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NAME

       gitattributes - defining attributes per path

SYNOPSIS

       $GIT_DIR/info/attributes, .gitattributes

DESCRIPTION

       A gitattributes file is a simple text file that gives attributes to
       pathnames.

       Each line in gitattributes file is of form:

           pattern attr1 attr2 ...

       That is, a pattern followed by an attributes list, separated by
       whitespaces. When the pattern matches the path in question, the
       attributes listed on the line are given to the path.

       Each attribute can be in one of these states for a given path:

       Set
           The path has the attribute with special value "true"; this is
           specified by listing only the name of the attribute in the
           attribute list.

       Unset
           The path has the attribute with special value "false"; this is
           specified by listing the name of the attribute prefixed with a dash
           - in the attribute list.

       Set to a value
           The path has the attribute with specified string value; this is
           specified by listing the name of the attribute followed by an equal
           sign = and its value in the attribute list.

       Unspecified
           No pattern matches the path, and nothing says if the path has or
           does not have the attribute, the attribute for the path is said to
           be Unspecified.

       When more than one pattern matches the path, a later line overrides an
       earlier line. This overriding is done per attribute. The rules how the
       pattern matches paths are the same as in .gitignore files; see
       gitignore(5).

       When deciding what attributes are assigned to a path, git consults
       $GIT_DIR/info/attributes file (which has the highest precedence),
       .gitattributes file in the same directory as the path in question, and
       its parent directories up to the toplevel of the work tree (the further
       the directory that contains .gitattributes is from the path in
       question, the lower its precedence). Finally global and system-wide
       files are considered (they have the lowest precedence).

       If you wish to affect only a single repository (i.e., to assign
       attributes to files that are particular to one user's workflow for that
       repository), then attributes should be placed in the
       $GIT_DIR/info/attributes file. Attributes which should be
       version-controlled and distributed to other repositories (i.e.,
       attributes of interest to all users) should go into .gitattributes
       files. Attributes that should affect all repositories for a single user
       should be placed in a file specified by the core.attributesfile
       configuration option (see git-config(1)). Attributes for all users on a
       system should be placed in the $(prefix)/etc/gitattributes file.

       Sometimes you would need to override an setting of an attribute for a
       path to unspecified state. This can be done by listing the name of the
       attribute prefixed with an exclamation point !.

EFFECTS

       Certain operations by git can be influenced by assigning particular
       attributes to a path. Currently, the following operations are
       attributes-aware.

   Checking-out and checking-in
       These attributes affect how the contents stored in the repository are
       copied to the working tree files when commands such as git checkout and
       git merge run. They also affect how git stores the contents you prepare
       in the working tree in the repository upon git add and git commit.

       text
           This attribute enables and controls end-of-line normalization. When
           a text file is normalized, its line endings are converted to LF in
           the repository. To control what line ending style is used in the
           working directory, use the eol attribute for a single file and the
           core.eol configuration variable for all text files.

           Set
               Setting the text attribute on a path enables end-of-line
               normalization and marks the path as a text file. End-of-line
               conversion takes place without guessing the content type.

           Unset
               Unsetting the text attribute on a path tells git not to attempt
               any end-of-line conversion upon checkin or checkout.

           Set to string value "auto"
               When text is set to "auto", the path is marked for automatic
               end-of-line normalization. If git decides that the content is
               text, its line endings are normalized to LF on checkin.

           Unspecified
               If the text attribute is unspecified, git uses the
               core.autocrlf configuration variable to determine if the file
               should be converted.

           Any other value causes git to act as if text has been left
           unspecified.

       eol
           This attribute sets a specific line-ending style to be used in the
           working directory. It enables end-of-line normalization without any
           content checks, effectively setting the text attribute.

           Set to string value "crlf"
               This setting forces git to normalize line endings for this file
               on checkin and convert them to CRLF when the file is checked
               out.

           Set to string value "lf"
               This setting forces git to normalize line endings to LF on
               checkin and prevents conversion to CRLF when the file is
               checked out.

