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       zshmodules - zsh loadable modules


       Some  optional  parts  of zsh are in modules, separate from the core of
       the shell.  Each of these modules may be linked  in  to  the  shell  at
       build  time, or can be dynamically linked while the shell is running if
       the installation supports this feature.  The modules that  are  bundled
       with the zsh distribution are:

              Builtins for manipulating extended attributes (xattr).

              Builtins   for   manipulating   POSIX.1e   (POSIX.6)  capability
              (privilege) sets.

              A builtin that can clone a running shell onto another terminal.

              The compctl builtin for controlling completion.

              The basic completion code.

              Completion listing extensions.

              A module with utility builtins needed  for  the  shell  function
              based completion system.

              curses windowing commands

              Some date/time commands and parameters.

              A ZLE function duplicating EMACS' zap-to-char.

              An example of how to write a module.

              Some basic file manipulation commands as builtins.

              Access to external files via a special associative array.

              Standard   scientific   functions   for   use   in  mathematical

              Arrange for files for new users to be installed.

              Access to internal hash tables via special associative arrays.

              Interface to the PCRE library.

              Interface to the POSIX regex library.

              A builtin that provides a timed execution  facility  within  the

              Manipulation of Unix domain sockets

              A builtin command interface to the stat system call.

              A builtin interface to various low-level system features.

              Manipulation of TCP sockets

              Interface to the termcap database.

              Interface to the terminfo database.

              A builtin FTP client.

              The Zsh Line Editor, including the bindkey and vared builtins.

              Access to internals of the Zsh Line Editor via parameters.

              A module allowing profiling for shell functions.

              A builtin for starting a command in a pseudo-terminal.

              Block and return when file descriptors are ready.

              Some utility builtins, e.g. the one for supporting configuration
              via styles.


       The zsh/attr module is used for manipulating extended attributes.   The
       -h  option  causes all commands to operate on symbolic links instead of
       their targets.  The builtins in this module are:

       zgetattr [ -h ] filename attribute [ parameter ]
              Get  the  extended  attribute  attribute  from   the   specified
              filename.  If  the  optional  argument  parameter  is given, the
              attribute is set on that parameter instead of being  printed  to

       zsetattr [ -h ] filename attribute value
              Set  the  extended attribute attribute on the specified filename
              to value.

       zdelattr [ -h ] filename attribute
              Remove the  extended  attribute  attribute  from  the  specified

       zlistattr [ -h ] filename [ parameter ]
              List  the  extended  attributes  currently  set on the specified
              filename. If the optional argument parameter is given, the  list
              of  attributes is set on that parameter instead of being printed
              to stdout.

       zgetattr and zlistattr allocate memory dynamically.  If  the  attribute
       or  list of attributes grows between the allocation and the call to get
       them, they return 2.  On all other errors, 1 is returned.  This  allows
       the calling function to check for this case and retry.


       The   zsh/cap  module  is  used  for  manipulating  POSIX.1e  (POSIX.6)
       capability sets.   If  the  operating  system  does  not  support  this
       interface,  the  builtins  defined by this module will do nothing.  The
       builtins in this module are:

       cap [ capabilities ]
              Change the shell's process  capability  sets  to  the  specified
              capabilities,    otherwise    display    the   shell's   current

       getcap filename ...
              This is a built-in implementation of the POSIX standard utility.
              It displays the capability sets on each specified filename.

       setcap capabilities filename ...
              This is a built-in implementation of the POSIX standard utility.
              It sets the capability sets on each specified  filename  to  the
              specified capabilities.


       The zsh/clone module makes available one builtin command:

       clone tty
              Creates  a forked instance of the current shell, attached to the
              specified tty.  In the new shell, the PID, PPID and TTY  special
              parameters  are changed appropriately.  $! is set to zero in the
              new shell, and to the new shell's PID in the original shell.

              The return status of the builtin  is  zero  in  both  shells  if
              successful, and non-zero on error.

              The  target  of  clone  should be an unused terminal, such as an
              unused virtual console or a virtual terminal created by

              xterm -e sh -c 'trap : INT QUIT TSTP; tty;  while  :;  do  sleep
              100000000; done'

              Some  words  of  explanation are warranted about this long xterm
              command line: when doing clone on a pseudo-terminal, some  other
              session  ("session"  meant  as  a unix session group, or SID) is
              already owning the terminal. Hence the cloned zsh cannot acquire
              the pseudo-terminal as a controlling tty. That means two things:

              the  job  control  signals  will  go  to the sh-started-by-xterm
                    group (that's why we disable INT QUIT and TSTP with  trap;
                    the while loop could get suspended or killed)

              the cloned shell will have job control disabled, and the job
                    control keys (control-C, control-\ and control-Z) will not

              This does not apply when cloning to an unused vc.

              Cloning to a used (and unprepared) terminal will result  in  two
              processes  reading  simultaneously  from the same terminal, with
              input bytes going randomly to either process.

              clone is mostly useful  as  a  shell  built-in  replacement  for


       The  zsh/compctl  module makes available two builtin commands. compctl,
       is the old,  deprecated  way  to  control  completions  for  ZLE.   See
       zshcompctl(1).   The  other  builtin  command,  compcall can be used in
       user-defined completion widgets, see zshcompwid(1).


       The zsh/complete module makes available several builtin commands  which
       can be used in user-defined completion widgets, see zshcompwid(1).


       The zsh/complist module offers three extensions to completion listings:
       the ability to highlight matches in such a list, the ability to  scroll
       through long lists and a different style of menu completion.

   Colored completion listings
       Whenever one of the parameters ZLS_COLORS or ZLS_COLOURS is set and the
       zsh/complist module is loaded or  linked  into  the  shell,  completion
       lists   will  be  colored.   Note,  however,  that  complist  will  not
       automatically be loaded if it  is  not  linked  in:   on  systems  with
       dynamic loading, `zmodload zsh/complist' is required.

       The  parameters  ZLS_COLORS  and  ZLS_COLOURS  describe how matches are
       highlighted.  To turn on highlighting an empty value suffices, in which
       case  all  the  default values given below will be used.  The format of
       the value of these parameters is the same as used by the GNU version of
       the  ls  command:  a colon-separated list of specifications of the form
       `name=value'.  The name may be one of the following  strings,  most  of
       which specify file types for which the value will be used.  The strings
       and their default values are:

       no 0   for normal text (i.e. when displaying  something  other  than  a
              matched file)

       fi 0   for regular files

       di 32  for directories

       ln 36  for  symbolic  links.   If  this  has  the special value target,
              symbolic links are dereferenced and  the  target  file  used  to
              determine the display format.

       pi 31  for named pipes (FIFOs)

       so 33  for sockets

       bd 44;37
              for block devices

       cd 44;37
              for character devices

       or none
              for  a symlink to nonexistent file (default is the value defined
              for ln)

       mi none
              for a non-existent file (default is the value defined  for  fi);
              this code is currently not used

       su 37;41
              for files with setuid bit set

       sg 30;43
              for files with setgid bit set

       tw 30;42
              for world writable directories with sticky bit set

       ow 34;43
              for world writable directories without sticky bit set

       sa none
              for  files  with an associated suffix alias; this is only tested
              after specific suffixes, as described below

       st 37;44
              for directories with sticky bit set but not world writable

       ex 35  for executable files

       lc \e[ for the left code (see below)

       rc m   for the right code

       tc 0   for the  character  indicating  the  file  type   printed  after
              filenames if the LIST_TYPES option is set

       sp 0   for the spaces printed after matches to align the next column

       ec none
              for the end code

       Apart  from  these  strings,  the  name  may  also be an asterisk (`*')
       followed by any string. The value given for such a string will be  used
       for all files whose name ends with the string.  The name may also be an
       equals sign (`=') followed by a pattern; the EXTENDED_GLOB option  will
       be  turned  on for evaluation of the pattern.  The value given for this
       pattern will be used for all matches (not just filenames) whose display
       string  are  matched by the pattern.  Definitions for the form with the
       leading equal sign take precedence over the  values  defined  for  file
       types,  which  in  turn  take precedence over the form with the leading
       asterisk (file extensions).

       The leading-equals form also allows different parts  of  the  displayed
       strings  to  be  colored differently.  For this, the pattern has to use
       the `(#b)' globbing flag and pairs of parentheses surrounding the parts
       of  the  strings  that are to be colored differently.  In this case the
       value may consist of more than one color code separated by equal signs.
       The first code will be used for all parts for which no explicit code is
       specified and the following codes will be used for the parts matched by
       the  sub-patterns  in  parentheses.   For  example,  the  specification
       `=(#b)(?)*(?)=0=3=7' will be used for all matches which  are  at  least
       two  characters long and will use the code `3' for the first character,
       `7' for the last character and `0' for the rest.

       All three forms of name may be preceded by a  pattern  in  parentheses.
       If  this  is  given,  the value will be used only for matches in groups
       whose names are matched by the pattern given in the  parentheses.   For
       example,  `(g*)m*=43'  highlights  all  matches  beginning  with `m' in
       groups whose names  begin with `g' using the color code `43'.  In  case
       of the `lc', `rc', and `ec' codes, the group pattern is ignored.

       Note also that all patterns are tried in the order in which they appear
       in the parameter value until the first one matches which is then used.

       When printing a match, the code prints the value of lc, the  value  for
       the  file-type or the last matching specification with a `*', the value
       of rc, the string to display for the match itself, and then  the  value
       of  ec  if that is defined or the values of lc, no, and rc if ec is not

       The default values are ISO 6429 (ANSI) compliant and  can  be  used  on
       vt100 compatible terminals such as xterms.  On monochrome terminals the
       default values will have no visible effect.  The colors  function  from
       the  contribution  can be used to get associative arrays containing the
       codes  for  ANSI  terminals  (see  the  section  `Other  Functions'  in
       zshcontrib(1)).   For  example,  after  loading  colors,  one could use
       `$colors[red]'  to  get  the  code  for  foreground   color   red   and
       `$colors[bg-green]' for the code for background color green.

       If  the completion system invoked by compinit is used, these parameters
       should not be set directly because the  system  controls  them  itself.
       Instead,  the  list-colors  style  should  be  used  (see  the  section
       `Completion System Configuration' in zshcompsys(1)).

   Scrolling in completion listings
       To enable scrolling through a completion list, the LISTPROMPT parameter
       must  be set.  Its value will be used as the prompt; if it is the empty
       string, a default prompt will be used.  The value may  contain  escapes
       of  the  form  `%x'.   It  supports the escapes `%B', `%b', `%S', `%s',
       `%U', `%u', `%F', `%f', `%K', `%k' and `%{...%}'  used  also  in  shell
       prompts  as well as three pairs of additional sequences: a `%l' or `%L'
       is replaced by the number of the last line shown and the  total  number
       of  lines  in  the form `number/total'; a `%m' or `%M' is replaced with
       the number of the last match shown and the total number of matches; and
       `%p'  or  `%P'  is replaced with `Top', `Bottom' or the position of the
       first line shown in percent of the total number of lines, respectively.
       In  each  of  these  cases  the  form with the uppercase letter will be
       replaced with a string of fixed width, padded to the right with spaces,
       while the lowercase form will not be padded.

       If the parameter LISTPROMPT is set, the completion code will not ask if
       the list should be shown.  Instead it immediately starts displaying the
       list,  stopping  after  the  first screenful, showing the prompt at the
       bottom, waiting for a  keypress  after  temporarily  switching  to  the
       listscroll  keymap.   Some  of the zle functions have a special meaning
       while scrolling lists:

              stops listing discarding the key pressed

       accept-line, down-history, down-line-or-history
       down-line-or-search, vi-down-line-or-history
              scrolls forward one line

       complete-word, menu-complete, expand-or-complete
       expand-or-complete-prefix, menu-complete-or-expand
              scrolls forward one screenful

              stop listing but take no other action

       Every other character stops listing and immediately processes  the  key
       as  usual.   Any key that is not bound in the listscroll keymap or that
       is bound  to  undefined-key  is  looked  up  in  the  keymap  currently

       As for the ZLS_COLORS and ZLS_COLOURS parameters, LISTPROMPT should not
       be set directly when using the shell function based completion  system.
       Instead, the list-prompt style should be used.

   Menu selection
       The  zsh/complist  module also offers an alternative style of selecting
       matches from a list, called menu selection, which can be  used  if  the
       shell is set up to return to the last prompt after showing a completion
       list (see the ALWAYS_LAST_PROMPT option in zshoptions(1)).

       Menu selection can  be  invoked  directly  by  the  widget  menu-select
       defined  by  this  module.   This  is a standard ZLE widget that can be
       bound to a key in the usual way as described in zshzle(1).

       Alternatively, the parameter MENUSELECT can be set to an integer, which
       gives  the  minimum  number of matches that must be present before menu
       selection is automatically turned on.  This second method requires that
       menu  completion  be  started,  either  directly  from a widget such as
       menu-complete, or due to one of the options MENU_COMPLETE or  AUTO_MENU
       being  set.  If MENUSELECT is set, but is 0, 1 or empty, menu selection
       will always be started during an ambiguous menu completion.

       When  using  the  completion  system  based  on  shell  functions,  the
       MENUSELECT  parameter  should  not  be  used  (like  the ZLS_COLORS and
       ZLS_COLOURS parameters  described  above).   Instead,  the  menu  style
       should be used with the select=... keyword.

       After  menu  selection is started, the matches will be listed. If there
       are more matches than fit on the screen, only the  first  screenful  is
       shown.   The  matches  to  insert into the command line can be selected
       from this list.  In the list one match is highlighted using  the  value
       for ma from the ZLS_COLORS or ZLS_COLOURS parameter.  The default value
       for this is `7' which forces the selected match to be highlighted using
       standout  mode  on  a vt100-compatible terminal.  If neither ZLS_COLORS
       nor ZLS_COLOURS is set, the same terminal control sequence as  for  the
       `%S' escape in prompts is used.

