Provided by: gpsd_2.95-13.1_i386 bug

NAME

       gpsd - interface daemon for GPS receivers

SYNOPSIS

       gpsd [-F control-socket] [-S listener-port] [-b] [-l] [-G] [-n] [-N]
            [-h] [-P pidfile] [-D debuglevel] [-V] [[source-name]...]

QUICK START

       If you have a GPS attached on the lowest-numbered USB port of a Linux
       system, and want to read reports from it on TCP/IP port 2947, it will
       normally suffice to do this:

           gpsd /dev/ttyUSB0

       For the lowest-numbered serial port:

           gpsd /dev/ttyS0

       Change the device number as appropriate if you need to use a different
       port. Command-line flags enable verbose logging, a control port, and
       other optional extras but should not be needed for basic operation; the
       one exception, on very badly designed hardware, might be -b (which
       see).

       On Linux systems supporting udev, gpsd is normally started
       automatically when a USB plugin event fires (if it is not already
       running) and is handed the name of the newly active device. In that
       case no invocation is required at all.

       For your initial tests set your GPS hardware to speak NMEA, as gpsd is
       guaranteed to be able to process that. If your GPS has a native or
       binary mode with better perfornance that gpsd knows how to speak, gpsd
       will autoconfigure that mode.

       You can verify correct operation by first starting gpsd and then xgps,
       the X windows test client.

       If you have problems, the GPSD project maintains a FAQ[1] to assist
       troubleshooting.

DESCRIPTION

       gpsd is a monitor daemon that collects information from GPSes,
       differential-GPS radios, or AIS receivers attached to the host machine.
       Each GPS, DGPS radio, or AIS receiver is expected to be
       direct-connected to the host via a USB or RS232C serial device. The
       serial device may be specified to gpsd at startup, or it may be set via
       a command shipped down a local control socket (e.g. by a USB hotplug
       script). Given a GPS device by either means, gpsd discovers the correct
       port speed and protocol for it.

       gpsd should be able to query any GPS that speaks either the standard
       textual NMEA 0183 protocol, or the (differing) extended NMEA dialects
       used by MKT-3301, iTrax, Motorola OnCore, Sony CXD2951, and
       Ashtech/Thales devices. It can also interpret the binary protocols used
       by EverMore, Garmin, Navcom, Rockwell/Zodiac, SiRF, Trimble, and uBlox
       ANTARIS devices. It can read heading and attitude information from the
       Oceanserver 5000 orv TNT Revolution digital compasses.

       The GPS reporting formats supported by your instance of gpsd may differ
       depending on how it was compiled; general-purpose versions support
       many, but it can be built with protocol subsets down to a singleton for
       use in constrained environments. For a list of the GPS protocols
       supported by your instance, see the output of gpsd -l

       gpsd effectively hides the differences among the GPS types it supports.
       It also knows about and uses commands that tune these GPSes for lower
       latency. By using gpsd as an intermediary applications avoid contention
       for serial devices.

       gpsd can use differential-GPS corrections from a DGPS radio or over the
       net, from a ground station running a DGPSIP server or a Ntrip
       broadcaster that reports RTCM-104 data; this will shrink position
       errors by roughly a factor of four. When gpsd opens a serial device
       emitting RTCM-104, it automatically recognizes this and uses the device
       as a correction source for all connected GPSes that accept RTCM
       corrections (this is dependent on the type of the GPS; not all GPSes
       have the firmware capability to accept RTCM correction packets). See
       the section called "ACCURACY" and the section called "FILES" for
       discussion.

       Client applications will communicate with gpsd via a TCP/IP port, 2947
       by default). Both IPv4 and IPv6 connections are supported and a client
       may connect via either.

       The program accepts the following options:

       -F
           Create a control socket for device addition and removal commands.
           You must specify a valid pathname on your local filesystem; this
           will be created as a Unix-domain socket to which you can write
           commands that edit the daemon's internal device list.

       -S
           Set TCP/IP port on which to listen for GPSD clients (default is
           2947).