       Backwards compatibility with crlf attribute
           For backwards compatibility, the crlf attribute is interpreted as
           follows:

               crlf            text
               -crlf           -text
               crlf=input      eol=lf

       End-of-line conversion
           While git normally leaves file contents alone, it can be configured
           to normalize line endings to LF in the repository and, optionally,
           to convert them to CRLF when files are checked out.

           Here is an example that will make git normalize .txt, .vcproj and
           .sh files, ensure that .vcproj files have CRLF and .sh files have
           LF in the working directory, and prevent .jpg files from being
           normalized regardless of their content.

               *.txt           text
               *.vcproj        eol=crlf
               *.sh            eol=lf
               *.jpg           -text

           Other source code management systems normalize all text files in
           their repositories, and there are two ways to enable similar
           automatic normalization in git.

           If you simply want to have CRLF line endings in your working
           directory regardless of the repository you are working with, you
           can set the config variable "core.autocrlf" without changing any
           attributes.

               [core]
                       autocrlf = true

           This does not force normalization of all text files, but does
           ensure that text files that you introduce to the repository have
           their line endings normalized to LF when they are added, and that
           files that are already normalized in the repository stay
           normalized.

           If you want to interoperate with a source code management system
           that enforces end-of-line normalization, or you simply want all
           text files in your repository to be normalized, you should instead
           set the text attribute to "auto" for all files.

               *       text=auto

           This ensures that all files that git considers to be text will have
           normalized (LF) line endings in the repository. The core.eol
           configuration variable controls which line endings git will use for
           normalized files in your working directory; the default is to use
           the native line ending for your platform, or CRLF if core.autocrlf
           is set.

               Note
               When text=auto normalization is enabled in an existing
               repository, any text files containing CRLFs should be
               normalized. If they are not they will be normalized the next
               time someone tries to change them, causing unfortunate
               misattribution. From a clean working directory:

               $ echo "* text=auto" >>.gitattributes
               $ rm .git/index     # Remove the index to force git to
               $ git reset         # re-scan the working directory
               $ git status        # Show files that will be normalized
               $ git add -u
               $ git add .gitattributes
               $ git commit -m "Introduce end-of-line normalization"

           If any files that should not be normalized show up in git status,
           unset their text attribute before running git add -u.

               manual.pdf      -text

           Conversely, text files that git does not detect can have
           normalization enabled manually.

               weirdchars.txt  text

           If core.safecrlf is set to "true" or "warn", git verifies if the
           conversion is reversible for the current setting of core.autocrlf.
           For "true", git rejects irreversible conversions; for "warn", git
           only prints a warning but accepts an irreversible conversion. The
           safety triggers to prevent such a conversion done to the files in
           the work tree, but there are a few exceptions. Even though...

           o    git add itself does not touch the files in the work tree, the
               next checkout would, so the safety triggers;

           o    git apply to update a text file with a patch does touch the
               files in the work tree, but the operation is about text files
               and CRLF conversion is about fixing the line ending
               inconsistencies, so the safety does not trigger;

           o    git diff itself does not touch the files in the work tree, it
               is often run to inspect the changes you intend to next git add.
               To catch potential problems early, safety triggers.

       ident
           When the attribute ident is set for a path, git replaces $Id$ in
           the blob object with $Id:, followed by the 40-character hexadecimal
           blob object name, followed by a dollar sign $ upon checkout. Any
           byte sequence that begins with $Id: and ends with $ in the worktree
           file is replaced with $Id$ upon check-in.

       filter
           A filter attribute can be set to a string value that names a filter
           driver specified in the configuration.

           A filter driver consists of a clean command and a smudge command,
           either of which can be left unspecified. Upon checkout, when the
           smudge command is specified, the command is fed the blob object
           from its standard input, and its standard output is used to update
           the worktree file. Similarly, the clean command is used to convert
           the contents of worktree file upon checkin.

           A missing filter driver definition in the config is not an error
           but makes the filter a no-op passthru.

           The content filtering is done to massage the content into a shape
           that is more convenient for the platform, filesystem, and the user
           to use. The key phrase here is "more convenient" and not "turning
           something unusable into usable". In other words, the intent is that
           if someone unsets the filter driver definition, or does not have
           the appropriate filter program, the project should still be usable.