       If  there  are  more  matches  than fit on the screen and the parameter
       MENUPROMPT is set, its value will  be  shown  below  the  matches.   It
       supports the same escape sequences as LISTPROMPT, but the number of the
       match or line shown will be that of the one where the mark  is  placed.
       If its value is the empty string, a default prompt will be used.

       The  MENUSCROLL  parameter  can  be  used  to  specify  how the list is
       scrolled.  If the parameter is unset, this is done line by line, if  it
       is  set to `0' (zero), the list will scroll half the number of lines of
       the screen.  If the value is positive, it gives the number of lines  to
       scroll  and  if it is negative, the list will be scrolled the number of
       lines of the screen minus the (absolute) value.

       As for the ZLS_COLORS, ZLS_COLOURS and LISTPROMPT  parameters,  neither
       MENUPROMPT  nor  MENUSCROLL should be set directly when using the shell
       function based  completion  system.   Instead,  the  select-prompt  and
       select-scroll styles should be used.

       The completion code sometimes decides not to show all of the matches in
       the list.  These hidden  matches  are  either  matches  for  which  the
       completion function which added them explicitly requested that they not
       appear in the list (using the -n option of the compadd builtin command)
       or  they  are  matches  which  duplicate  a  string already in the list
       (because they differ only in things like prefixes or suffixes that  are
       not  displayed).   In  the  list used for menu selection, however, even
       these matches are shown so that it is  possible  to  select  them.   To
       highlight such matches the hi and du capabilities in the ZLS_COLORS and
       ZLS_COLOURS parameters are supported for hidden matches  of  the  first
       and second kind, respectively.

       Selecting  matches  is  done  by  moving  the mark around using the zle
       movement functions.  When not all matches can be shown on the screen at
       the  same  time, the list will scroll up and down when crossing the top
       or bottom line.  The  following  zle  functions  have  special  meaning
       during menu selection.  Note that the following always perform the same
       task within the menu selection map  and  cannot  be  replaced  by  user
       defined widgets, nor can the set of functions be extended:

       accept-line, accept-search
              accept  the  current  match and leave menu selection (but do not
              cause the command line to be accepted)

              leaves menu selection and restores the previous contents of  the
              command line

       redisplay, clear-screen
              execute their normal function without leaving menu selection

       accept-and-hold, accept-and-menu-complete
              accept  the  currently  inserted  match  and  continue selection
              allowing to select the next match to insert into the line

              accepts the current match and then tries  completion  with  menu
              selection again;  in the case of files this allows one to select
              a directory and immediately attempt to complete files in it;  if
              there are no matches, a message is shown and one can use undo to
              go back to completion on the previous  level,  every  other  key
              leaves  menu  selection (including the other zle functions which
              are otherwise special during menu selection)

       undo   removes matches inserted during the menu selection by one of the
              three functions before

       down-history, down-line-or-history
       vi-down-line-or-history,  down-line-or-search
              moves the mark one line down

       up-history, up-line-or-history
       vi-up-line-or-history, up-line-or-search
              moves the mark one line up

       forward-char, vi-forward-char
              moves the mark one column right

       backward-char, vi-backward-char
              moves the mark one column left

       forward-word, vi-forward-word
       vi-forward-word-end, emacs-forward-word
              moves the mark one screenful down

       backward-word, vi-backward-word, emacs-backward-word
              moves the mark one screenful up

       vi-forward-blank-word, vi-forward-blank-word-end
              moves the mark to the first line of the next group of matches

              moves the mark to the last line of the previous group of matches

              moves the mark to the first line

              moves the mark to the last line

       beginning-of-buffer-or-history, beginning-of-line
       beginning-of-line-hist, vi-beginning-of-line
              moves the mark to the leftmost column

       end-of-buffer-or-history, end-of-line
       end-of-line-hist, vi-end-of-line
              moves the mark to the rightmost column

       complete-word, menu-complete, expand-or-complete
       expand-or-complete-prefix, menu-expand-or-complete
              moves the mark to the next match

              moves the mark to the previous match

              this toggles between normal and interactive mode; in interactive
              mode the keys bound to self-insert and self-insert-unmeta insert
              into  the  command  line  as  in normal editing mode but without
              leaving menu selection; after each character completion is tried
              again  and the list changes to contain only the new matches; the
              completion  widgets  make  the  longest  unambiguous  string  be
              inserted  in  the command line and undo and backward-delete-char
              go back to the previous set of matches

              history-incremental-search-backward  this   starts   incremental
              searches  in  the  list  of completions displayed; in this mode,
              accept-line only leaves incremental search, going  back  to  the
              normal menu selection mode

       All movement functions wrap around at the edges; any other zle function
       not listed leaves menu selection and executes  that  function.   It  is
       possible  to  make  widgets  in the above list do the same by using the
       form of the widget with a  `.'  in  front.   For  example,  the  widget
       `.accept-line'  has  the effect of leaving menu selection and accepting
       the entire command line.

       During this selection the widget uses the keymap menuselect.   Any  key
       that is not defined in this keymap or that is bound to undefined-key is
       looked up in the keymap currently selected.  This  is  used  to  ensure
       that  the  most important keys used during selection (namely the cursor
       keys, return, and TAB) have sensible defaults.  However,  keys  in  the
       menuselect  keymap  can  be modified directly using the bindkey builtin
       command (see zshmodules(1)). For example, to make the return key  leave
       menu selection without accepting the match currently selected one could

              bindkey -M menuselect '^M' send-break

       after loading the zsh/complist module.


       The zsh/computil module adds several builtin commands that are used  by
       some  of  the  completion  functions  in the completion system based on
       shell functions (see  zshcompsys(1)  ).   Except  for  compquote  these
       builtin  commands  are  very  specialised and thus not very interesting
       when writing your own completion functions.  In summary, these  builtin
       commands are:

              This  is  used by the _arguments function to do the argument and
              command line parsing.  Like compdescribe it has an option -i  to
              do  the  parsing  and initialize some internal state and various
              options to access the state information to decide what should be

              This is used by the _describe function to build the displays for
              the matches and to get the strings to add as matches with  their
              options.   On  the first call one of the options -i or -I should
              be supplied as the first argument.  In the first  case,  display
              strings  without  the  descriptions  will  be  generated, in the
              second case, the string used to separate the matches from  their
              descriptions  must  be  given  as  the  second  argument and the
              descriptions (if any) will be shown.  All  other  arguments  are
              like the definition arguments to _describe itself.

              Once  compdescribe  has been called with either the -i or the -I
              option, it can be repeatedly called with the -g option  and  the
              names  of  five arrays as its arguments.  This will step through
              the different sets of matches and store the options in the first
              array,  the strings with descriptions in the second, the matches
              for these in the third, the strings without descriptions in  the
              fourth,  and the matches for them in the fifth array.  These are
              then directly given to compadd to register the matches with  the
              completion code.

              Used  by  the _path_files function to optimize complex recursive
              filename generation (globbing).  It does three things.  With the
              -p  and -P options it builds the glob patterns to use, including
              the paths already handled and trying to  optimize  the  patterns
              with  respect  to  the  prefix  and suffix from the line and the
              match specification currently used.   The  -i  option  does  the
              directory  tests  for the ignore-parents style and the -r option
              tests if a component for some of the matches are  equal  to  the
              string  on  the  line  and  removes all other matches if that is

              Used by the _tags function to implement  the  internals  of  the
              group-order  style.   This  only takes its arguments as names of
              completion groups and creates the groups for it (all six  types:
              sorted  and  unsorted,  both  without  removing duplicates, with
              removing  all   duplicates   and   with   removing   consecutive

       compquote [ -p ] names ...
              There  may be reasons to write completion functions that have to
              add the matches using the  -Q  option  to  compadd  and  perform
              quoting themselves.  Instead of interpreting the first character
              of the all_quotes key of the compstate special  association  and
              using  the  q  flag  for  parameter expansions, one can use this
              builtin command.  The arguments are the names of scalar or array
              parameters  and  the  values  of  these parameters are quoted as
              needed for the innermost quoting level.  If  the  -p  option  is
              given,  quoting  is  done  as if there is some prefix before the
              values of the parameters, so that a leading equal sign will  not
              be quoted.

              The  return  status  is  non-zero  in  case of an error and zero

              These implement the internals of the tags mechanism.

              Like comparguments, but for the _values function.


       The zsh/curses module makes available one builtin command  and  various

       zcurses init
       zcurses end
       zcurses addwin targetwin nlines ncols begin_y begin_x [ parentwin ]
       zcurses delwin targetwin
       zcurses refresh [ targetwin ... ]
       zcurses touch targetwin ...
       zcurses move targetwin new_y new_x
       zcurses clear targetwin [ redraw | eol | bot ]
       zcurses position targetwin array
       zcurses char targetwin character
       zcurses string targetwin string
       zcurses border targetwin border
       zcurses attr targetwin [ {+/-}attribute | fg_col/bg_col ] [...]
       zcurses bg targetwin [ {+/-}attribute | fg_col/bg_col | @char ] [...]
       zcurses scroll targetwin [ on | off | {+/-}lines ]
       zcurses input targetwin [ param [ kparam [ mparam ] ] ]
       zcurses mouse [ delay num | {+/-}motion ]
       zcurses timeout targetwin intval
       zcurses querychar targetwin [ param ]
              Manipulate  curses  windows.  All uses of this command should be
              bracketed by `zcurses init' to initialise  use  of  curses,  and
              `zcurses  end'  to  end it; omitting `zcurses end' can cause the
              terminal to be in an unwanted state.

              The subcommand addwin creates a window  with  nlines  lines  and
              ncols  columns.   Its  upper  left  corner will be placed at row
              begin_y and column begin_x of the screen.  targetwin is a string
              and  refers  to  the  name  of  a  window  that is not currently
              assigned.   Note  in  particular  the  curses  convention   that
              vertical values appear before horizontal values.

              If addwin is given an existing window as the final argument, the
              new window is created as a subwindow of parentwin.  This differs
              from  an  ordinary  new  window in that the memory of the window
              contents is shared with the parent's memory.  Subwindows must be
              deleted  before  their  parent.   Note  that  the coordinates of
              subwindows are relative to the screen, not the parent,  as  with
              other windows.

              Use  the  subcommand  delwin  to  delete  a  window created with
              addwin.  Note that end does not implicitly delete  windows,  and
              that delwin does not erase the screen image of the window.

              The  window  corresponding  to the full visible screen is called
              stdscr; it always exists after  `zcurses  init'  and  cannot  be
              delete with delwin.

              The  subcommand  refresh  will refresh window targetwin; this is
              necessary to make any pending changes (such  as  characters  you
              have  prepared  for  output  with  char)  visible on the screen.
              refresh without an argument causes the screen to be cleared  and
              redrawn.   If  multiple windows are given, the screen is updated
              once at the end.

              The subcommand touch marks the  targetwins  listed  as  changed.
              This is necessary before refreshing windows if a window that was
              in front of another window (which may be stdscr) is deleted.

              The subcommand move moves the cursor position  in  targetwin  to
              new  coordinates  new_y  and  new_x.   Note  that the subcommand
              string  (but  not  the  subcommand  char)  advances  the  cursor
              position over the characters added.

              The subcommand clear erases the contents of targetwin.  One (and
              no more than one) of three options may be specified.   With  the
              option  redraw,  in  addition the next refresh of targetwin will
              cause the screen to be cleared and repainted.  With  the  option
              eol,  targetwin is only cleared to the end of the current cursor
              line.  With the option bot, targetwin is cleared to the  end  of
              the  window, i.e everything to the right and below the cursor is

              The subcommand position writes various positions associated with
              targetwin into the array named array.  These are, in order:

              The y and x coordinates of the cursor relative to the top left
                     of targetwin

              The y and x coordinates of the top left of targetwin on the

              The size of targetwin in y and x dimensions.

              Outputting  characters  and  strings  are  achieved  by char and
              string respectively.

              To draw a border around window targetwin, use border.  Note that
              the  border  is  not  subsequently  handled specially:  in other
              words, the border is simply a set of characters  output  at  the
              edge of the window.  Hence it can be overwritten, can scroll off
              the window, etc.

              The  subcommand  attr  will  set   targetwin's   attributes   or
              foreground/background  color  pair  for any successive character
              output.  Each attribute given on the line may be prepended by  a
              + to set or a - to unset that attribute; + is assumed if absent.
              The  attributes  supported  are  blink,  bold,   dim,   reverse,
              standout, and underline.

              Each  fg_col/bg_col attribute (to be read as `fg_col on bg_col')
              sets the foreground and background color for  character  output.
              The  color  default is sometimes available (in particular if the
              library is ncurses), specifying  the  foreground  or  background
              color   with   which  the  terminal  started.   The  color  pair
              default/default is always available.

              bg overrides the color and other attributes of all characters in
              the  window.   Its usual use is to set the background initially,
              but it will overwrite the attributes of any  characters  at  the
              time  when  it  is called.  In addition to the arguments allowed
              with attr, an argument @char specifies a character to  be  shown
              in otherwise blank areas of the window.  Owing to limitations of
              curses this cannot  be  a  multibyte  character  (use  of  ASCII
              characters  only  is  recommended).   As  the  specified  set of
              attributes override the existing background, turning  attributes
              off  in  the arguments is not useful, though this does not cause
              an error.

              The subcommand scroll can be used with on or off to  enabled  or
              disable  scrolling  of  a window when the cursor would otherwise
              move below the window due to typing or output.  It can  also  be
              used with a positive or negative integer to scroll the window up
              or down the given number of lines without changing  the  current
              cursor position (which therefore appears to move in the opposite
              direction relative to the  window).   In  the  second  case,  if
              scrolling is off it is temporarily turned on to allow the window
              to be scrolled.

              The subcommand input reads a single character  from  the  window
              without  echoing it back.  If param is supplied the character is
              assigned to the parameter param, else  it  is  assigned  to  the
              parameter REPLY.