       -b
           Broken-device-safety mode, otherwise known as read-only mode. Some
           popular bluetooth and USB receivers lock up or become totally
           inaccessible when probed or reconfigured. This switch prevents gpsd
           from writing to a receiver. This means that gpsd cannot configure
           the receiver for optimal performance, but it also means that gpsd
           cannot break the receiver. A better solution would be for Bluetooth
           to not be so fragile. A platform independent method to identify
           serial-over-Bluetooth devices would also be nice.

       -G
           This flag causes gpsd to listen on all addresses (INADDR_ANY)
           rather than just the loopback (INADDR_LOOPBACK) address. For the
           sake of privacy and security, TPV information is now private to the
           local machine until the user makes an effort to expose this to the
           world.

       -l
           List all drivers compiled into this gpsd instance. The letters to
           the left of each driver name are the gpsd control commands
           supported by that driver.

       -n
           Don't wait for a client to connect before polling whatever GPS is
           associated with it. Many GPSes go to a standby mode (drawing less
           power) before the host machine asserts DTR, so waiting for the
           first actual request saves battery power.

       -N
           Don't daemonize; run in foreground. Also suppresses
           privilege-dropping. This switch is mainly useful for debugging.

       -h
           Display help message and terminate.

       -P
           Specify the name and path to record the daemon's process ID.

       -D
           Set debug level. At debug levels 2 and above, gpsd reports incoming
           sentence and actions to standard error if gpsd is in the foreground
           (-N) or to syslog if in the background.

       -V
           Dump version and exit.

       Arguments are interpreted as the names of data sources. Normally, a
       data source is the device pathname of a local device from which the
       daemon may expect GPS data. But there are three other special source
       types recognized, for a total of four:

       Local serial or USB device
           A normal Unix device name of a serial or USB device to which a
           sensor is attached. Example: /dev/ttyUSB0.

       TCP feed
           A URI with the prefix "tcp://", followed by a hostname, a colon,
           and a port number. The daemon will open a socket to the indicated
           address and port and read data packets from it, which will be
           interpreted as though they had been issued by a serial device.
           Example: tcp://data.aishub.net:4006.

       UDP feed
           A URI with the prefix "udp://", followed by a hostname, a colon,
           and a port number. The daemon will open a socket listening for UDP
           datagrams arriving on the indicated address and port, which will be
           interpreted as though they had been issued by a serial device.
           Example: udp://127.0.0.1:5000.

       Ntrip caster
           A URI with the prefix "ntrip://" followed by the name of an Ntrip
           caster (Ntrip is a protocol for broadcasting differential-GPS fixes
           over the net). For Ntrip services that require authentication, a
           prefix of the form "username:password@" can be added before the
           name of the Ntrip broadcaster. For Ntrip service, you must specify
           which stream to use; the stream is given in the form "/streamname".
           An example DGPSIP URI could be "dgpsip://dgpsip.example.com" and a
           Ntrip URI could be
           "ntrip://foo:bar@ntrip.example.com:80/example-stream". Corrections
           from the caster will be send to each attached GPS with the
           capability to accept them.

       DGPSIP server
           A URI with the prefix "dgpsip://" followed by a hostname, a colon,
           and an optional colon-separated port number (defaulting to 2101).
           The daemon will handshake with the DGPSIP server and read RTCM2
           correction data from it. Corrections from the server will be set to
           each attached GPS with the capability to accept them.Example:
           dgpsip://dgps.wsrcc.com:2101.

       (The "ais:://" source type supported in some older versions of the
       daemon has been retired in favor of the more general "tcp://".)

       Internally, the daemon maintains a device pool holding the pathnames of
       devices and remote servers known to the daemon. Initially, this list is
       the list of device-name arguments specified on the command line. That
       list may be empty, in which case the daemon will have no devices on its
       search list until they are added by a control-socket command (see the
       section called "GPS DEVICE MANAGEMENT" for details on this). Daemon
       startup will abort with an error if neither any devices nor a control
       socket are specified.

       Clients communicate with the daemon via textual request and responses.
       It is a bad idea for applications to speak the protocol directly:
       rather, they should use the libgps client library and take appropriate
       care to conditionalize their code on the major and minor protocol
       version symbols.

REQUEST/RESPONSE PROTOCOL

       The GPSD protocol is built on top of JSON, JaveScript Object Notation.
       Use of this metaprotocol to pass structured data between daemon and
       client avoids the non-extensibility problems of the old protocol, and
       permits a richer set of record types to be passed up to clients.