           For example, in .gitattributes, you would assign the filter
           attribute for paths.

               *.c     filter=indent

           Then you would define a "filter.indent.clean" and
           "filter.indent.smudge" configuration in your .git/config to specify
           a pair of commands to modify the contents of C programs when the
           source files are checked in ("clean" is run) and checked out (no
           change is made because the command is "cat").

               [filter "indent"]
                       clean = indent
                       smudge = cat

           For best results, clean should not alter its output further if it
           is run twice ("clean->clean" should be equivalent to "clean"), and
           multiple smudge commands should not alter clean's output
           ("smudge->smudge->clean" should be equivalent to "clean"). See the
           section on merging below.

           The "indent" filter is well-behaved in this regard: it will not
           modify input that is already correctly indented. In this case, the
           lack of a smudge filter means that the clean filter must accept its
           own output without modifying it.

           Sequence "%f" on the filter command line is replaced with the name
           of the file the filter is working on. A filter might use this in
           keyword substitution. For example:

               [filter "p4"]
                       clean = git-p4-filter --clean %f
                       smudge = git-p4-filter --smudge %f

       Interaction between checkin/checkout attributes
           In the check-in codepath, the worktree file is first converted with
           filter driver (if specified and corresponding driver defined), then
           the result is processed with ident (if specified), and then finally
           with text (again, if specified and applicable).

           In the check-out codepath, the blob content is first converted with
           text, and then ident and fed to filter.

       Merging branches with differing checkin/checkout attributes
           If you have added attributes to a file that cause the canonical
           repository format for that file to change, such as adding a
           clean/smudge filter or text/eol/ident attributes, merging anything
           where the attribute is not in place would normally cause merge
           conflicts.

           To prevent these unnecessary merge conflicts, git can be told to
           run a virtual check-out and check-in of all three stages of a file
           when resolving a three-way merge by setting the merge.renormalize
           configuration variable. This prevents changes caused by check-in
           conversion from causing spurious merge conflicts when a converted
           file is merged with an unconverted file.

           As long as a "smudge->clean" results in the same output as a
           "clean" even on files that are already smudged, this strategy will
           automatically resolve all filter-related conflicts. Filters that do
           not act in this way may cause additional merge conflicts that must
           be resolved manually.

   Generating diff text
       diff
           The attribute diff affects how git generates diffs for particular
           files. It can tell git whether to generate a textual patch for the
           path or to treat the path as a binary file. It can also affect what
           line is shown on the hunk header @@ -k,l +n,m @@ line, tell git to
           use an external command to generate the diff, or ask git to convert
           binary files to a text format before generating the diff.

           Set
               A path to which the diff attribute is set is treated as text,
               even when they contain byte values that normally never appear
               in text files, such as NUL.

           Unset
               A path to which the diff attribute is unset will generate
               Binary files differ (or a binary patch, if binary patches are
               enabled).

           Unspecified
               A path to which the diff attribute is unspecified first gets
               its contents inspected, and if it looks like text, it is
               treated as text. Otherwise it would generate Binary files
               differ.

           String
               Diff is shown using the specified diff driver. Each driver may
               specify one or more options, as described in the following
               section. The options for the diff driver "foo" are defined by
               the configuration variables in the "diff.foo" section of the
               git config file.

       Defining an external diff driver
           The definition of a diff driver is done in gitconfig, not
           gitattributes file, so strictly speaking this manual page is a
           wrong place to talk about it. However...

           To define an external diff driver jcdiff, add a section to your
           $GIT_DIR/config file (or $HOME/.gitconfig file) like this:

               [diff "jcdiff"]
                       command = j-c-diff

           When git needs to show you a diff for the path with diff attribute
           set to jcdiff, it calls the command you specified with the above
           configuration, i.e. j-c-diff, with 7 parameters, just like
           GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF program is called. See git(1) for details.

       Defining a custom hunk-header
           Each group of changes (called a "hunk") in the textual diff output
           is prefixed with a line of the form:

               @@ -k,l +n,m @@ TEXT

           This is called a hunk header. The "TEXT" portion is by default a
           line that begins with an alphabet, an underscore or a dollar sign;
           this matches what GNU diff -p output uses. This default selection
           however is not suited for some contents, and you can use a
           customized pattern to make a selection.