              If  both  param  and  kparam  are  supplied,  the key is read in
              `keypad' mode.  In this mode special keys such as function  keys
              and  arrow  keys  return  the  name  of the key in the parameter
              kparam.  The key names are the macros defined in the curses.h or
              ncurses.h   with   the  prefix  `KEY_'  removed;  see  also  the
              description of the parameter zcurses_keycodes below.  Other keys
              cause  a  value  to  be set in param as before.  On a successful
              return only one of param or kparam contains a non-empty  string;
              the other is set to an empty string.

              If  mparam  is  also  supplied,  input  attempts to handle mouse
              input.  This is only available with the ncurses  library;  mouse
              handling  can  be  detected  by  checking for the exit status of
              `zcurses mouse' with no arguments.  If a mouse button is clicked
              (or  double-  or  triple-clicked,  or pressed or released with a
              configurable delay from being clicked) then kparam is set to the
              string  MOUSE,  and  mparam is set to an array consisting of the
              following elements:
              -      An identifier to discriminate  different  input  devices;
                     this is only rarely useful.
              -      The x, y and z coordinates of the mouse click relative to
                     the full screen, as three elements in  that  order  (i.e.
                     the  y coordinate is, unusually, after the x coordinate).
                     The z coordinate is only  available  for  a  few  unusual
                     input devices and is otherwise set to zero.
              -      Any events that occurred as separate items; usually there
                     will  be  just  one.   An  event  consists  of   PRESSED,
                     followed immediately (in the same element) by the  number
                     of the button.
              -      If the shift key was pressed, the string SHIFT.
              -      If the control key was pressed, the string CTRL.
              -      If the alt key was pressed, the string ALT.

              Not  all  mouse  events  may  be  passed through to the terminal
              window;  most  terminal  emulators  handle  some  mouse   events
              themselves.   Note  that  the  ncurses manual implies that using
              input both with and without mouse handling may cause  the  mouse
              cursor to appear and disappear.

              The  subcommand  mouse  can  be used to configure the use of the
              mouse.  There is no window argument; mouse options  are  global.
              `zcurses  mouse'  with  no  arguments  returns status 0 if mouse
              handling is possible, else status 1.   Otherwise,  the  possible
              arguments  (which  may be combined on the same command line) are
              as follows.  delay num sets the maximum  delay  in  milliseconds
              between  press  and  release events to be considered as a click;
              the value 0 disables click resolution, and the  default  is  one
              sixth  of  a  second.   motion proceeded by an optional `+' (the
              default) or - turns on or  off  reporting  of  mouse  motion  in
              addition  to  clicks,  presses  and  releases,  which are always
              reported.  However, it appears reports for mouse motion are  not
              currently implemented.

              The  subcommand timeout specifies a timeout value for input from
              targetwin.   If  intval  is  negative,  `zcurses  input'   waits
              indefinitely  for  a character to be typed; this is the default.
              If intval is zero, `zcurses input' returns immediately; if there
              is  typeahead it is returned, else no input is done and status 1
              is returned.  If  intval  is  positive,  `zcurses  input'  waits
              intval milliseconds for input and if there is none at the end of
              that period returns status 1.

              The subcommand querychar queries the character  at  the  current
              cursor  position.   The  return  values  are stored in the array
              named param if supplied, else in the  array  reply.   The  first
              value  is  the  character (which may be a multibyte character if
              the system supports them); the second is the color pair  in  the
              usual  fg_col/bg_col  notation,  or 0 if color is not supported.
              Any attributes other than color that apply to the character,  as
              set with the subcommand attr, appear as additional elements.

              Readonly  integer.   The  maximum  number of colors the terminal
              supports.  This value is initialised by the curses  library  and
              is not available until the first time zcurses init is run.

              Readonly   integer.    The   maximum   number   of  color  pairs
              fg_col/bg_col that may be defined in  `zcurses  attr'  commands;
              note  this  limit applies to all color pairs that have been used
              whether or  not  they  are  currently  active.   This  value  is
              initialised by the curses library and is not available until the
              first time zcurses init is run.

              Readonly  array.   The  attributes  supported   by   zsh/curses;
              available as soon as the module is loaded.

              Readonly  array.   The colors supported by zsh/curses; available
              as soon as the module is loaded.

              Readonly array.  The values that may be returned in  the  second
              parameter supplied to `zcurses input' in the order in which they
              are defined internally by curses.  Not  all  function  keys  are
              listed, only F0; curses reserves space for F0 up to F63.

              Readonly  array.   The current list of windows, i.e. all windows
              that have been created with `zcurses  addwin'  and  not  removed
              with `zcurses delwin'.


       The zsh/datetime module makes available one builtin command:

       strftime [ -s scalar ] format epochtime
       strftime -r [ -q ] [ -s scalar ] format timestring
              Output the date denoted by epochtime in the format specified.

              With the option -r (reverse), use the format format to parse the
              input string timestring and output the number of  seconds  since
              the epoch at which the time occurred.  If no timezone is parsed,
              the current timezone is used; other parameters are set  to  zero
              if not present.  If timestring does not match format the command
              returns status 1; it will additionally print  an  error  message
              unless  the  option  -q (quiet) is given.  If timestring matches
              format but not all  characters  in  timestring  were  used,  the
              conversion  succeeds;  however,  a  warning is issued unless the
              option -q is given.  The matching is implemented by  the  system
              function  strptime; see strptime(3).  This means that zsh format
              extensions are not available, however for  reverse  lookup  they
              are  not  required.   If  the  function  is not implemented, the
              command returns status 2 and  (unless  -q  is  given)  prints  a

              If  -s scalar is given, assign the date string (or epoch time in
              seconds if -r is given) to scalar instead of printing it.

       The zsh/datetime module makes available one parameter:

              An integer value representing the number of  seconds  since  the


       The zsh/deltochar module makes available two ZLE functions:

              Read  a  character from the keyboard, and delete from the cursor
              position up to and including the next (or, with repeat count  n,
              the  nth)  instance  of  that character.  Negative repeat counts
              mean delete backwards.

              This  behaves  like  delete-to-char,  except  that   the   final
              occurrence of the character itself is not deleted.


       The zsh/example module makes available one builtin command:

       example [ -flags ] [ args ... ]
              Displays the flags and arguments it is invoked with.

       The  purpose  of the module is to serve as an example of how to write a


       The zsh/files module makes available  some  common  commands  for  file
       manipulation  as  builtins;  these commands are probably not needed for
       many  normal  situations  but  can  be  useful  in  emergency  recovery
       situations  with  constrained resources.  The commands do not implement
       all features now required by relevant standards committees.

       For all commands, a variant beginning zf_ is also available and  loaded
       automatically.   Using the features capability of zmodload will let you
       load only those names you want.

       The commands loaded by default are:

       chgrp [ -hRs ] group filename ...
              Changes group of files specified.  This is equivalent  to  chown
              with a user-spec argument of `:group'.

       chown [ -hRs ] user-spec filename ...
              Changes ownership and group of files specified.

              The user-spec can be in four forms:

              user   change owner to user; do not change group
              user:: change owner to user; do not change group
              user:  change  owner  to  user;  change  group to user's primary
                     change owner to user; change group to group
              :group do not change owner; change group to group

              In each case, the `:' may instead be a `.'.  The rule is that if
              there  is a `:' then the separator is `:', otherwise if there is
              a  `.'  then  the  separator  is  `.',  otherwise  there  is  no

              Each  of user and group may be either a username (or group name,
              as appropriate) or a decimal user ID (group ID).  Interpretation
              as  a name takes precedence, if there is an all-numeric username
              (or group name).

              If the target is a symbolic link, the -h option causes chown  to
              set the ownership of the link instead of its target.

              The   -R   option  causes  chown  to  recursively  descend  into
              directories,  changing  the  ownership  of  all  files  in   the
              directory after changing the ownership of the directory itself.

              The  -s  option  is  a zsh extension to chown functionality.  It
              enables paranoid behaviour, intended to avoid security  problems
              involving  a chown being tricked into affecting files other than
              the ones intended.  It will refuse to follow symbolic links,  so
              that   (for   example)  ``chown  luser  /tmp/foo/passwd''  can't
              accidentally chown /etc/passwd if /tmp/foo happens to be a  link
              to  /etc.   It  will  also  check  where  it  is  after  leaving
              directories, so that a recursive chown of a deep directory  tree
              can't   end   up  recursively  chowning  /usr  as  a  result  of
              directories being moved up the tree.

       ln [ -dfhins ] filename dest
       ln [ -dfhins ] filename ... dir
              Creates hard (or, with -s, symbolic) links.  In the first  form,
              the specified destination is created, as a link to the specified
              filename.  In the second form, each of the filenames is taken in
              turn,  and  linked to a pathname in the specified directory that
              has the same last pathname component.

              Normally,  ln  will  not  attempt  to  create  hard   links   to
              directories.   This check can be overridden using the -d option.
              Typically only the super-user can actually succeed  in  creating
              hard  links  to  directories.   This  does not apply to symbolic
              links in any case.

              By default, existing files cannot be replaced by links.  The  -i
              option  causes  the  user to be queried about replacing existing
              files.  The -f option  causes  existing  files  to  be  silently
              deleted, without querying.  -f takes precedence.

              The  -h  and  -n  options  are  identical  and  both  exist  for
              compatibility; either one indicates that  if  the  target  is  a
              symlink  then  it should not be dereferenced.  Typically this is
              used in combination with -sf so that if an existing link  points
              to a directory then it will be removed, instead of followed.  If
              this option is used with multiple filenames and the target is  a
              symbolic  link  pointing  to  a  directory then the result is an

       mkdir [ -p ] [ -m mode ] dir ...
              Creates directories.  With the -p  option,  non-existing  parent
              directories are first created if necessary, and there will be no
              complaint if the directory already exists.  The -m option can be
              used  to  specify  (in  octal) a set of file permissions for the
              created directories, otherwise mode 777 modified by the  current
              umask (see umask(2)) is used.

       mv [ -fi ] filename dest
       mv [ -fi ] filename ... dir
              Moves files.  In the first form, the specified filename is moved
              to the specified destination.  In the second form, each  of  the
              filenames  is  taken  in  turn,  and  moved to a pathname in the
              specified directory that has the same last pathname component.

              By default, the user will be queried before replacing  any  file
              that  the  user  cannot  write  to,  but  writable files will be
              silently removed.  The -i option causes the user to  be  queried
              about  replacing  any  existing files.  The -f option causes any
              existing files to be silently  deleted,  without  querying.   -f
              takes precedence.

              Note   that   this  mv  will  not  move  files  across  devices.
              Historical versions of mv, when actual renaming  is  impossible,
              fall  back  on  copying and removing files; if this behaviour is
              desired, use cp and rm manually.  This may change  in  a  future

       rm [ -dfirs ] filename ...
              Removes files and directories specified.

              Normally,  rm  will  not  remove directories (except with the -r
              option).  The -d option causes rm to  try  removing  directories
              with  unlink  (see  unlink(2)),  the same method used for files.
              Typically only the super-user can actually succeed in  unlinking
              directories in this way.  -d takes precedence over -r.

              By  default,  the  user will be queried before removing any file
              that the user cannot  write  to,  but  writable  files  will  be
              silently  removed.   The -i option causes the user to be queried
              about removing any files.  The -f  option  causes  files  to  be
              silently  deleted,  without  querying,  and suppresses all error
              indications.  -f takes precedence.

              The -r option causes rm to recursively descend into directories,
              deleting   all  files  in  the  directory  before  removing  the
              directory with the rmdir system call (see rmdir(2)).

              The -s option is  a  zsh  extension  to  rm  functionality.   It
              enables  paranoid  behaviour,  intended to avoid common security
              problems involving a root-run rm  being  tricked  into  removing
              files  other  than  the ones intended.  It will refuse to follow
              symbolic links, so that  (for  example)  ``rm  /tmp/foo/passwd''
              can't  accidentally remove /etc/passwd if /tmp/foo happens to be
              a link to /etc.  It will also check where it  is  after  leaving
              directories,  so  that  a  recursive removal of a deep directory
              tree can't end up recursively  removing  /usr  as  a  result  of
              directories being moved up the tree.

       rmdir dir ...
              Removes empty directories specified.

       sync   Calls  the  system  call  of  the same name (see sync(2)), which
              flushes dirty buffers to disk.  It might return before  the  I/O
              has actually been completed.


       The zsh/mapfile module provides one special associative array parameter
       of the same name.

              This associative array takes as keys the  names  of  files;  the
              resulting  value  is  the  content  of  the  file.  The value is
              treated identically to any other text coming from  a  parameter.
              The  value  may  also  be assigned to, in which case the file in
              question is written (whether or not it originally  existed);  or
              an element may be unset, which will delete the file in question.
              For example, `vared mapfile[myfile]' works as expected,  editing
              the file `myfile'.

              When the array is accessed as a whole, the keys are the names of
              files in the current directory, and the  values  are  empty  (to
              save  a  huge  overhead  in memory).  Thus ${(k)mapfile} has the
              same affect as the glob operator  *(D),  since  files  beginning
              with a dot are not special.  Care must be taken with expressions
              such as rm ${(k)mapfile}, which will delete every  file  in  the
              current directory without the usual `rm *' test.

              The parameter mapfile may be made read-only; in that case, files
              referenced may not be written or deleted.

              A file may conveniently be read into an array as  one  line  per
              element  with the form `array=("${(f)mapfile[filename]}")'.  The
              double quotes are necessary to prevent empty  lines  from  being

       Although  reading  and  writing  of the file in question is efficiently
       handled, zsh's internal memory management may be  arbitrarily  baroque;
       however,  mapfile  is  usually  very  much more efficient than anything
       involving a loop.  Note in particular that the whole  contents  of  the
       file  will  always  reside physically in memory when accessed (possibly
       multiple times, due to standard parameter substitution operations).  In
       particular,  this  means  handling  of sufficiently long files (greater
       than the machine's swap space, or than the range of the  pointer  type)
       will be incorrect.