       A request line is introduced by "?" and may include multiple commands.
       Commands begin with a command identifier, followed either by a
       terminating ';' or by an equal sign "=" and a JSON object treated as an
       argument. Any ';' or newline indication (either LF or CR-LF) after the
       end of a command is ignored. All request lines must be composed of
       US-ASCII characters and may be no more than 80 characters in length,
       exclusive of the trailing newline.

       Responses are JSON objects all of which have a "class" attribute the
       value of which is either the name of the invoking command or one of the
       strings "DEVICE" or "ERROR". Their length limit is 1024 characters,
       including trailing newline.

       The remainder of this section documents the core GPSD protocol.
       Extensions are docomented in the following sections. The extensions may
       not be supported in your gpsd instance if it has been compiled with a
       restricted feature set.

       Here are the core-protocol responses:

       TPV
           A TPV object is a time-position-velocity report. The "class" and
           "mode" fields will reliably be present. Others may be reported or
           not depending on the fix quality.

           Table 1. TPV object
           +-------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |Name   | Always? | Type    | Description      |
           +-------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |class  | Yes     | string  | Fixed: "TPV"     |
           +-------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |tag    | No      | string  | Type tag         |
           |       |         |         | associated with  |
           |       |         |         | this GPS         |
           |       |         |         | sentence; from   |
           |       |         |         | an NMEA          |
           |       |         |         |      device this |
           |       |         |         | is just the NMEA |
           |       |         |         | sentence type..  |
           +-------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |device | No      | string  | Name of          |
           |       |         |         | originating      |
           |       |         |         | device           |
           +-------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |time   | No      | numeric | Seconds since    |
           |       |         |         | the Unix epoch,  |
           |       |         |         | UTC. May have a  |
           |       |         |         |      fractional  |
           |       |         |         | part of up to    |
           |       |         |         | .01sec           |
           |       |         |         | precision.       |
           +-------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |ept    | No      | numeric | Estimated        |
           |       |         |         | timestamp error  |
           |       |         |         | (%f, seconds,    |
           |       |         |         | 95% confidence). |
           +-------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |lat    | No      | numeric | Latitude in      |
           |       |         |         | degrees: +/-     |
           |       |         |         | signifies        |
           |       |         |         | West/East        |
           +-------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |lon    | No      | numeric | Longitude in     |
           |       |         |         | degrees: +/-     |
           |       |         |         | signifies        |
           |       |         |         | North/South.     |
           +-------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |alt    | No      | numeric | Altitude in      |
           |       |         |         | meters.          |
           +-------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |epx    | No      | numeric | Longitude error  |
           |       |         |         | estimate in      |
           |       |         |         | meters, 95%      |
           |       |         |         | confidence.      |
           +-------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |epy    | No      | numeric | Latitude error   |
           |       |         |         | estimate in      |
           |       |         |         | meters, 95%      |
           |       |         |         | confidence.      |
           +-------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |epv    | No      | numeric | Estimated        |
           |       |         |         | vertical error   |
           |       |         |         | in meters, 95%   |
           |       |         |         | confidence.      |
           +-------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |track  | No      | numeric | Course over      |
           |       |         |         | ground, degrees  |
           |       |         |         | from true north. |
           +-------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |speed  | No      | numeric | Speed over       |
           |       |         |         | ground, meters   |
           |       |         |         | per second.      |
           +-------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |climb  | No      | numeric | Climb (positive) |
           |       |         |         | or sink          |
           |       |         |         | (negative) rate, |
           |       |         |         | meters per       |
           |       |         |         |      second.     |
           +-------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |epd    | No      | numeric | Direction error  |
           |       |         |         | estimate in      |
           |       |         |         | degrees, 95%     |
           |       |         |         | confifdence.     |
           +-------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |eps    | No      | numeric | Speed error      |
           |       |         |         | estinmate in     |
           |       |         |         | meters/sec, 95%  |
           |       |         |         | confifdence.     |
           +-------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |epc    | No      | numeric | Climb/sink error |
           |       |         |         | estinmate in     |
           |       |         |         | meters/sec, 95%  |
           |       |         |         | confifdence.     |
           +-------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |mode   | Yes     | numeric | NMEA mode: %d,   |
           |       |         |         | 0=no mode value  |
           |       |         |         | yet seen, 1=no   |
           |       |         |         | fix, 2=2D, 3=3D. |
           +-------+---------+---------+------------------+
           When the C client library parses a response of this kind, it will
           assert validity bits in the top-level set member for each field
           actually received; see gps.h for bitmask names and values.