           First, in .gitattributes, you would assign the diff attribute for
           paths.

               *.tex   diff=tex

           Then, you would define a "diff.tex.xfuncname" configuration to
           specify a regular expression that matches a line that you would
           want to appear as the hunk header "TEXT". Add a section to your
           $GIT_DIR/config file (or $HOME/.gitconfig file) like this:

               [diff "tex"]
                       xfuncname = "^(\\\\(sub)*section\\{.*)$"

           Note. A single level of backslashes are eaten by the configuration
           file parser, so you would need to double the backslashes; the
           pattern above picks a line that begins with a backslash, and zero
           or more occurrences of sub followed by section followed by open
           brace, to the end of line.

           There are a few built-in patterns to make this easier, and tex is
           one of them, so you do not have to write the above in your
           configuration file (you still need to enable this with the
           attribute mechanism, via .gitattributes). The following built in
           patterns are available:

           o    bibtex suitable for files with BibTeX coded references.

           o    cpp suitable for source code in the C and C++ languages.

           o    csharp suitable for source code in the C# language.

           o    fortran suitable for source code in the Fortran language.

           o    html suitable for HTML/XHTML documents.

           o    java suitable for source code in the Java language.

           o    objc suitable for source code in the Objective-C language.

           o    pascal suitable for source code in the Pascal/Delphi language.

           o    perl suitable for source code in the Perl language.

           o    php suitable for source code in the PHP language.

           o    python suitable for source code in the Python language.

           o    ruby suitable for source code in the Ruby language.

           o    tex suitable for source code for LaTeX documents.

       Customizing word diff
           You can customize the rules that git diff --word-diff uses to split
           words in a line, by specifying an appropriate regular expression in
           the "diff.*.wordRegex" configuration variable. For example, in TeX
           a backslash followed by a sequence of letters forms a command, but
           several such commands can be run together without intervening
           whitespace. To separate them, use a regular expression in your
           $GIT_DIR/config file (or $HOME/.gitconfig file) like this:

               [diff "tex"]
                       wordRegex = "\\\\[a-zA-Z]+|[{}]|\\\\.|[^\\{}[:space:]]+"

           A built-in pattern is provided for all languages listed in the
           previous section.

       Performing text diffs of binary files
           Sometimes it is desirable to see the diff of a text-converted
           version of some binary files. For example, a word processor
           document can be converted to an ASCII text representation, and the
           diff of the text shown. Even though this conversion loses some
           information, the resulting diff is useful for human viewing (but
           cannot be applied directly).

           The textconv config option is used to define a program for
           performing such a conversion. The program should take a single
           argument, the name of a file to convert, and produce the resulting
           text on stdout.

           For example, to show the diff of the exif information of a file
           instead of the binary information (assuming you have the exif tool
           installed), add the following section to your $GIT_DIR/config file
           (or $HOME/.gitconfig file):

               [diff "jpg"]
                       textconv = exif

               Note
               The text conversion is generally a one-way conversion; in this
               example, we lose the actual image contents and focus just on
               the text data. This means that diffs generated by textconv are
               not suitable for applying. For this reason, only git diff and
               the git log family of commands (i.e., log, whatchanged, show)
               will perform text conversion. git format-patch will never
               generate this output. If you want to send somebody a
               text-converted diff of a binary file (e.g., because it quickly
               conveys the changes you have made), you should generate it
               separately and send it as a comment in addition to the usual
               binary diff that you might send.

           Because text conversion can be slow, especially when doing a large
           number of them with git log -p, git provides a mechanism to cache
           the output and use it in future diffs. To enable caching, set the
           "cachetextconv" variable in your diff driver's config. For example:

               [diff "jpg"]
                       textconv = exif
                       cachetextconv = true

           This will cache the result of running "exif" on each blob
           indefinitely. If you change the textconv config variable for a diff
           driver, git will automatically invalidate the cache entries and
           re-run the textconv filter. If you want to invalidate the cache
           manually (e.g., because your version of "exif" was updated and now
           produces better output), you can remove the cache manually with git
           update-ref -d refs/notes/textconv/jpg (where "jpg" is the name of
           the diff driver, as in the example above).