       No  errors  are  printed  or  flagged  for non-existent, unreadable, or
       unwritable files, as the parameter mechanism is too low  in  the  shell
       execution hierarchy to make this convenient.

       It  is  unfortunate that the mechanism for loading modules does not yet
       allow the user to specify the name of the shell parameter to  be  given
       the special behaviour.


       The  zsh/mathfunc  module  provides standard mathematical functions for
       use when evaluating mathematical  formulae.   The  syntax  agrees  with
       normal C and FORTRAN conventions, for example,

              (( f = sin(0.3) ))

       assigns the sine of 0.3 to the parameter f.

       Most  functions  take  floating  point  arguments and return a floating
       point value.  However, any necessary conversions  from  or  to  integer
       type  will  be  performed  automatically by the shell.  Apart from atan
       with a second argument and  the  abs,  int  and  float  functions,  all
       functions  behave  as  noted in the manual page for the corresponding C
       function, except that any arguments out of range for  the  function  in
       question will be detected by the shell and an error reported.

       The  following  functions  take a single floating point argument: acos,
       acosh, asin, asinh, atan, atanh, cbrt, ceil, cos, cosh, erf, erfc, exp,
       expm1,  fabs,  floor,  gamma,  j0, j1, lgamma, log, log10, log1p, logb,
       sin, sinh, sqrt, tan, tanh, y0, y1.  The atan function  can  optionally
       take  a  second  argument, in which case it behaves like the C function
       atan2.  The ilogb function takes a single floating point argument,  but
       returns an integer.

       The  function signgam takes no arguments, and returns an integer, which
       is the C variable of the same name, as  described  in  gamma(3).   Note
       that  it  is therefore only useful immediately after a call to gamma or
       lgamma.  Note also  that  `signgam(RPAR'  and  `signgam'  are  distinct

       The  following  functions  take two floating point arguments: copysign,
       fmod, hypot, nextafter.

       The following take an integer  first  argument  and  a  floating  point
       second argument: jn, yn.

       The  following  take  a  floating  point  first argument and an integer
       second argument: ldexp, scalb.

       The function abs does not convert the type of its single  argument;  it
       returns  the  absolute  value  of  either a floating point number or an
       integer.  The functions float and int convert their  arguments  into  a
       floating point or integer value (by truncation) respectively.

       Note  that  the C pow function is available in ordinary math evaluation
       as the `**' operator and is not provided here.

       The function rand48 is available if your system's mathematical  library
       has the function erand48(3).  It returns a pseudo-random floating point
       number between 0 and 1.  It takes a single string optional argument.

       If the argument is not present, the random number seed  is  initialised
       by  three  calls  to  the  rand(3)  function --- this produces the same
       random numbers as the next three values of $RANDOM.

       If the argument is present, it gives the name  of  a  scalar  parameter
       where  the  current  random  number  seed will be stored.  On the first
       call, the value must contain at least twelve  hexadecimal  digits  (the
       remainder of the string is ignored), or the seed will be initialised in
       the same manner as for a call to rand48 with no  argument.   Subsequent
       calls  to  rand48(param)  will  then maintain the seed in the parameter
       param as a string of twelve hexadecimal digits, with no base signifier.
       The  random  number  sequences  for different parameters are completely
       independent, and are also independent from that used by calls to rand48
       with no argument.

       For example, consider

              print $(( rand48(seed) ))
              print $(( rand48() ))
              print $(( rand48(seed) ))

       Assuming  $seed  does  not  exist,  it will be initialised by the first
       call.  In the second call,  the  default  seed  is  initialised;  note,
       however,   that  because  of  the  properties  of  rand()  there  is  a
       correlation between the seeds used for the two initialisations, so  for
       more secure uses, you should generate your own 12-byte seed.  The third
       call returns to the same sequence of random numbers used in  the  first
       call, unaffected by the intervening rand48().


       The  zsh/newuser  module  is loaded at boot if it is available, the RCS
       option is set, and the PRIVILEGED option is not set (all three are true
       by default).  This takes place immediately after commands in the global
       zshenv file (typically /etc/zsh/zshenv), if any,  have  been  executed.
       If the module is not available it is silently ignored by the shell; the
       module may safely be removed from $MODULE_PATH by the administrator  if
       it is not required.

       On  loading,  the  module  tests  if any of the start-up files .zshenv,
       .zprofile, .zshrc or .zlogin  exist  in  the  directory  given  by  the
       environment  variable  ZDOTDIR, or the user's home directory if that is
       not set.  The test is not performed and the module halts processing  if
       the shell was in an emulation mode (i.e. had been invoked as some other
       shell than zsh).

       If none of the start-up files were found, the module then looks for the
       file  newuser  first  in  a  sitewide  directory,  usually  the  parent
       directory of the site-functions directory, and if that is not found the
       module  searches in a version-specific directory, usually the parent of
       the functions directory containing version-specific functions.   (These
       directories   can   be   configured   when   zsh  is  built  using  the
       --enable-site-scriptdir=dir   and   --enable-scriptdir=dir   flags   to
       configure,   respectively;   the   defaults  are  prefix/share/zsh  and
       prefix/share/zsh/$ZSH_VERSION where the default prefix is /usr/local.)

       If the file newuser is found, it is then sourced in the same manner  as
       a  start-up  file.   The  file  is  expected to contain code to install
       start-up files for the user, however  any  valid  shell  code  will  be

       The zsh/newuser module is then unconditionally unloaded.

       Note  that  it  is  possible  to achieve exactly the same effect as the
       zsh/newuser module by  adding  code  to  /etc/zsh/zshenv.   The  module
       exists  simply  to  allow  the shell to make arrangements for new users
       without the need for intervention by  package  maintainers  and  system

       The  script  supplied  with  the  module  invokes  the  shell  function
       zsh-newuser-install.  This may be invoked directly by the user even  if
       the  zsh/newuser module is disabled.  Note, however, that if the module
       is not installed the  function  will  not  be  installed  either.   The
       function  is  documented in the section User Configuration Functions in


       The zsh/parameter module gives access to  some  of  the  internal  hash
       tables used by the shell by defining some special parameters.

              The keys for this associative array are the names of the options
              that can  be  set  and  unset  using  the  setopt  and  unsetopt
              builtins.  The  value of each key is either the string on if the
              option is currently set, or the string  off  if  the  option  is
              unset.  Setting a key to one of these strings is like setting or
              unsetting the option, respectively.  Unsetting  a  key  in  this
              array is like setting it to the value off.

              This  array gives access to the command hash table. The keys are
              the names of external commands, the values are the pathnames  of
              the  files  that  would  be  executed  when the command would be
              invoked. Setting a key in this array defines a new entry in this
              table  in the same way as with the hash builtin. Unsetting a key
              as in `unset "commands[foo]"' removes the entry  for  the  given
              key from the command hash table.

              This  associative array maps names of enabled functions to their
              definitions. Setting a key in it is  like  defining  a  function
              with  the name given by the key and the body given by the value.
              Unsetting a key removes the definition for the function named by
              the key.

              Like functions but for disabled functions.

              This  associative  array  gives  information  about  the builtin
              commands currently enabled.  The  keys  are  the  names  of  the
              builtin  commands  and  the  values  are  either `undefined' for
              builtin commands that will automatically be loaded from a module
              if  invoked  or  `defined' for builtin commands that are already

              Like builtins but for disabled builtin commands.

              This array contains the enabled reserved words.

              Like reswords but for disabled reserved words.

              This maps the names of the regular aliases currently enabled  to
              their expansions.

              Like aliases but for disabled regular aliases.

              Like aliases, but for global aliases.

              Like galiases but for disabled global aliases.

              Like raliases, but for suffix aliases.

              Like saliases but for disabled suffix aliases.

              The  keys  in  this  associative  array  are  the  names  of the
              parameters currently defined. The values are strings  describing
              the  type  of  the  parameter,  in the same format used by the t
              parameter flag, see zshexpn(1) .  Setting or unsetting  keys  in
              this array is not possible.

              An  associative array giving information about modules. The keys
              are  the  names  of  the  modules  loaded,  registered   to   be
              autoloaded,  or  aliased.  The  value says which state the named
              module is in and is one of the strings  `loaded',  `autoloaded',
              or  `alias:name',  where  name is the name the module is aliased

              Setting or unsetting keys in this array is not possible.

              A normal array holding the elements of the directory stack. Note
              that  the  output  of the dirs builtin command includes one more
              directory, the current working directory.

              This associative array maps history event numbers  to  the  full
              history lines.

              A special array containing the words stored in the history.

              This  associative array maps job numbers to the directories from
              which the  job  was  started  (which  may  not  be  the  current
              directory of the job).

              The  keys  of  the  associative  arrays  are  usually  valid job
              numbers, and these are the  values  output  with,  for  example,
              ${(k)jobdirs}.   Non-numeric  job  references  may  be used when
              looking up a value; for example, ${jobdirs[%+]}  refers  to  the
              current job.

              This  associative  array  maps  job  numbers to the texts of the
              command lines that were used to start the jobs.

              Handling of the keys of the associative array  is  as  described
              for jobdirs above.

              This associative array gives information about the states of the
              jobs currently known. The keys  are  the  job  numbers  and  the
              values  are  strings  of the form `job-state:mark:pid=state...'.
              The job-state gives the state the whole job is currently in, one
              of  `running',  `suspended',  or `done'. The mark is `+' for the
              current job, `-' for the previous job and empty otherwise.  This
              is followed by one `pid=state' for every process in the job. The
              pids are, of course, the process IDs and the state describes the
              state of that process.

              Handling  of  the  keys of the associative array is as described
              for jobdirs above.

              This associative array maps the names of  named  directories  to
              the pathnames they stand for.

              This associative array maps user names to the pathnames of their
              home directories.

              This array contains the absolute line numbers and  corresponding
              file  names  for  the  point where the current function, sourced
              file, or (if EVAL_LINENO is set) eval command was  called.   The
              array  is  of  the same length as funcsourcetrace and functrace,
              but differs from funcsourcetrace in that the line and  file  are
              the point of call, not the point of definition, and differs from
              functrace in that all values are absolute line numbers in files,
              rather than relative to the start of a function, if any.

              This  array  contains  the  file  names  and line numbers of the
              points where the functions, sourced files, and  (if  EVAL_LINENO
              is  set)  eval  commands  currently being executed were defined.
              The line number is the line where the `function name'  or  `name
              ()'  started.   In  the case of an autoloaded function  the line
              number is reported as zero.   The  format  of  each  element  is
              filename:lineno.  For functions autoloaded from a file in native
              zsh format, where only the body of the function  occurs  in  the
              file,  or for files that have been executed by the source or `.'
              builtins, the trace information is shown  as  filename:0,  since
              the entire file is the definition.

              Most  users  will  be  interested  in  the  information  in  the
              funcfiletrace array instead.

              This array contains the names of the functions,  sourced  files,
              and  (if  EVAL_LINENO  is  set)  eval  commands. currently being
              executed. The first element is the name of  the  function  using
              the parameter.

              This  array  contains  the names and line numbers of the callers
              corresponding to the functions currently  being  executed.   The
              format  of  each element is name:lineno.  Callers are also shown
              for sourced files; the caller is the point where the  source  or
              `.' command was executed.


       The zsh/pcre module makes some commands available as builtins:

       pcre_compile [ -aimxs ] PCRE
              Compiles a perl-compatible regular expression.

              Option -a will force the pattern to be anchored.  Option -i will
              compile a case-insensitive pattern.  Option -m  will  compile  a
              multi-line  pattern; that is, ^ and $ will match newlines within
              the pattern.   Option  -x  will  compile  an  extended  pattern,
              wherein  whitespace and # comments are ignored.  Option -s makes
              the dot metacharacter match all characters, including those that
              indicate newline.

              Studies  the previously-compiled PCRE which may result in faster

       pcre_match [ -v var ] [ -a arr ] [ -n offset ] [ -b ] string
              Returns successfully if string matches  the  previously-compiled

              Upon  successful  match,  if  the expression captures substrings
              within parentheses, pcre_match will  set  the  array  $match  to
              those  substrings,  unless the -a option is given, in which case
              it will set the array arr.  Similarly, the variable  MATCH  will
              be  set  to the entire matched portion of the string, unless the
              -v option is given, in which case the variable var will be  set.
              No  variables are altered if there is no successful match.  A -n
              option starts  searching  for  a  match  from  the  byte  offset
              position  in  string.   If  the -b option is given, the variable
              ZPCRE_OP will be set to an offset pair string, representing  the
              byte  offset  positions of the entire matched portion within the
              string.  For example, a ZPCRE_OP set to "32 45"  indicates  that
              the  matched  portion  began on byte offset 32 and ended on byte
              offset 44.  Here,  byte  offset  position  45  is  the  position
              directly  after the matched portion.  Keep in mind that the byte
              position isn't necessarily the same as  the  character  position
              when  UTF-8  characters  are  involved.   Consequently, the byte
              offset positions are only to be relied  on  in  the  context  of
              using  them  for  subsequent searches on string, using an offset
              position as an argument to the -n option.  This is  mostly  used
              to    implement   the   "find   all   non-overlapping   matches"

              A simple example of "find all non-overlapping matches":

                     string="The following zip codes: 78884 90210 99513"
                     pcre_compile -m "\d{5}"
                     pcre_match -b -- $string
                     while [[ $? -eq 0 ]] do
                         pcre_match -b -n $b[2] -- $string
                     print -l $accum

       The zsh/pcre module makes available the following test condition:
       expr -pcre-match pcre
              Matches a string against a perl-compatible regular expression.

              For example,

              [[ "$text" -pcre-match ^d+$ ]] && print text  variable  contains
              only "d's".


