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NAME

       gitrevisions - specifying revisions and ranges for git

SYNOPSIS

       gitrevisions

DESCRIPTION

       Many Git commands take revision parameters as arguments. Depending on
       the command, they denote a specific commit or, for commands which walk
       the revision graph (such as git-log(1)), all commits which can be
       reached from that commit. In the latter case one can also specify a
       range of revisions explicitly.

       In addition, some Git commands (such as git-show(1)) also take revision
       parameters which denote other objects than commits, e.g. blobs
       ("files") or trees ("directories of files").

SPECIFYING REVISIONS

       A revision parameter <rev> typically, but not necessarily, names a
       commit object. It uses what is called an extended SHA1 syntax. Here are
       various ways to spell object names. The ones listed near the end of
       this list name trees and blobs contained in a commit.

       <sha1>, e.g. dae86e1950b1277e545cee180551750029cfe735, dae86e
           The full SHA1 object name (40-byte hexadecimal string), or a
           leading substring that is unique within the repository. E.g.
           dae86e1950b1277e545cee180551750029cfe735 and dae86e both name the
           same commit object if there is no other object in your repository
           whose object name starts with dae86e.

       <describeOutput>, e.g. v1.7.4.2-679-g3bee7fb
           Output from git describe; i.e. a closest tag, optionally followed
           by a dash and a number of commits, followed by a dash, a g, and an
           abbreviated object name.

       <refname>, e.g. master, heads/master, refs/heads/master
           A symbolic ref name. E.g.  master typically means the commit object
           referenced by refs/heads/master. If you happen to have both
           heads/master and tags/master, you can explicitly say heads/master
           to tell git which one you mean. When ambiguous, a <name> is
           disambiguated by taking the first match in the following rules:

            1. If $GIT_DIR/<name> exists, that is what you mean (this is
               usually useful only for HEAD, FETCH_HEAD, ORIG_HEAD, MERGE_HEAD
               and CHERRY_PICK_HEAD);

            2. otherwise, refs/<name> if it exists;

            3. otherwise, refs/tags/<refname> if it exists;

            4. otherwise, refs/heads/<name> if it exists;

            5. otherwise, refs/remotes/<name> if it exists;

            6. otherwise, refs/remotes/<name>/HEAD if it exists.

               HEAD names the commit on which you based the changes in the
               working tree.  FETCH_HEAD records the branch which you fetched
               from a remote repository with your last git fetch invocation.
               ORIG_HEAD is created by commands that move your HEAD in a
               drastic way, to record the position of the HEAD before their
               operation, so that you can easily change the tip of the branch
               back to the state before you ran them.  MERGE_HEAD records the
               commit(s) which you are merging into your branch when you run
               git merge.  CHERRY_PICK_HEAD records the commit which you are
               cherry-picking when you run git cherry-pick.

               Note that any of the refs/* cases above may come either from
               the $GIT_DIR/refs directory or from the $GIT_DIR/packed-refs
               file.

       <refname>@{<date>}, e.g. master@{yesterday}, HEAD@{5 minutes ago}
           A ref followed by the suffix @ with a date specification enclosed
           in a brace pair (e.g.  {yesterday}, {1 month 2 weeks 3 days 1 hour
           1 second ago} or {1979-02-26 18:30:00}) specifies the value of the
           ref at a prior point in time. This suffix may only be used
           immediately following a ref name and the ref must have an existing
           log ($GIT_DIR/logs/<ref>). Note that this looks up the state of
           your local ref at a given time; e.g., what was in your local master
           branch last week. If you want to look at commits made during
           certain times, see --since and --until.

       <refname>@{<n>}, e.g. master@{1}
           A ref followed by the suffix @ with an ordinal specification
           enclosed in a brace pair (e.g.  {1}, {15}) specifies the n-th prior
           value of that ref. For example master@{1} is the immediate prior
           value of master while master@{5} is the 5th prior value of master.
           This suffix may only be used immediately following a ref name and
           the ref must have an existing log ($GIT_DIR/logs/<refname>).

       @{<n>}, e.g. @{1}
           You can use the @ construct with an empty ref part to get at a
           reflog entry of the current branch. For example, if you are on
           branch blabla then @{1} means the same as blabla@{1}.

       @{-<n>}, e.g. @{-1}
           The construct @{-<n>} means the <n>th branch checked out before the
           current one.

       <refname>@{upstream}, e.g. master@{upstream}, @{u}
           The suffix @{upstream} to a ref (short form <refname>@{u}) refers
           to the branch the ref is set to build on top of. A missing ref
           defaults to the current branch.

       <rev>^, e.g. HEAD^, v1.5.1^0
           A suffix ^ to a revision parameter means the first parent of that
           commit object.  ^<n> means the <n>th parent (i.e.  <rev>^ is
           equivalent to <rev>^1). As a special rule, <rev>^0 means the commit
           itself and is used when <rev> is the object name of a tag object
           that refers to a commit object.

