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NAME

     select -- synchronous I/O multiplexing

LIBRARY

     Standard C Library (libc, -lc)

SYNOPSIS

     #include <sys/select.h>

     int
     select(int nfds, fd_set *readfds, fd_set *writefds, fd_set *exceptfds,
         struct timeval *timeout);

     FD_SET(fd, &fdset);

     FD_CLR(fd, &fdset);

     FD_ISSET(fd, &fdset);

     FD_ZERO(&fdset);

DESCRIPTION

     The select() system call examines the I/O descriptor sets whose addresses
     are passed in readfds, writefds, and exceptfds to see if some of their
     descriptors are ready for reading, are ready for writing, or have an
     exceptional condition pending, respectively.  The only exceptional
     condition detectable is out-of-band data received on a socket.  The first
     nfds descriptors are checked in each set; i.e., the descriptors from 0
     through nfds-1 in the descriptor sets are examined.  On return, select()
     replaces the given descriptor sets with subsets consisting of those
     descriptors that are ready for the requested operation.  The select()
     system call returns the total number of ready descriptors in all the
     sets.

     The descriptor sets are stored as bit fields in arrays of integers.  The
     following macros are provided for manipulating such descriptor sets:
     FD_ZERO(&fdset) initializes a descriptor set fdset to the null set.
     FD_SET(fd, &fdset) includes a particular descriptor fd in fdset.
     FD_CLR(fd, &fdset) removes fd from fdset.  FD_ISSET(fd, &fdset) is non-
     zero if fd is a member of fdset, zero otherwise.  The behavior of these
     macros is undefined if a descriptor value is less than zero or greater
     than or equal to FD_SETSIZE, which is normally at least equal to the
     maximum number of descriptors supported by the system.

     If timeout is not a null pointer, it specifies the maximum interval to
     wait for the selection to complete.  System activity can lengthen the
     interval by an indeterminate amount.

     If timeout is a null pointer, the select blocks indefinitely.

     To effect a poll, the timeout argument should not be a null pointer, but
     it should point to a zero-valued timeval structure.

     Any of readfds, writefds, and exceptfds may be given as null pointers if
     no descriptors are of interest.

RETURN VALUES

     The select() system call returns the number of ready descriptors that are
     contained in the descriptor sets, or -1 if an error occurred.  If the
     time limit expires, select() returns 0.  If select() returns with an
     error, including one due to an interrupted system call, the descriptor
     sets will be unmodified.

ERRORS

     An error return from select() indicates:

     [EBADF]            One of the descriptor sets specified an invalid
                        descriptor.

     [EFAULT]           One of the arguments readfds, writefds, exceptfds, or
                        timeout points to an invalid address.

     [EINTR]            A signal was delivered before the time limit expired
                        and before any of the selected events occurred.

     [EINVAL]           The specified time limit is invalid.  One of its
                        components is negative or too large.

     [EINVAL]           The nfds argument was invalid.

SEE ALSO

     accept(2), connect(2), getdtablesize(2), gettimeofday(2), kqueue(2),
     poll(2), read(2), recv(2), send(2), write(2), clocks(7)

NOTES

     The default size of FD_SETSIZE is currently 1024.  In order to
     accommodate programs which might potentially use a larger number of open
     files with select(), it is possible to increase this size by having the
     program define FD_SETSIZE before the inclusion of any header which
     includes <sys/types.h>.

     If nfds is greater than the number of open files, select() is not
     guaranteed to examine the unused file descriptors.  For historical
     reasons, select() will always examine the first 256 descriptors.

STANDARDS

     The select() system call and FD_CLR(), FD_ISSET(), FD_SET(), and
     FD_ZERO() macros conform with IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 (``POSIX.1'').

HISTORY

     The select() system call appeared in 4.2BSD.

BUGS

     Version 2 of the Single UNIX Specification (``SUSv2'') allows systems to
     modify the original timeout in place.  Thus, it is unwise to assume that
     the timeout value will be unmodified by the select() system call.
     FreeBSD does not modify the return value, which can cause problems for
     applications ported from other systems.