       The zsh/regex module makes available the following test condition:
       expr -regex-match regex
              Matches  a  string  against a POSIX extended regular expression.
              On successful match, matched portion of the string will normally
              be  placed  in  the  MATCH variable.  If there are any capturing
              parentheses within the regex, then the match array variable will
              contain  those.   If  the  match  is  not  successful,  then the
              variables will not be altered.

              For example,

                     [[ alphabetical -regex-match ^a([^a]+)a([^a]+)a ]] &&
                     print -l $MATCH X $match

              If the option REMATCH_PCRE is not set, then the =~ operator will
              automatically  load  this  module  as needed and will invoke the
              -regex-match operator.

              If BASH_REMATCH is set, then the array BASH_REMATCH will be  set
              instead of MATCH and match.


       The  zsh/sched  module  makes  available  one  builtin  command and one

       sched [-o] [+]hh:mm[:ss] command ...
       sched [-o] [+]seconds command ...
       sched [ -item ]
              Make an entry in the scheduled list of commands to execute.  The
              time  may  be specified in either absolute or relative time, and
              either as hours, minutes and (optionally) seconds separated by a
              colon,   or  seconds  alone.   An  absolute  number  of  seconds
              indicates the time since the epoch (1970/01/01 00:00);  this  is
              useful  in  combination  with  the  features in the zsh/datetime
              module, see the zsh/datetime module entry in zshmodules(1).

              With no arguments, prints the list of  scheduled  commands.   If
              the  scheduled command has the -o flag set, this is shown at the
              start of the command.

              With the argument `-item', removes the given item from the list.
              The  numbering of the list is continuous and entries are in time
              order, so the numbering can change when  entries  are  added  or

              Commands  are  executed  either  immediately before a prompt, or
              while the shell's line editor is  waiting  for  input.   In  the
              latter  case it is useful to be able to produce output that does
              not interfere with the line being edited.  Providing the  option
              -o  causes  the shell to clear the command line before the event
              and  redraw  it  afterwards.   This  should  be  used  with  any
              scheduled event that produces visible output to the terminal; it
              is not needed, for example, with output that updates a  terminal
              emulator's title bar.

              A  readonly  array  corresponding to the events scheduled by the
              sched builtin.  The indices  of  the  array  correspond  to  the
              numbers shown when sched is run with no arguments (provided that
              the KSH_ARRAYS option is not  set).   The  value  of  the  array
              consists  of  the scheduled time in seconds since the epoch (see
              the section `The zsh/datetime Module' for facilities  for  using
              this  number),  followed  by  a  colon,  followed by any options
              (which may be empty but will be preceded by  a  `-'  otherwise),
              followed by a colon, followed by the command to be executed.

              The  sched  builtin  should be used for manipulating the events.
              Note that this will have an immediate effect on the contents  of
              the array, so that indices may become invalid.


       The zsh/net/socket module makes available one builtin command:

       zsocket [ -altv ] [ -d fd ] [ args ]
              zsocket  is  implemented as a builtin to allow full use of shell
              command line editing, file I/O, and job control mechanisms.

   Outbound Connections
       zsocket [ -v ] [ -d fd ] filename
              Open a new  Unix  domain  connection  to  filename.   The  shell
              parameter  REPLY  will  be set to the file descriptor associated
              with that connection.  Currently, only  stream  connections  are

              If  -d  is  specified,  its argument will be taken as the target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

   Inbound Connections
       zsocket -l [ -v ] [ -d fd ] filename
              zsocket -l will open a socket listening on filename.  The  shell
              parameter  REPLY  will  be set to the file descriptor associated
              with that listener.

              If -d is specified, its argument will be  taken  as  the  target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       zsocket -a [ -tv ] [ -d targetfd ] listenfd
              zsocket  -a  will  accept  an  incoming connection to the socket
              associated with listenfd.  The shell parameter REPLY will be set
              to the file descriptor associated with the inbound connection.

              If  -d  is  specified,  its argument will be taken as the target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              If  -t  is  specified,  zsocket  will  return  if  no   incoming
              connection is pending.  Otherwise it will wait for one.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.


       The  zsh/stat  module  makes  available  one  builtin command under two
       possible names:

       zstat [ -gnNolLtTrs ] [ -f fd ] [ -H hash ] [ -A array ] [ -F fmt  ]  [
       +element ] [ file ... ]
       stat ...
              The  command  acts  as  a front end to the stat system call (see
              stat(2)).  The same command is provided with two names;  as  the
              name stat is often used by an external command it is recommended
              that only the zstat form of the command is used.   This  can  be
              arranged  by  loading  the  module with the command `zmodload -F
              zsh/stat b:zstat'.

              If the stat call fails, the  appropriate  system  error  message
              printed  and  status  1  is returned.  The fields of struct stat
              give information about the files provided as  arguments  to  the
              command.   In addition to those available from the stat call, an
              extra element `link' is provided.  These elements are:

              device The number of the device on which the file resides.

              inode  The unique number of the file  on  this  device  (`inode'

              mode   The mode of the file; that is, the file's type and access
                     permissions.  With the -s option, this will  be  returned
                     as  a  string  corresponding  to  the first column in the
                     display of the ls -l command.

              nlink  The number of hard links to the file.

              uid    The user ID of the  owner  of  the  file.   With  the  -s
                     option, this is displayed as a user name.

              gid    The  group  ID  of the file.  With the -s option, this is
                     displayed as a group name.

              rdev   The raw device number.  This is only useful  for  special

              size   The size of the file in bytes.

              ctime  The  last  access, modification and inode change times of
                     the file, respectively, as the number  of  seconds  since
                     midnight  GMT  on 1st January, 1970.  With the -s option,
                     these are printed as strings for the local time zone; the
                     format can be altered with the -F option, and with the -g
                     option the times are in GMT.

                     The number of bytes in one allocation block on the device
                     on which the file resides.

              block  The number of disk blocks used by the file.

              link   If  the  file  is  a link and the -L option is in effect,
                     this contains the name of the file linked  to,  otherwise
                     it  is  empty.   Note  that  if  this element is selected
                     (``zstat +link'') then the  -L  option  is  automatically

              A  particular  element  may  be  selected  by including its name
              preceded by a `+' in  the  option  list;  only  one  element  is
              allowed.   The  element  may  be  shortened to any unique set of
              leading characters.  Otherwise, all elements will be  shown  for
              all files.


              -A array
                     Instead  of  displaying  the  results on standard output,
                     assign them to an array,  one  struct  stat  element  per
                     array  element  for  each  file  in  order.  In this case
                     neither the name of the element nor the name of the files
                     appears  in array unless the -t or -n options were given,
                     respectively.  If -t is given, the element  name  appears
                     as  a  prefix  to the appropriate array element; if -n is
                     given, the file name appears as a separate array  element
                     preceding  all  the others.  Other formatting options are

              -H hash
                     Similar to -A, but instead assign  the  values  to  hash.
                     The keys are the elements listed above.  If the -n option
                     is provided then the name of the file is included in  the
                     hash with key name.

              -f fd  Use  the  file  on  file  descriptor  fd instead of named
                     files; no list of file names is allowed in this case.

              -F fmt Supplies a strftime  (see  strftime(3))  string  for  the
                     formatting  of  the  time  elements.   The  -s  option is

              -g     Show the time elements in the  GMT  time  zone.   The  -s
                     option is implied.

              -l     List  the  names of the type elements (to standard output
                     or an  array  as  appropriate)  and  return  immediately;
                     options other than -A and arguments are ignored.

              -L     Perform an lstat (see lstat(2)) rather than a stat system
                     call.  In this case, if the file is a  link,  information
                     about  the  link  itself  rather  than the target file is
                     returned.  This option  is  required  to  make  the  link
                     element  useful.  It's important to note that this is the
                     exact opposite from ls(1), etc.

              -n     Always show the names of files.  Usually these  are  only
                     shown when output is to standard output and there is more
                     than one file in the list.

              -N     Never show the names of files.

              -o     If a raw file mode is printed, show it in octal, which is
                     more  useful  for  human  consumption than the default of
                     decimal.  A leading zero will be printed  in  this  case.
                     Note that this does not affect whether a raw or formatted
                     file mode is shown, which is controlled by the -r and  -s
                     options, nor whether a mode is shown at all.

              -r     Print raw data (the default format) alongside string data
                     (the -s format); the string data appears  in  parentheses
                     after the raw data.

              -s     Print  mode,  uid,  gid  and  the  three time elements as
                     strings instead of numbers.  In each case the  format  is
                     like that of ls -l.

              -t     Always  show  the  type  names for the elements of struct
                     stat.  Usually these are only shown  when  output  is  to
                     standard  output  and  no  individual  element  has  been

              -T     Never show the type names of the struct stat elements.


       The zsh/system module makes  available  various  builtin  commands  and

       syserror [ -e errvar ] [ -p prefix ] [ errno | errname ]
              This command prints out the error message associated with errno,
              a system error number, followed by a newline to standard error.

              Instead of the error number, a name errname, for example ENOENT,
              may  be  used.   The set of names is the same as the contents of
              the array errnos, see below.

              If the string prefix is given, it is printed  in  front  of  the
              error message, with no intervening space.

              If errvar is supplied, the entire message, without a newline, is
              assigned to the parameter names errvar and nothing is output.

              A return status of 0  indicates  the  message  was  successfully
              printed  (although  it may not be useful if the error number was
              out of the system's range), a return status of  1  indicates  an
              error  in the parameters, and a return status of 2 indicates the
              error name was not recognised (no message is printed for this).

       sysread [ -c countvar ] [ -i infd ] [ -o outfd ]
         [ -s bufsize ] [ -t timeout ] [ param ]
              Perform a single system read from file descriptor infd, or  zero
              if that is not given.  The result of the read is stored in param
              or REPLY if that is not given.  If countvar is given, the number
              of bytes read is assigned to the parameter named by countvar.

              The  maximum  number of bytes read is bufsize or 8192 if that is
              not given, however the command returns as soon as any number  of
              bytes was successfully read.

              If  timeout  is  given, it specifies a timeout in seconds, which
              may be zero to poll the file descriptor.  This is handled by the
              poll  system call if available, otherwise the select system call
              if available.

              If outfd is given, an attempt is made to  write  all  the  bytes
              just  read to the file descriptor outfd.  If this fails, because
              of a system error other than EINTR or because of an internal zsh
              error  during  an  interrupt, the bytes read but not written are
              stored in the parameter named by param if supplied  (no  default
              is  used  in  this  case),  and the number of bytes read but not
              written is stored in the parameter named by countvar if that  is
              supplied.   If  it  was  successful,  countvar contains the full
              number of bytes transferred, as usual, and param is not set.

              The error EINTR (interrupted system call) is handled  internally
              so  that  shell  interrupts  are transparent to the caller.  Any
              other error causes a return.

              The possible return statuses are
              0      At least one byte of data was successfully read  and,  if
                     appropriate, written.

              1      There  was  an  error  in  the parameters to the command.
                     This is the only error for which a message is printed  to
                     standard error.

              2      There  was  an error on the read, or on polling the input
                     file descriptor for a timeout.  The parameter ERRNO gives
                     the error.

              3      Data  were  successfully  read,  but  there  was an error
                     writing them to outfd.  The  parameter  ERRNO  gives  the

              4      The  attempt  to  read timed out.  Note this does not set
                     ERRNO as this is not a system error.

              5      No system error occurred, but zero bytes were read.  This
                     usually  indicates  end  of file.  The parameters are set
                     according to the  usual  rules;  no  write  to  outfd  is

       syswrite [ -c countvar ] [ -o outfd ] data
              The  data  (a  single  string  of bytes) are written to the file
              descriptor outfd, or 1 if that is not  given,  using  the  write
              system call.  Multiple write operations may be used if the first
              does not write all the data.

              If countvar is given, the number of byte written  is  stored  in
              the parameter named by countvar; this may not be the full length
              of data if an error occurred.

              The error EINTR (interrupted system call) is handled  internally
              by  retrying;  otherwise  an error causes the command to return.
              For example, if the  file  descriptor  is  set  to  non-blocking
              output,  an  error  EAGAIN  (on  some  systems, EWOULDBLOCK) may
              result in the command returning early.

              The return status may be 0 for success, 1 for an  error  in  the
              parameters  to  the  command, or 2 for an error on the write; no
              error message is printed in the last  case,  but  the  parameter
              ERRNO will reflect the error that occurred.

       zsystem flock [ -t timeout ] [ -f var ] [-er] file
       zsystem flock -u fd_expr
              The  builtin  zsystem's  subcommand flock performs advisory file
              locking (via the fcntl(2) system call) over the entire  contents
              of  the given file.  This form of locking requires the processes
              accessing the file to cooperate; its most obvious use is between
              two instances of the shell itself.

              In  the  first form the named file, which must already exist, is
              locked by opening a file descriptor to the file and  applying  a
              lock to the file descriptor.  The lock terminates when the shell
              process that created the  lock  exits;  it  is  therefore  often
              convenient to create file locks within subshells, since the lock
              is automatically released when the subshell exits.  Status 0  is
              returned if the lock succeeds, else status 1.

              In  the  second form the file descriptor given by the arithmetic
              expression fd_expr  is  closed,  releasing  a  lock.   The  file
              descriptor  can be queried by using the `-f var' form during the
              lock; on a successful lock, the shell variable var is set to the
              file  descriptor used for locking.  The lock will be released if
              the file descriptor is closed by any other  means,  for  example
              using `exec {var}>&-'; however, the form described here performs
              a safety check that the file  descriptor  is  in  use  for  file

              By default the shell waits indefinitely for the lock to succeed.
              The option -t timeout  specifies  a  timeout  for  the  lock  in
              seconds;  currently  this  must  be  an integer.  The shell will
              attempt to lock the file once a second during this  period.   If
              the attempt times out, status 2 is returned.

              If  the  option -e is given, the file descriptor for the lock is
              preserved when the shell uses  exec  to  start  a  new  process;
              otherwise it is closed at that point and the lock released.