       <rev>~<n>, e.g. master~3
           A suffix ~<n> to a revision parameter means the commit object that
           is the <n>th generation grand-parent of the named commit object,
           following only the first parents. I.e.  <rev>~3 is equivalent to
           <rev>^^^ which is equivalent to <rev>^1^1^1. See below for an
           illustration of the usage of this form.

       <rev>^{<type>}, e.g. v0.99.8^{commit}
           A suffix ^ followed by an object type name enclosed in brace pair
           means the object could be a tag, and dereference the tag
           recursively until an object of that type is found or the object
           cannot be dereferenced anymore (in which case, barf).  <rev>^0 is a
           short-hand for <rev>^{commit}.

       <rev>^{}, e.g. v0.99.8^{}
           A suffix ^ followed by an empty brace pair means the object could
           be a tag, and dereference the tag recursively until a non-tag
           object is found.

       <rev>^{/<text>}, e.g. HEAD^{/fix nasty bug}
           A suffix ^ to a revision parameter, followed by a brace pair that
           contains a text led by a slash, is the same as the :/fix nasty bug
           syntax below except that it returns the youngest matching commit
           which is reachable from the <rev> before ^.

       :/<text>, e.g. :/fix nasty bug
           A colon, followed by a slash, followed by a text, names a commit
           whose commit message matches the specified regular expression. This
           name returns the youngest matching commit which is reachable from
           any ref. If the commit message starts with a !  you have to repeat
           that; the special sequence :/!, followed by something else than !,
           is reserved for now. The regular expression can match any part of
           the commit message. To match messages starting with a string, one
           can use e.g.  :/^foo.

       <rev>:<path>, e.g. HEAD:README, :README, master:./README
           A suffix : followed by a path names the blob or tree at the given
           path in the tree-ish object named by the part before the colon.
           :path (with an empty part before the colon) is a special case of
           the syntax described next: content recorded in the index at the
           given path. A path starting with ./ or ../ is relative to the
           current working directory. The given path will be converted to be
           relative to the working tree's root directory. This is most useful
           to address a blob or tree from a commit or tree that has the same
           tree structure as the working tree.

       :<n>:<path>, e.g. :0:README, :README
           A colon, optionally followed by a stage number (0 to 3) and a
           colon, followed by a path, names a blob object in the index at the
           given path. A missing stage number (and the colon that follows it)
           names a stage 0 entry. During a merge, stage 1 is the common
           ancestor, stage 2 is the target branch's version (typically the
           current branch), and stage 3 is the version from the branch which
           is being merged.

       Here is an illustration, by Jon Loeliger. Both commit nodes B and C are
       parents of commit node A. Parent commits are ordered left-to-right.

           G   H   I   J
            \ /     \ /
             D   E   F
              \  |  / \
               \ | /   |
                \|/    |
                 B     C
                  \   /
                   \ /
                    A

           A =      = A^0
           B = A^   = A^1     = A~1
           C = A^2  = A^2
           D = A^^  = A^1^1   = A~2
           E = B^2  = A^^2
           F = B^3  = A^^3
           G = A^^^ = A^1^1^1 = A~3
           H = D^2  = B^^2    = A^^^2  = A~2^2
           I = F^   = B^3^    = A^^3^
           J = F^2  = B^3^2   = A^^3^2

SPECIFYING RANGES

       History traversing commands such as git log operate on a set of
       commits, not just a single commit. To these commands, specifying a
       single revision with the notation described in the previous section
       means the set of commits reachable from that commit, following the
       commit ancestry chain.

       To exclude commits reachable from a commit, a prefix ^ notation is
       used. E.g. ^r1 r2 means commits reachable from r2 but exclude the ones
       reachable from r1.

       This set operation appears so often that there is a shorthand for it.
       When you have two commits r1 and r2 (named according to the syntax
       explained in SPECIFYING REVISIONS above), you can ask for commits that
       are reachable from r2 excluding those that are reachable from r1 by ^r1
       r2 and it can be written as r1..r2.

       A similar notation r1...r2 is called symmetric difference of r1 and r2
       and is defined as r1 r2 --not $(git merge-base --all r1 r2). It is the
       set of commits that are reachable from either one of r1 or r2 but not
       from both.

       Two other shorthands for naming a set that is formed by a commit and
       its parent commits exist. The r1^@ notation means all parents of r1.
       r1^! includes commit r1 but excludes all of its parents.

       Here are a handful of examples:

           D                G H D
           D F              G H I J D F
           ^G D             H D
           ^D B             E I J F B
           B...C            G H D E B C
           ^D B C           E I J F B C
           C^@              I J F
           F^! D            G H D F

SEE ALSO

       git-rev-parse(1)

GIT

       Part of the git(1) suite