       Marking files as binary
           Git usually guesses correctly whether a blob contains text or
           binary data by examining the beginning of the contents. However,
           sometimes you may want to override its decision, either because a
           blob contains binary data later in the file, or because the
           content, while technically composed of text characters, is opaque
           to a human reader. For example, many postscript files contain only
           ascii characters, but produce noisy and meaningless diffs.

           The simplest way to mark a file as binary is to unset the diff
           attribute in the .gitattributes file:

               *.ps -diff

           This will cause git to generate Binary files differ (or a binary
           patch, if binary patches are enabled) instead of a regular diff.

           However, one may also want to specify other diff driver attributes.
           For example, you might want to use textconv to convert postscript
           files to an ascii representation for human viewing, but otherwise
           treat them as binary files. You cannot specify both -diff and
           diff=ps attributes. The solution is to use the diff.*.binary config
           option:

               [diff "ps"]
                 textconv = ps2ascii
                 binary = true

   Performing a three-way merge
       merge
           The attribute merge affects how three versions of a file are merged
           when a file-level merge is necessary during git merge, and other
           commands such as git revert and git cherry-pick.

           Set
               Built-in 3-way merge driver is used to merge the contents in a
               way similar to merge command of RCS suite. This is suitable for
               ordinary text files.

           Unset
               Take the version from the current branch as the tentative merge
               result, and declare that the merge has conflicts. This is
               suitable for binary files that do not have a well-defined merge
               semantics.

           Unspecified
               By default, this uses the same built-in 3-way merge driver as
               is the case when the merge attribute is set. However, the
               merge.default configuration variable can name different merge
               driver to be used with paths for which the merge attribute is
               unspecified.

           String
               3-way merge is performed using the specified custom merge
               driver. The built-in 3-way merge driver can be explicitly
               specified by asking for "text" driver; the built-in "take the
               current branch" driver can be requested with "binary".

       Built-in merge drivers
           There are a few built-in low-level merge drivers defined that can
           be asked for via the merge attribute.

           text
               Usual 3-way file level merge for text files. Conflicted regions
               are marked with conflict markers <<<<<<<, ======= and >>>>>>>.
               The version from your branch appears before the ======= marker,
               and the version from the merged branch appears after the
               ======= marker.

           binary
               Keep the version from your branch in the work tree, but leave
               the path in the conflicted state for the user to sort out.

           union
               Run 3-way file level merge for text files, but take lines from
               both versions, instead of leaving conflict markers. This tends
               to leave the added lines in the resulting file in random order
               and the user should verify the result. Do not use this if you
               do not understand the implications.

       Defining a custom merge driver
           The definition of a merge driver is done in the .git/config file,
           not in the gitattributes file, so strictly speaking this manual
           page is a wrong place to talk about it. However...

           To define a custom merge driver filfre, add a section to your
           $GIT_DIR/config file (or $HOME/.gitconfig file) like this:

               [merge "filfre"]
                       name = feel-free merge driver
                       driver = filfre %O %A %B
                       recursive = binary

           The merge.*.name variable gives the driver a human-readable name.

           The 'merge.*.driver` variable's value is used to construct a
           command to run to merge ancestor's version (%O), current version
           (%A) and the other branches' version (%B). These three tokens are
           replaced with the names of temporary files that hold the contents
           of these versions when the command line is built. Additionally, %L
           will be replaced with the conflict marker size (see below).

           The merge driver is expected to leave the result of the merge in
           the file named with %A by overwriting it, and exit with zero status
           if it managed to merge them cleanly, or non-zero if there were
           conflicts.

           The merge.*.recursive variable specifies what other merge driver to
           use when the merge driver is called for an internal merge between
           common ancestors, when there are more than one. When left
           unspecified, the driver itself is used for both internal merge and
           the final merge.

       conflict-marker-size
           This attribute controls the length of conflict markers left in the
           work tree file during a conflicted merge. Only setting to the value
           to a positive integer has any meaningful effect.