              If  the  option  -r  is  given,  the  lock  is only for reading,
              otherwise it is for reading and writing.  The file descriptor is
              opened accordingly.

       zsystem supports subcommand
              The  builtin zsystem's subcommand supports tests whether a given
              subcommand is supported.  It returns status 0 if so, else status
              1.   It  operates silently unless there was a syntax error (i.e.
              the wrong number of arguments), in  which  case  status  255  is
              returned.   Status 1 can indicate one of two things:  subcommand
              is known but not supported by the current operating  system,  or
              subcommand  is  not  known  (possibly  because  this is an older
              version of the shell before it was implemented).

       errnos A readonly array of the names of errors defined on  the  system.
              These  are typically macros defined in C by including the system
              header file errno.h.  The  index  of  each  name  (assuming  the
              option  KSH_ARRAYS  is  unset)  corresponds to the error number.
              Error numbers num before the last known error which have no name
              are given the name Enum in the array.

              Note that aliases for errors are not handled; only the canonical
              name is used.

              A readonly associative array.  The keys are:
       pid    Returns  the  process  ID  of  the  current  process,  even   in
              subshells.  Compare $$, which returns the process ID of the main
              shell process.

       ppid   Returns the process ID of the parent  of  the  current  process,
              even  in subshells.  Compare $PPID, which returns the process ID
              of the parent of the main shell process.


       The zsh/net/tcp module makes available one builtin command:

       ztcp [ -acflLtv ] [ -d fd ] [ args ]
              ztcp is implemented as a builtin to  allow  full  use  of  shell
              command line editing, file I/O, and job control mechanisms.

              If  ztcp  is run with no options, it will output the contents of
              its session table.

              If it is run with  only  the  option  -L,  it  will  output  the
              contents of the session table in a format suitable for automatic
              parsing.  The option is ignored if given with a command to  open
              or  close a session.  The output consists of a set of lines, one
              per session, each containing the following elements separated by

              File descriptor
                     The  file  descriptor  in  use  for  the connection.  For
                     normal inbound (I) and outbound (O) connections this  may
                     be  read  and  written  by  the  usual  shell mechanisms.
                     However, it should only be close with `ztcp -c'.

              Connection type
                     A letter indicating how the session was created:

                     Z      A session created with the zftp command.

                     L      A connection opened for listening with `ztcp -l'.

                     I      An inbound connection accepted with `ztcp -a'.

                     O      An outbound connection  created  with  `ztcp  host

              The local host
                     This  is  usually  set  to  an all-zero IP address as the
                     address of the localhost is irrelevant.

              The local port
                     This is likely to be zero unless the  connection  is  for

              The remote host
                     This  is  the fully qualified domain name of the peer, if
                     available, else an IP address.   It  is  an  all-zero  IP
                     address for a session opened for listening.

              The remote port
                     This is zero for a connection opened for listening.

   Outbound Connections
       ztcp [ -v ] [ -d fd ] host [ port ]
              Open  a  new TCP connection to host.  If the port is omitted, it
              will default to port 23.  The connection will be  added  to  the
              session  table  and the shell parameter REPLY will be set to the
              file descriptor associated with that connection.

              If -d is specified, its argument will be  taken  as  the  target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

   Inbound Connections
       ztcp -l [ -v ] [ -d fd ] port
              ztcp  -l  will  open a socket listening on TCP port.  The socket
              will be added to the session table and the shell parameter REPLY
              will  be  set  to  the  file  descriptor  associated  with  that

              If -d is specified, its argument will be  taken  as  the  target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       ztcp -a [ -tv ] [ -d targetfd ] listenfd
              ztcp   -a  will  accept  an  incoming  connection  to  the  port
              associated with listenfd.  The connection will be added  to  the
              session  table  and the shell parameter REPLY will be set to the
              file descriptor associated with the inbound connection.

              If -d is specified, its argument will be  taken  as  the  target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              If  -t  is specified, ztcp will return if no incoming connection
              is pending.  Otherwise it will wait for one.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

   Closing Connections
       ztcp -cf [ -v ] [ fd ]
       ztcp -c [ -v ] [ fd ]
              ztcp -c will close the socket associated with  fd.   The  socket
              will be removed from the session table.  If fd is not specified,
              ztcp will close everything in the session table.

              Normally, sockets registered by zftp (see zshmodules(1) ) cannot
              be closed this way.  In order to force such a socket closed, use

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       Here is how to create a TCP connection between two  instances  of  zsh.
       We  need  to  pick  an unassigned port; here we use the randomly chosen

       On host1,
              zmodload zsh/net/tcp
              ztcp -l 5123
              ztcp -a $listenfd
       The second  from  last  command  blocks  until  there  is  an  incoming

       Now  create  a connection from host2 (which may, of course, be the same
              zmodload zsh/net/tcp
              ztcp host1 5123

       Now on each host, $fd contains a file descriptor  for  talking  to  the
       other.  For example, on host1:
              print This is a message >&$fd
       and on host2:
              read -r line <&$fd; print -r - $line
       prints `This is a message'.

       To tidy up, on host1:
              ztcp -c $listenfd
              ztcp -c $fd
       and on host2
              ztcp -c $fd


       The zsh/termcap module makes available one builtin command:

       echotc cap [ arg ... ]
              Output  the  termcap  value corresponding to the capability cap,
              with optional arguments.

       The zsh/termcap module makes available one parameter:

              An associative array that maps termcap capability codes to their


       The zsh/terminfo module makes available one builtin command:

       echoti cap [ arg ]
              Output  the  terminfo value corresponding to the capability cap,
              instantiated with arg if applicable.

       The zsh/terminfo module makes available one parameter:

              An associative array that  maps  terminfo  capability  names  to
              their values.


       The zsh/zftp module makes available one builtin command:

       zftp subcommand [ args ]
              The   zsh/zftp  module  is  a  client  for  FTP  (file  transfer
              protocol).  It is implemented as a builtin to allow full use  of
              shell   command   line   editing,  file  I/O,  and  job  control
              mechanisms.  Often, users will access  it  via  shell  functions
              providing  a more powerful interface; a set is provided with the
              zsh distribution and is described  in  zshzftpsys(1).   However,
              the zftp command is entirely usable in its own right.

              All  commands  consist  of the command name zftp followed by the
              name of a subcommand.   These  are  listed  below.   The  return
              status  of each subcommand is supposed to reflect the success or
              failure of the remote  operation.   See  a  description  of  the
              variable ZFTP_VERBOSE for more information on how responses from
              the server may be printed.

       open host[:port] [ user [ password [ account ] ] ]
              Open a new FTP session to host, which  may  be  the  name  of  a
              TCP/IP  connected  host  or  an  IP  number  in the standard dot
              notation.  If the argument is in  the  form  host:port,  open  a
              connection to TCP port port instead of the standard FTP port 21.
              This may be the name of a TCP service  or  a  number:   see  the
              description of ZFTP_PORT below for more information.

              If  IPv6  addresses in colon format are used, the host should be
              surrounded by quoted square brackets to distinguish it from  the
              port, for example '[fe80::203:baff:fe02:8b56]'.  For consistency
              this is allowed with all forms of host.

              Remaining arguments are passed to the  login  subcommand.   Note
              that  if  no  arguments  beyond host are supplied, open will not
              automatically call login.  If no arguments at all are  supplied,
              open will use the parameters set by the params subcommand.

              After   a   successful  open,  the  shell  variables  ZFTP_HOST,
              ZFTP_PORT,  ZFTP_IP   and   ZFTP_SYSTEM   are   available;   see
              `Variables' below.

       login [ name [ password [ account ] ] ]
       user [ name [ password [ account ] ] ]
              Login  the  user name with parameters password and account.  Any
              of the parameters can be omitted, and will be read from standard
              input if needed (name is always needed).  If standard input is a
              terminal, a prompt for each one  will  be  printed  on  standard
              error and password will not be echoed.  If any of the parameters
              are not used, a warning message is printed.

              After  a  successful  login,  the  shell  variables   ZFTP_USER,
              ZFTP_ACCOUNT and ZFTP_PWD are available; see `Variables' below.

              This  command may be re-issued when a user is already logged in,
              and the server will first be reinitialized for a new user.

       params [ host [ user [ password [ account ] ] ] ]
       params -
              Store the given parameters for a  later  open  command  with  no
              arguments.   Only  those  given  on  the  command  line  will be
              remembered.  If no arguments are given, the parameters currently
              set  are printed, although the password will appear as a line of
              stars; the return status is one if no parameters were set,  zero

              Any  of the parameters may be specified as a `?', which may need
              to be quoted to protect it from shell expansion.  In this  case,
              the  appropriate  parameter  will be read from stdin as with the
              login subcommand, including special handling  of  password.   If
              the  `?' is followed by a string, that is used as the prompt for
              reading the  parameter  instead  of  the  default  message  (any
              necessary  punctuation  and whitespace should be included at the
              end of the prompt).  The first letter of  the  parameter  (only)
              may be quoted with a `\'; hence an argument "\\$word" guarantees
              that the string from the shell parameter $word will  be  treated
              literally, whether or not it begins with a `?'.

              If  instead  a  single `-' is given, the existing parameters, if
              any, are deleted.  In that case, calling open with no  arguments
              will cause an error.

              The  list of parameters is not deleted after a close, however it
              will be deleted if the zsh/zftp module is unloaded.

              For example,

                     zftp params ftp.elsewhere.xx juser '?Password for juser: '

              will store the host ftp.elsewhere.xx and the user juser and then
              prompt  the  user  for the corresponding password with the given

       test   Test the connection; if the server  has  reported  that  it  has
              closed the connection (maybe due to a timeout), return status 2;
              if no connection was open anyway, return status 1;  else  return
              status  0.   The  test subcommand is silent, apart from messages
              printed by the $ZFTP_VERBOSE mechanism, or error messages if the
              connection closes.  There is no network overhead for this test.

              The  test is only supported on systems with either the select(2)
              or poll(2) system calls; otherwise the message `not supported on
              this system' is printed instead.

              The test subcommand will automatically be called at the start of
              any other subcommand for the current session when  a  connection
              is open.

       cd directory
              Change the remote directory to directory.  Also alters the shell
              variable ZFTP_PWD.

       cdup   Change the remote directory to the one higher in  the  directory
              tree.   Note  that  cd  ..  will also work correctly on non-UNIX

       dir [ args... ]
              Give a (verbose) listing of the remote directory.  The args  are
              passed  directly  to  the  server.  The  command's  behaviour is
              implementation dependent,  but  a  UNIX  server  will  typically
              interpret  args  as  arguments  to  the  ls  command and with no
              arguments return the result of `ls -l'. The directory is  listed
              to standard output.

       ls [ args ]
              Give  a  (short) listing of the remote directory.  With no args,
              produces a raw list of the files in the directory, one per line.
              Otherwise,  up to vagaries of the server implementation, behaves
              similar to dir.

       type [ type ]
              Change the type for the transfer to type, or print  the  current
              type if type is absent.  The allowed values are `A' (ASCII), `I'
              (Image, i.e. binary), or `B' (a synonym for `I').

              The FTP default for a transfer is ASCII.  However, if zftp finds
              that  the remote host is a UNIX machine with 8-bit byes, it will
              automatically switch to using binary  for  file  transfers  upon
              open.  This can subsequently be overridden.

              The  transfer type is only passed to the remote host when a data
              connection is established;  this  command  involves  no  network

       ascii  The same as type A.

       binary The same as type I.

       mode [ S | B ]
              Set  the  mode  type to stream (S) or block (B).  Stream mode is
              the default; block mode is not widely supported.

       remote files...
       local [ files... ]
              Print the size and last modification time of the remote or local
              files.   If there is more than one item on the list, the name of
              the file is printed first.  The first number is the  file  size,
              the  second  is  the  last  modification time of the file in the
              format CCYYMMDDhhmmSS consisting of  year,  month,  date,  hour,
              minutes  and  seconds  in GMT.  Note that this format, including
              the length, is guaranteed, so that time strings can be  directly
              compared  via  the  [[ builtin's < and > operators, even if they
              are too long to be represented as integers.

              Not  all  servers  support  the  commands  for  retrieving  this
              information.   In  that  case,  the  remote  command  will print
              nothing and return status 2, compared with status 1 for  a  file
              not found.

              The  local  command  (but  not  remote)  may  be  used  with  no
              arguments, in which case the information  comes  from  examining
              file  descriptor  zero.   This is the same file as seen by a put
              command with no further redirection.

       get file [...]
              Retrieve all files  from  the  server,  concatenating  them  and
              sending them to standard output.

       put file [...]
              For  each file, read a file from standard input and send that to
              the remote host with the given name.

       append file [...]
              As put, but if the remote file already exists, data is  appended
              to it instead of overwriting it.

       getat file point
       putat file point
       appendat file point
              Versions of get, put and append which will start the transfer at
              the given  point  in  the  remote  file.   This  is  useful  for
              appending  to an incomplete local file.  However, note that this
              ability is not universally supported  by  servers  (and  is  not
              quite the behaviour specified by the standard).

       delete file [...]
              Delete the list of files on the server.

       mkdir directory
              Create a new directory directory on the server.

       rmdir directory
              Delete the directory directory  on the server.

       rename old-name new-name
              Rename file old-name to new-name on the server.

       site args...
              Send  a  host-specific command to the server.  You will probably
              only need this if instructed by the server to use it.

       quote args...
              Send the raw FTP command sequence to the server.  You should  be
              familiar  with  the  FTP command set as defined in RFC959 before
              doing this.  Useful commands may include STAT  and  HELP.   Note
              also  the  mechanism for returning messages as described for the
              variable ZFTP_VERBOSE below, in  particular  that  all  messages
              from the control connection are sent to standard error.

       quit   Close  the  current  data  connection.   This  unsets  the shell
              parameters   ZFTP_HOST,   ZFTP_PORT,    ZFTP_IP,    ZFTP_SYSTEM,

       session [ sessname ]
              Allows  multiple  FTP  sessions to be used at once.  The name of
              the session is an arbitrary string of  characters;  the  default
              session  is called `default'.  If this command is called without
              an argument, it will list all  the  current  sessions;  with  an
              argument,  it  will either switch to the existing session called
              sessname, or create a new session of that name.

