ghostscript normally opens the first one
       of those and directs output to it, so if the first one in the  list  is
       the one you want to use, just issue the command


       You   can   also  check  the  set  of  available  devices  from  within
       Ghostscript: invoke Ghostscript and type

            devicenames ==

       but the first device on the resulting  list  may  not  be  the  default
       device  you determine with "gs -h".  To specify "AbcXyz" as the initial
       output device, include the switch


       For example, for output to an Epson printer you might use the command

            gs -sDEVICE=epson

       The "-sDEVICE=" switch must precede the first  mention  of  a  file  to
       print, and only the switch's first use has any effect.

       Finally,  you  can specify a default device in the environment variable
       GS_DEVICE.  The order of precedence for these alternatives from highest
       to lowest (Ghostscript uses the device defined highest in the list) is:

       Some devices can support different resolutions (densities).  To specify
       the resolution on such a printer, use the "-r" switch:

            gs -sDEVICE=<device> -r<xres>x<yres>

       For example, on a 9-pin Epson-compatible printer, you get  the  lowest-
       density (fastest) mode with

            gs -sDEVICE=epson -r60x72

       and the highest-density (best output quality) mode with

            gs -sDEVICE=epson -r240x72.

       If  you  select a printer as the output device, Ghostscript also allows
       you to choose where Ghostscript sends the output --  on  Unix  systems,
       usually  to  a temporary file.  To send the output to a file "",
       use the switch


       You might want to print each page separately.  To  do  this,  send  the
       output  to  a  series  of  files  ",,  ..." using the
       "-sOutputFile=" switch with "%d" in a filename template:


       Each resulting file receives one page of  output,  and  the  files  are
       numbered  in  sequence.  "%d" is a printf format specification; you can
       also use a variant like "%02d".

       On Unix and MS Windows systems you can also send output to a pipe.  For
       example,  to  pipe  output  to  the  "lpr" command (which, on many Unix
       systems, directs it to a printer), use the option


       Note that the '%' characters need to be doubled on MS Windows to  avoid
       mangling by the command interpreter.

       You can also send output to standard output:


       In  this  case  you must also use the -q switch, to prevent Ghostscript
       from writing messages to standard output.

       To select a specific paper size, use the command line switch


       for instance


       Most ISO and US paper sizes are recognized. See the usage documentation
       for  a  full  list,  or  the  definitions  in  the  initialization file

       Ghostscript can do many things other than print or view PostScript  and
       PDF  files.   For  example,  if  you want to know the bounding box of a
       PostScript (or EPS) file, Ghostscript provides a special "device"  that
       just prints out this information.

       For   example,   using  one  of  the  example  files  distributed  with

            gs -sDEVICE=bbox

       prints out

            %%BoundingBox: 0 25 583 732
            %%HiResBoundingBox: 0.808497 25.009496 582.994503 731.809445


       -- filename arg1 ...
              Takes the next argument as a file name as usual, but  takes  all
              remaining  arguments  (even  if  they have the syntactic form of
              switches) and defines the name "ARGUMENTS"  in  "userdict"  (not
              "systemdict")  as  an array of those strings, before running the
              file.  When Ghostscript finishes executing the  file,  it  exits
              back to the shell.

              Define  a  name  in "systemdict" with the given definition.  The
              token must be exactly one  token  (as  defined  by  the  "token"
              operator) and may contain no whitespace.

       -dname Define a name in "systemdict" with value=null.

              Define  a  name  in  "systemdict"  with a given string as value.
              This is different from -d.  For example, -dname=35 is equivalent
              to the program fragment
                   /name 35 def
              whereas -sname=35 is equivalent to
                   /name (35) def

       -P     Makes  Ghostscript  to  look  first in the current directory for
              library files.  By default, Ghostscript no longer looks  in  the
              current  directory,  unless,  of  course,  the  first explicitly
              supplied directory is "." in -I.  See  also  the  INITIALIZATION
              FILES section below, and bundled Use.htm for detailed discussion
              on search paths and how Ghostcript finds files.

       -q     Quiet startup: suppress normal startup messages, and also do the
              equivalent of -dQUIET.

              Equivalent  to -dDEVICEWIDTH=number1 and -dDEVICEHEIGHT=number2.
              This is for the benefit of devices (such as  X11  windows)  that
              require (or allow) width and height to be specified.

              Equivalent        to       -dDEVICEXRESOLUTION=number1       and
              -dDEVICEYRESOLUTION=number2.  This is for the benefit of devices
              such  as printers that support multiple X and Y resolutions.  If
              only one  number  is  given,  it  is  used  for  both  X  and  Y

              Adds  the  designated  list  of  directories  at the head of the
              search path for library files.