           For example, this line in .gitattributes can be used to tell the
           merge machinery to leave much longer (instead of the usual
           7-character-long) conflict markers when merging the file
           Documentation/git-merge.txt results in a conflict.

               Documentation/git-merge.txt     conflict-marker-size=32

   Checking whitespace errors
       whitespace
           The core.whitespace configuration variable allows you to define
           what diff and apply should consider whitespace errors for all paths
           in the project (See git-config(1)). This attribute gives you finer
           control per path.

           Set
               Notice all types of potential whitespace errors known to git.
               The tab width is taken from the value of the core.whitespace
               configuration variable.

           Unset
               Do not notice anything as error.

           Unspecified
               Use the value of the core.whitespace configuration variable to
               decide what to notice as error.

           String
               Specify a comma separate list of common whitespace problems to
               notice in the same format as the core.whitespace configuration
               variable.

   Creating an archive
       export-ignore
           Files and directories with the attribute export-ignore won't be
           added to archive files.

       export-subst
           If the attribute export-subst is set for a file then git will
           expand several placeholders when adding this file to an archive.
           The expansion depends on the availability of a commit ID, i.e., if
           git-archive(1) has been given a tree instead of a commit or a tag
           then no replacement will be done. The placeholders are the same as
           those for the option --pretty=format: of git-log(1), except that
           they need to be wrapped like this: $Format:PLACEHOLDERS$ in the
           file. E.g. the string $Format:%H$ will be replaced by the commit
           hash.

   Packing objects
       delta
           Delta compression will not be attempted for blobs for paths with
           the attribute delta set to false.

   Viewing files in GUI tools
       encoding
           The value of this attribute specifies the character encoding that
           should be used by GUI tools (e.g. gitk(1) and git-gui(1)) to
           display the contents of the relevant file. Note that due to
           performance considerations gitk(1) does not use this attribute
           unless you manually enable per-file encodings in its options.

           If this attribute is not set or has an invalid value, the value of
           the gui.encoding configuration variable is used instead (See git-
           config(1)).

USING ATTRIBUTE MACROS

       You do not want any end-of-line conversions applied to, nor textual
       diffs produced for, any binary file you track. You would need to
       specify e.g.

           *.jpg -text -diff

       but that may become cumbersome, when you have many attributes. Using
       attribute macros, you can specify groups of attributes set or unset at
       the same time. The system knows a built-in attribute macro, binary:

           *.jpg binary

       which is equivalent to the above. Note that the attribute macros can
       only be "Set" (see the above example that sets "binary" macro as if it
       were an ordinary attribute --- setting it in turn unsets "text" and
       "diff").

DEFINING ATTRIBUTE MACROS

       Custom attribute macros can be defined only in the .gitattributes file
       at the toplevel (i.e. not in any subdirectory). The built-in attribute
       macro "binary" is equivalent to:

           [attr]binary -diff -text

EXAMPLE

       If you have these three gitattributes file:

           (in $GIT_DIR/info/attributes)

           a*      foo !bar -baz

           (in .gitattributes)
           abc     foo bar baz

           (in t/.gitattributes)
           ab*     merge=filfre
           abc     -foo -bar
           *.c     frotz

       the attributes given to path t/abc are computed as follows:

        1. By examining t/.gitattributes (which is in the same directory as
           the path in question), git finds that the first line matches.
           merge attribute is set. It also finds that the second line matches,
           and attributes foo and bar are unset.

        2. Then it examines .gitattributes (which is in the parent directory),
           and finds that the first line matches, but t/.gitattributes file
           already decided how merge, foo and bar attributes should be given
           to this path, so it leaves foo and bar unset. Attribute baz is set.

        3. Finally it examines $GIT_DIR/info/attributes. This file is used to
           override the in-tree settings. The first line is a match, and foo
           is set, bar is reverted to unspecified state, and baz is unset.

       As the result, the attributes assignment to t/abc becomes:

           foo     set to true
           bar     unspecified
           baz     set to false
           merge   set to string value "filfre"
           frotz   unspecified

GIT

       Part of the git(1) suite