              Each session remembers the status of the connection, the set  of
              connection-specific  shell parameters (the same set as are unset
              when a connection closes, as given in the description of close),
              and  any  user  parameters specified with the params subcommand.
              Changing to a previous session restores those  values;  changing
              to a new session initialises them in the same way as if zftp had
              just been loaded.  The name of the current session is  given  by
              the parameter ZFTP_SESSION.

       rmsession [ sessname ]
              Delete a session; if a name is not given, the current session is
              deleted.  If  the  current  session  is  deleted,  the  earliest
              existing  session becomes the new current session, otherwise the
              current session is not changed.  If the session being deleted is
              the  only  one,  a  new  session called `default' is created and
              becomes the current session; note that this  is  a  new  session
              even  if  the session being deleted is also called `default'. It
              is recommended that sessions not  be  deleted  while  background
              commands which use zftp are still active.

       The  following  shell  parameters  are used by zftp.  Currently none of
       them are special.

              Integer.  The time in seconds to wait for a network operation to
              complete before returning an error.  If this is not set when the
              module is loaded, it will be given  the  default  value  60.   A
              value  of  zero  turns off timeouts.  If a timeout occurs on the
              control connection it will be closed.  Use  a  larger  value  if
              this occurs too frequently.

              Readonly.   The  IP  address  of  the  current connection in dot

              Readonly.  The hostname of the current remote  server.   If  the
              host  was  opened  as  an  IP  number,  ZFTP_HOST  contains that
              instead; this saves the  overhead  for  a  name  lookup,  as  IP
              numbers are most commonly used when a nameserver is unavailable.

              Readonly.   The  number  of  the  remote  TCP  port to which the
              connection is open (even if the port was originally specified as
              a named service).  Usually this is the standard FTP port, 21.

              In  the  unlikely  event  that  your  system  does  not have the
              appropriate conversion functions, this appears in  network  byte
              order.   If your system is little-endian, the port then consists
              of two swapped bytes and the standard port will be  reported  as
              5376.  In that case, numeric ports passed to zftp open will also
              need to be in this format.

              Readonly.  The system type string  returned  by  the  server  in
              response to an FTP SYST request.  The most interesting case is a
              string  beginning  "UNIX  Type:  L8",  which   ensures   maximum
              compatibility with a local UNIX host.

              Readonly.   The  type to be used for data transfers , either `A'
              or `I'.   Use the type subcommand to change this.

              Readonly.  The username currently logged in, if any.

              Readonly.  The account name of the current user, if  any.   Most
              servers do not require an account name.

              Readonly.  The current directory on the server.

              Readonly.   The  three digit code of the last FTP reply from the
              server as a string.  This can still be read after the connection
              is closed, and is not changed when the current session changes.

              Readonly.   The  last line of the last reply sent by the server.
              This can still be read after the connection is  closed,  and  is
              not changed when the current session changes.

              Readonly.   The  name  of  the  current  FTP  session;  see  the
              description of the session subcommand.

              A  string  of  preferences  for  altering  aspects   of   zftp's
              behaviour.    Each   preference  is  a  single  character.   The
              following are defined:

              P      Passive:  attempt to make the remote server initiate data
                     transfers.  This is slightly more efficient than sendport
                     mode.  If the letter S occurs later in the  string,  zftp
                     will use sendport mode if passive mode is not available.

              S      Sendport:   initiate  transfers  by the FTP PORT command.
                     If this occurs before any P in the string,  passive  mode
                     will never be attempted.

              D      Dumb:   use  only the bare minimum of FTP commands.  This
                     prevents the  variables  ZFTP_SYSTEM  and  ZFTP_PWD  from
                     being set, and will mean all connections default to ASCII
                     type.  It may prevent ZFTP_SIZE from being set  during  a
                     transfer  if  the  server  does  not send it anyway (many
                     servers do).

              If ZFTP_PREFS is not set when zftp is loaded, it will be set  to
              a default of `PS', i.e. use passive mode if available, otherwise
              fall back to sendport mode.

              A string of digits between 0 and 5 inclusive,  specifying  which
              responses  from  the server should be printed.  All responses go
              to standard error.  If any of the numbers 1 to 5 appear  in  the
              string, raw responses from the server with reply codes beginning
              with that digit will be printed to standard  error.   The  first
              digit  of  the  three  digit  reply code is defined by RFC959 to
              correspond to:

              1.     A positive preliminary reply.

              2.     A positive completion reply.

              3.     A positive intermediate reply.

              4.     A transient negative completion reply.

              5.     A permanent negative completion reply.

              It should be noted that, for unknown reasons, the reply `Service
              not  available',  which  forces  termination of a connection, is
              classified as 421, i.e.  `transient  negative',  an  interesting
              interpretation of the word `transient'.

              The  code 0 is special:  it indicates that all but the last line
              of multiline replies read from the server  will  be  printed  to
              standard  error  in  a processed format.  By convention, servers
              use this mechanism for sending information for the user to read.
              The  appropriate  reply  code,  if it matches the same response,
              takes priority.

              If ZFTP_VERBOSE is not set when zftp is loaded, it will  be  set
              to  the  default value 450, i.e., messages destined for the user
              and all errors will be printed.  A  null  string  is  valid  and
              specifies that no messages should be printed.

              If this function is set by the user, it is called every time the
              directory changes on the server, including when a user is logged
              in, or when a connection is closed.  In the last case, $ZFTP_PWD
              will be unset; otherwise it will reflect the new directory.

              If this function is set by the user, it will be called during  a
              get,  put or append operation each time sufficient data has been
              received from the host.  During a  get,  the  data  is  sent  to
              standard  output, so it is vital that this function should write
              to standard error or directly to the terminal, not  to  standard

              When  it  is  called  with a transfer in progress, the following
              additional shell parameters are set:

                     The name of the remote file being transferred from or to.

                     A G for a get operation and a P for a put operation.

                     The total size of the complete  file  being  transferred:
                     the  same  as  the first value provided by the remote and
                     local subcommands for a particular file.  If  the  server
                     cannot   supply  this  value  for  a  remote  file  being
                     retrieved, it will not be set.  If input is from  a  pipe
                     the  value  may  be  incorrect and correspond simply to a
                     full pipe buffer.

                     The amount of data so far transferred; a  number  between
                     zero  and  $ZFTP_SIZE,  if  that  is set.  This number is
                     always available.

              The  function  is  initially  called  with   ZFTP_TRANSFER   set
              appropriately and ZFTP_COUNT set to zero.  After the transfer is
              finished, the  function  will  be  called  one  more  time  with
              ZFTP_TRANSFER set to GF or PF, in case it wishes to tidy up.  It
              is  otherwise  never  called  twice  with  the  same  value   of

              Sometimes  the progress meter may cause disruption.  It is up to
              the user to decide whether the function should be defined and to
              use unfunction when necessary.

       A  connection may not be opened in the left hand side of a pipe as this
       occurs in a subshell and the file information is  not  updated  in  the
       main  shell.   In  the  case  of  type  or  mode changes or closing the
       connection in a subshell, the information is returned but variables are
       not  updated  until  the  next  call  to zftp.  Other status changes in
       subshells will not be reflected by changes to the variables (but should
       be otherwise harmless).

       Deleting  sessions while a zftp command is active in the background can
       have unexpected effects, even if it does  not  use  the  session  being
       deleted.   This  is because all shell subprocesses share information on
       the state of all  connections,  and  deleting  a  session  changes  the
       ordering of that information.

       On  some operating systems, the control connection is not valid after a
       fork(), so that operations in subshells, on the left  hand  side  of  a
       pipeline,  or  in  the  background are not possible, as they should be.
       This is presumably a bug in the operating system.


       The zsh/zle module contains the Zsh Line Editor.  See zshzle(1).


       The zsh/zleparameter module defines two special parameters that can  be
       used  to  access  internal  information  of  the  Zsh  Line Editor (see

              This array contains the names of the keymaps currently defined.

              This associative array contains one entry  per  widget  defined.
              The  name  of  the  widget  is  the  key  and  the  value  gives
              information about the widget. It is either the string  `builtin'
              for  builtin  widgets,  a  string  of  the  form `user:name' for
              user-defined widgets, where  name  is  the  name  of  the  shell
              function  implementing the widget, or it is a string of the form
              `completion:type:name', for completion widgets. In the last case
              type  is  the  name of the builtin widgets the completion widget
              imitates in its behavior and name  is  the  name  of  the  shell
              function implementing the completion widget.


       When  loaded, the zsh/zprof causes shell functions to be profiled.  The
       profiling results can be obtained with the zprof builtin  command  made
       available  by this module.  There is no way to turn profiling off other
       than unloading the module.

       zprof [ -c ]
              Without the -c option, zprof lists profiling results to standard
              output.   The  format  is  comparable  to  that of commands like

              At the top there is a summary listing all  functions  that  were
              called  at  least  once.   This  summary is sorted in decreasing
              order of the amount of time spent in each.   The  lines  contain
              the  number  of  the  function  in order, which is used in other
              parts of the list in suffixes of  the  form  `[num]',  then  the
              number  of  calls  made to the function.  The next three columns
              list the time in milliseconds spent  in  the  function  and  its
              descendants,  the  average  time  in  milliseconds  spent in the
              function and its descendants per call and the percentage of time
              spent  in  all  shell  functions  used  in this function and its
              descendants.   The  following  three  columns  give   the   same
              information,  but  counting  only the time spent in the function
              itself.  The final column shows the name of the function.

              After the summary, detailed  information  about  every  function
              that  was  invoked  is listed, sorted in decreasing order of the
              amount of time spent in each function and its descendants.  Each
              of these entries consists of descriptions for the functions that
              called the function described,  the  function  itself,  and  the
              functions  that  were  called  from it.  The description for the
              function itself has the same format as in the summary (and shows
              the same information).  The other lines don't show the number of
              the function at the beginning  and  have  their  function  named
              indented  to  make it easier to distinguish the line showing the
              function described in the section from the surrounding lines.

              The information shown in this case is almost the same as in  the
              summary,  but only refers to the call hierarchy being displayed.
              For example, for a calling function the column showing the total
              running  time lists the time spent in the described function and
              its descendants only for the times when it was called from  that
              particular  calling  function.  Likewise, for a called function,
              this columns lists the total time spent in the  called  function
              and  its  descendants only for the times when it was called from
              the function described.

              Also in this case, the column showing the number of calls  to  a
              function  also  shows  a  slash  and  then  the  total number of
              invocations made to the called function.

              As long as the zsh/zprof module is  loaded,  profiling  will  be
              done  and multiple invocations of the zprof builtin command will
              show the times and numbers of calls since the module was loaded.
              With  the  -c  option,  the zprof builtin command will reset its
              internal counters and will not show the listing.


       The zsh/zpty module offers one builtin:

       zpty [ -e ] [ -b ] name [ arg ... ]
              The  arguments  following  name  are  concatenated  with  spaces
              between,  then  executed  as a command, as if passed to the eval
              builtin.    The   command   runs   under   a   newly    assigned
              pseudo-terminal;   this   is   useful   for   running   commands
              non-interactively which expect an interactive environment.   The
              name  is  not  part of the command, but is used to refer to this
              command in later calls to zpty.

              With the -e option, the pseudo-terminal is set up so that  input
              characters are echoed.

              With the -b option, input to and output from the pseudo-terminal
              are made non-blocking.

       zpty -d [ names ... ]
              The second form, with the -d option, is used to delete  commands
              previously  started,  by supplying a list of their names.  If no
              names are given, all commands are deleted.  Deleting  a  command
              causes the HUP signal to be sent to the corresponding process.

       zpty -w [ -n ] name [ strings ... ]
              The  -w option can be used to send the to command name the given
              strings as input (separated by spaces).  If the -n option is not
              given, a newline is added at the end.

              If  no strings are provided, the standard input is copied to the
              pseudo-terminal; this may stop before copying the full input  if
              the pseudo-terminal is non-blocking.

              Note  that the command under the pseudo-terminal sees this input
              as if it were typed, so beware when sending special  tty  driver
              characters such as word-erase, line-kill, and end-of-file.

       zpty -r [ -mt ] name [ param [ pattern ] ]
              The  -r  option  can  be  used to read the output of the command
              name.  With only a name argument, the output read is  copied  to
              the    standard   output.    Unless   the   pseudo-terminal   is
              non-blocking, copying continues  until  the  command  under  the
              pseudo-terminal exits; when non-blocking, only as much output as
              is immediately available is copied.  The return status  is  zero
              if any output is copied.

              When  also  given a param argument, at most one line is read and
              stored in the parameter named param.  Less than a full line  may
              be  read  if  the  pseudo-terminal  is non-blocking.  The return
              status is zero if at least one character is stored in param.

              If a pattern is given as well, output is read  until  the  whole
              string  read matches the pattern, even in the non-blocking case.
              The return status  is  zero  if  the  string  read  matches  the
              pattern, or if the command has exited but at least one character
              could still be read.  If the option -m is  present,  the  return
              status is zero only if the pattern matches.  As of this writing,
              a maximum of one megabyte of output can be consumed this way; if
              a full megabyte is read without matching the pattern, the return
              status is non-zero.

              In all cases, the return status is non-zero if nothing could  be
              read, and is 2 if this is because the command has finished.