       -      This is not really a switch, but indicates to  Ghostscript  that
              standard  input  is  coming  from  a  file  or  a  pipe  and not
              interactively from the command  line.   Ghostscript  reads  from
              standard  input  until it reaches end-of-file, executing it like
              any other file, and then continues with processing  the  command
              line.   When  the  command  line  has  been  entirely processed,
              Ghostscript exits rather than going into its interactive mode.

       Note  that  the   normal   initialization   file   ""   makes
       "systemdict" read-only, so the values of names defined with -D, -d, -S,
       or -s cannot be changed (although, of course, they can be superseded by
       definitions in "userdict" or other dictionaries.)


              Causes  individual character outlines to be loaded from the disk
              the first time  they  are  encountered.   (Normally  Ghostscript
              loads  all  the  character outlines when it loads a font.)  This
              may allow loading more fonts into RAM, at the expense of  slower

              Disables character caching.  Useful only for debugging.

              Disables the "bind" operator.  Useful only for debugging.

              Suppresses the normal initialization of the output device.  This
              may be useful when debugging.

              Disables the prompt and pause at the end of each page.  This may
              be  desirable  for applications where another program is driving

              Disables the use of fonts supplied by  the  underlying  platform
              (for  instance  X  Windows).  This may be needed if the platform
              fonts look undesirably different from the scalable fonts.

              Disables the "deletefile" and  "renamefile"  operators  and  the
              ability  to  open  files in any mode other than read-only.  This
              strongly recommended for spoolers, conversion scripts  or  other
              sensitive  environments  where  a  badly  written  or  malicious
              PostScript  program  code  must  be  prevented   from   changing
              important files.

              Leaves  "systemdict"  writable.   This is necessary when running
              special utility programs such as font2c and pcharstr, which must
              bypass normal PostScript access protection.

              Selects an alternate initial output device, as described above.

              Selects  an  alternate  output  file  (or  pipe) for the initial
              output device, as described above.


       The locations of many Ghostscript run-time files are compiled into  the
       executable  when  it  is  built.   On Unix these are typically based in
       /usr/local, but this may be different on your system.  Under  DOS  they
       are  typically  based in C:\GS, but may be elsewhere, especially if you
       install Ghostscript with GSview.  Run "gs -h" to find the  location  of
       Ghostscript  documentation  on your system, from which you can get more
       details. On a Debian system they are in /usr.

              Startup files, utilities, and basic font definitions

              More font definitions from the gsfonts package

              Ghostscript demonstration files

              Diverse document files


       When looking for the initialization files "gs_*.ps", the files  related
       to  fonts,  or the file for the "run" operator, Ghostscript first tries
       to open the file with the name as  given,  using  the  current  working
       directory  if  no  directory is specified.  If this fails, and the file
       name doesn't specify an explicit  directory  or  drive  (for  instance,
       doesn't  contain  "/"  on  Unix  systems or "\" on MS Windows systems),
       Ghostscript tries directories in this order:

       1.  the directories specified by the -I switches in  the  command  line
           (see below), if any;

       2.  the  directories  specified  by the GS_LIB environment variable, if

       3.  the directories  specified  by  the  GS_LIB_DEFAULT  macro  in  the
           Ghostscript  makefile  when  the  executable was built.  When gs is
           built      on      Unix,      GS_LIB_DEFAULT       is       usually
           where "#.##" represents the Ghostscript version  number.  They  are
           "/usr/share/gs-gpl/#.## on a Debian system".

       Each  of these (GS_LIB_DEFAULT, GS_LIB, and -I parameter) may be either
       a single directory or a list of directories separated by ":".


              String of options  to  be  processed  before  the  command  line

              Used to specify an output device

              Path names used to search for fonts

       GS_LIB Path names for initialization files and fonts

       TEMP   Where temporary files are made


       Ghostscript,  or  more  properly  the X11 display device, looks for the
       following resources under the program name "Ghostscript":

              The border width in pixels (default = 1).

              The name of the border color (default = black).

              The window size and placement, WxH+X+Y (default is NULL).

              The number of x  pixels  per  inch  (default  is  computed  from
              WidthOfScreen and WidthMMOfScreen).

              The  number  of  y  pixels  per  inch  (default is computed from
              HeightOfScreen and HeightMMOfScreen).

              Determines whether backing  store  is  to  be  used  for  saving
              display window (default = true).

       See  the  usage document for a more complete list of resources.  To set
       these resources on Unix, put them in a file such as "~/.Xresources"  in
       the following form:

            Ghostscript*geometry:     612x792-0+0
            Ghostscript*xResolution: 72
            Ghostscript*yResolution: 72

       Then merge these resources into the X server's resource database:

            % xrdb -merge ~/.Xresources


       The various Ghostscript document files (above), especially Use.htm.


       See   and   the   Usenet   news   group


       This document was last revised for Ghostscript version 9.04.


       Artifex Software, Inc. are  the  primary  maintainers  of  Ghostscript.
       Russell  J.  Lang,  gsview at, is the author of most of
       the MS Windows code in Ghostscript.