              If  the  -r  option  is  combined with the -t option, zpty tests
              whether output is available before trying to read.  If no output
              is  available, zpty immediately returns the status 1.  When used
              with a pattern, the behaviour on a failed  poll  is  similar  to
              when  the  command  has  exited:  the return value is zero if at
              least one character could still be  read  even  if  the  pattern
              failed to match.

       zpty -t name
              The  -t option without the -r option can be used to test whether
              the command name is still running.  It returns a zero status  if
              the command is running and a non-zero value otherwise.

       zpty [ -L ]
              The  last  form,  without  any  arguments,  is  used to list the
              commands currently defined.  If the -L option is given, this  is
              done in the form of calls to the zpty builtin.


       The zsh/zselect module makes available one builtin command:

       zselect [ -rwe -t timeout -a array ] [ fd ... ]
              The  zselect builtin is a front-end to the `select' system call,
              which blocks until a file descriptor is  ready  for  reading  or
              writing,  or  has  an error condition, with an optional timeout.
              If this is not available on your system, the command  prints  an
              error  message and returns status 2 (normal errors return status
              1).  For more information, see your  systems  documentation  for
              select(3).   Note  there is no connection with the shell builtin
              of the same name.

              Arguments  and  options  may  be  intermingled  in  any   order.
              Non-option arguments are file descriptors, which must be decimal
              integers.  By default, file descriptors are  to  be  tested  for
              reading,  i.e.  zselect will return when data is available to be
              read from the file descriptor, or more precisely,  when  a  read
              operation  from the file descriptor will not block.  After a -r,
              -w and -e, the given file  descriptors  are  to  be  tested  for
              reading,  writing,  or  error  conditions.  These options and an
              arbitrary list of file descriptors may be given in any order.

              (The presence of an `error condition' is not well defined in the
              documentation  for  many  implementations  of  the select system
              call.  According to recent versions of the POSIX  specification,
              it  is really an exception condition, of which the only standard
              example is out-of-band data received on a socket.  So zsh  users
              are unlikely to find the -e option useful.)

              The  option  `-t timeout' specifies a timeout in hundredths of a
              second.  This may be zero, in which case  the  file  descriptors
              will  simply  be polled and zselect will return immediately.  It
              is possible to call zselect  with  no  file  descriptors  and  a
              non-zero  timeout  for  use  as  a finer-grained replacement for
              `sleep'; note, however, the return status  is  always  1  for  a

              The  option  `-a  array'  indicates  that array should be set to
              indicate the file descriptor(s) which are ready.  If the  option
              is  not  given,  the  array reply will be used for this purpose.
              The array will contain a string similar  to  the  arguments  for
              zselect.  For example,

                     zselect -t 0 -r 0 -w 1

              might return immediately with status 0 and $reply containing `-r
              0 -w 1' to show that both file descriptors  are  ready  for  the
              requested operations.

              The option `-A assoc' indicates that the associative array assoc
              should be set to  indicate  the  file  descriptor(s(  which  are
              ready.   This  option overrides the option -a, nor will reply be
              modified.  The keys of assoc are the file descriptors,  and  the
              corresponding values are any of the characters `rwe' to indicate
              the condition.

              The command returns status 0 if some file descriptors are  ready
              for  reading.  If the operation timed out, or a timeout of 0 was
              given and no file descriptors were ready, or there was an error,
              it  returns status 1 and the array will not be set (nor modified
              in any way).  If there was an error in the select operation  the
              appropriate error message is printed.


       The zsh/zutil module only adds some builtins:

       zstyle [ -L [ pattern [ style ] ] ]
       zstyle [ -e | - | -- ] pattern style strings ...
       zstyle -d [ pattern [ styles ... ] ]
       zstyle -g name [ pattern [ style ] ]
       zstyle -abs context style name [ sep ]
       zstyle -Tt context style [ strings ...]
       zstyle -m context style pattern
              This  builtin  command  is  used  to  define  and lookup styles.
              Styles are pairs of names and values, where the  values  consist
              of  any  number  of  strings.   They  are  stored  together with
              patterns and lookup is done  by  giving  a  string,  called  the
              `context',  which  is  compared to the patterns.  The definition
              stored for the first matching pattern will be returned.

              For ordering of comparisons, patterns  are  searched  from  most
              specific  to  least  specific,  and  patterns  that  are equally
              specific keep the order in which they were defined.   A  pattern
              is  considered  to  be more specific than another if it contains
              more components (substrings  separated  by  colons)  or  if  the
              patterns  for  the  components  are  more specific, where simple
              strings are considered to be more  specific  than  patterns  and
              complex  patterns  are  considered  to be more specific than the
              pattern `*'.

              The  first  form  (without  arguments)  lists  the  definitions.
              Styles  are  shown in alphabetic order and patterns are shown in
              the order zstyle will test them.

              If the -L option is given, listing is done in the form of  calls
              to  zstyle.  The optional first argument is a pattern which will
              be matched against the string supplied as the  pattern  for  the
              context;   note   that  this  means,  for  example,  `zstyle  -L
              ":completion:*"'  will  match  any  supplied  pattern  beginning
              `:completion:',  not just ":completion:*":  use ":completion:\*"
              to match that.  The optional second argument limits  the  output
              to  a specific style (not a pattern).  -L is not compatible with
              any other options.

              The other forms are the following:

              zstyle [ - | -- | -e ] pattern style strings ...
                     Defines the given style for the pattern with the  strings
                     as  the  value.   If  the -e option is given, the strings
                     will  be  concatenated  (separated  by  spaces)  and  the
                     resulting string will be evaluated (in the same way as it
                     is done by the eval builtin command) when  the  style  is
                     looked  up.   In  this case the parameter `reply' must be
                     assigned  to  set  the   strings   returned   after   the
                     evaluation.  Before evaluating the value, reply is unset,
                     and if it is still unset after the evaluation, the  style
                     is treated as if it were not set.

              zstyle -d [ pattern [ styles ... ] ]
                     Delete   style   definitions.   Without   arguments   all
                     definitions are deleted, with a pattern  all  definitions
                     for that pattern are deleted and if any styles are given,
                     then only those styles are deleted for the pattern.

              zstyle -g name [ pattern [ style ] ]
                     Retrieve a style definition. The name is used as the name
                     of  an array in which the results are stored. Without any
                     further arguments, all  patterns  defined  are  returned.
                     With  a  pattern  the styles defined for that pattern are
                     returned and with both a pattern and a style,  the  value
                     strings of that combination is returned.

              The other forms can be used to look up or test patterns.

              zstyle -s context style name [ sep ]
                     The  parameter  name  is  set  to  the value of the style
                     interpreted as a string.  If the value  contains  several
                     strings  they  are  concatenated with spaces (or with the
                     sep string if that is given) between them.

              zstyle -b context style name
                     The value is stored in name as a  boolean,  i.e.  as  the
                     string  `yes'  if  the value has only one string and that
                     string is equal to one of `yes', `true', `on', or `1'. If
                     the  value  is  any  other  string  or  has more than one
                     string, the parameter is set to `no'.

              zstyle -a context style name
                     The value is stored in name  as  an  array.  If  name  is
                     declared as an associative array,  the first, third, etc.
                     strings are used as the keys and the  other  strings  are
                     used as the values.

              zstyle -t context style [ strings ...]
              zstyle -T context style [ strings ...]
                     Test  the  value  of  a  style,  i.e.  the -t option only
                     returns a status (sets  $?).   Without  any  strings  the
                     return  status  is  zero  if  the style is defined for at
                     least one matching pattern, has only one  string  in  its
                     value, and that is equal to one of `true', `yes', `on' or
                     `1'. If any strings are given the status is zero  if  and
                     only  if at least one of the strings is equal to at least
                     one of the strings in the value.  If  the  style  is  not
                     defined, the status is 2.

                     The  -T option tests the values of the style like -t, but
                     it returns status zero (rather than 2) if  the  style  is
                     not defined for any matching pattern.

              zstyle -m context style pattern
                     Match a value. Returns status zero if the pattern matches
                     at least one of the strings in the value.

       zformat -f param format specs ...
       zformat -a array sep specs ...
              This builtin provides two different  forms  of  formatting.  The
              first  form  is  selected  with  the -f option. In this case the
              format string will be modified by replacing  sequences  starting
              with  a  percent  sign  in it with strings from the specs.  Each
              spec should be of the form `char:string' which will cause  every
              appearance  of  the sequence `%char' in format to be replaced by
              the string.  The `%' sequence may also contain optional  minimum
              and  maximum  field width specifications between the `%' and the
              `char' in the form `%min.maxc', i.e. the minimum field width  is
              given first and if the maximum field width is used, it has to be
              preceded by a dot.  Specifying a minimum field width  makes  the
              result  be  padded  with  spaces  to  the right if the string is
              shorter than the requested width.  Padding to the  left  can  be
              achieved by giving a negative minimum field width.  If a maximum
              field width is specified, the string  will  be  truncated  after
              that  many  characters.   After  all `%' sequences for the given
              specs have been processed, the resulting string is stored in the
              parameter param.

              The  %-escapes  also  understand ternary expressions in the form
              used by prompts.  The %  is  followed  by  a  `('  and  then  an
              ordinary  format  specifier character as described above.  There
              may be a set of digits either before or  after  the  `(';  these
              specify a test number, which defaults to zero.  Negative numbers
              are also allowed.  An arbitrary delimiter character follows  the
              format  specifier,  which is followed by a piece of `true' text,
              the delimiter character again, a piece of `false'  text,  and  a
              closing  parenthesis.   The  complete  expression  (without  the
              digits) thus looks like `%(X.text1.text2)', except that the  `.'
              character   is  arbitrary.   The  value  given  for  the  format
              specifier in the  char:string  expressions  is  evaluated  as  a
              mathematical  expression, and compared with the test number.  If
              they are the same, text1 is output, else  text2  is  output.   A
              parenthesis  may  be escaped in text2 as %).  Either of text1 or
              text2 may contain nested %-escapes.

              For example:

                     zformat -f REPLY "The answer is '%3('." c:3

              outputs "The answer is 'yes'." to REPLY since the value for  the
              format specifier c is 3, agreeing with the digit argument to the
              ternary expression.

              The second form, using the -a option, can be used  for  aligning
              strings.   Here,  the  specs  are of the form `left:right' where
              `left' and `right' are arbitrary  strings.   These  strings  are
              modified  by  replacing the colons by the sep string and padding
              the left strings with spaces  to  the  right  so  that  the  sep
              strings  in  the result (and hence the right strings after them)
              are all aligned if the strings are  printed  below  each  other.
              All  strings  without a colon are left unchanged and all strings
              with an empty right string have the trailing colon removed.   In
              both  cases the lengths of the strings are not used to determine
              how the other strings are to be aligned.  The resulting  strings
              are stored in the array.

              This implements some internals of the _regex_arguments function.

       zparseopts [ -D ] [ -K ] [ -E ] [ -a array ] [ -A assoc ] specs
              This  builtin  simplifies  the  parsing of options in positional
              parameters, i.e. the set of arguments given by  $*.   Each  spec
              describes  one option and must be of the form `opt[=array]'.  If
              an option described by opt is found in the positional parameters
              it is copied into the array specified with the -a option; if the
              optional `=array' is given,  it  is  instead  copied  into  that

              Note  that  it  is an error to give any spec without an `=array'
              unless one of the -a or -A options is used.

              Unless the -E option is given, parsing stops at the first string
              that isn't described by one of the specs.  Even with -E, parsing
              always stops at a positional parameter equal to `-' or `--'.

              The opt description must be one of the following.   Any  of  the
              special  characters can appear in the option name provided it is
              preceded by a backslash.

              name+  The name is the name of the option  without  the  leading
                     `-'.   To  specify  a  GNU-style  long option, one of the
                     usual two leading `-'  must  be  included  in  name;  for
                     example,  a  `--file'  option is represented by a name of

                     If a `+' appears after name, the option  is  appended  to
                     array each time it is found in the positional parameters;
                     without the `+' only the last occurrence of the option is

                     If  one  of  these  forms  is  used,  the option takes no
                     argument,  so  parsing  stops  if  the  next   positional
                     parameter  does  not  also  begin with `-' (unless the -E
                     option is used).

              name:: If one or two colons  are  given,  the  option  takes  an
                     argument;  with  one colon, the argument is mandatory and
                     with two colons it is optional.  The argument is appended
                     to the array after the option itself.

                     An  optional  argument is put into the same array element
                     as the option name (note that this makes empty strings as
                     arguments  indistinguishable).   A  mandatory argument is
                     added as a separate element unless the `:-' form is used,
                     in which case the argument is put into the same element.

                     A  `+' as described above may appear between the name and
                     the first colon.

       The options of zparseopts itself are:

       -a array
              As described above, this names the default  array  in  which  to
              store the recognised options.

       -A assoc
              If this is given, the options and their values are also put into
              an associative array with the  option  names  as  keys  and  the
              arguments (if any) as the values.

       -D     If  this option is given, all options found are removed from the
              positional parameters of the calling shell or shell function, up
              to  but  not  including any not described by the specs.  This is
              similar to using the shift builtin.

       -K     With this option, the  arrays  specified  with  the  -a  and  -A
              options and with the `=array' forms are kept unchanged when none
              of the specs for  them  is  used.   This  allows  assignment  of
              default values to them before calling zparseopts.

       -E     This  changes  the parsing rules to not stop at the first string
              that isn't described by one of the specs.  It  can  be  used  to
              test for or (if used together with -D) extract options and their
              arguments, ignoring all other options and arguments that may  be
              in the positional parameters.

       For example,

              set -- -a -bx -c y -cz baz -cend
              zparseopts a=foo b:=bar c+:=bar

       will have the effect of

              bar=(-b x -c y -c z)

       The arguments from `baz' on will not be used.

       As an example for the -E option, consider:

              set -- -a x -b y -c z arg1 arg2
              zparseopts -E -D b:=bar

       will have the effect of

              bar=(-b y)
              set -- -a x -c z arg1 arg2

       I.e.,  the  option  -b  and its arguments are taken from the positional
       parameters and put into the array bar.