           Here's an example:

               {"class":"TPV","tag":"MID2","device":"/dev/pts/1",
                   "time":1118327688.280,"ept":0.005,
                   "lat":46.498293369,"lon":7.567411672,"alt":1343.127,
                   "eph":36.000,"epv":32.321,
                   "track":10.3788,"speed":0.091,"climb":-0.085,"mode":3}

       SKY
           A SKY object reports a sky view of the GPS satellite positions. If
           there is no GPS device available, or no skyview has been reported
           yet, only the "class" field will reliably be present.

           Table 2. SKY object
           +-----------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |Name       | Always? | Type    | Description      |
           +-----------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |class      | Yes     | string  | Fixed: "SKY"     |
           +-----------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |tag        | No      | string  | Type tag         |
           |           |         |         | associated with  |
           |           |         |         | this GPS         |
           |           |         |         | sentence; from   |
           |           |         |         | an NMEA          |
           |           |         |         |      device this |
           |           |         |         | is just the NMEA |
           |           |         |         | sentence type..  |
           +-----------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |device     | No      | string  | Name of          |
           |           |         |         | originating      |
           |           |         |         | device           |
           +-----------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |time       | No      | numeric | Seconds since    |
           |           |         |         | the Unix epoch,  |
           |           |         |         | UTC. May have a  |
           |           |         |         |      fractional  |
           |           |         |         | part of up to    |
           |           |         |         | .01sec           |
           |           |         |         | precision.       |
           +-----------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |xdop       | No      | numeric | Longitudinal     |
           |           |         |         | dilution of      |
           |           |         |         | precision, a     |
           |           |         |         | dimensionsless   |
           |           |         |         |      factor      |
           |           |         |         | which should be  |
           |           |         |         | multiplied by a  |
           |           |         |         | base UERE to get |
           |           |         |         | an      error    |
           |           |         |         | estimate.        |
           +-----------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |ydop       | No      | numeric | Latitudinal      |
           |           |         |         | dilution of      |
           |           |         |         | precision, a     |
           |           |         |         | dimensionsless   |
           |           |         |         |      factor      |
           |           |         |         | which should be  |
           |           |         |         | multiplied by a  |
           |           |         |         | base UERE to get |
           |           |         |         | an      error    |
           |           |         |         | estimate.        |
           +-----------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |vdop       | No      | numeric | Altitude         |
           |           |         |         | dilution of      |
           |           |         |         | precision, a     |
           |           |         |         | dimensionsless   |
           |           |         |         |      factor      |
           |           |         |         | which should be  |
           |           |         |         | multiplied by a  |
           |           |         |         | base UERE to get |
           |           |         |         | an      error    |
           |           |         |         | estimate.        |
           +-----------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |tdop       | No      | numeric | Time dilution of |
           |           |         |         | precision, a     |
           |           |         |         | dimensionsless   |
           |           |         |         |      factor      |
           |           |         |         | which should be  |
           |           |         |         | multiplied by a  |
           |           |         |         | base UERE to get |
           |           |         |         | an      error    |
           |           |         |         | estimate.        |
           +-----------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |hdop       | No      | numeric | Horizontal       |
           |           |         |         | dilution of      |
           |           |         |         | precision, a     |
           |           |         |         | dimensionsless   |
           |           |         |         |      factor      |
           |           |         |         | which should be  |
           |           |         |         | multiplied by a  |
           |           |         |         | base UERE to get |
           |           |         |         | a      circular  |
           |           |         |         | error estimate.  |
           +-----------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |pdop       | No      | numeric | Spherical        |
           |           |         |         | dilution of      |
           |           |         |         | precision, a     |
           |           |         |         | dimensionsless   |
           |           |         |         |      factor      |
           |           |         |         | which should be  |
           |           |         |         | multiplied by a  |
           |           |         |         | base UERE to get |
           |           |         |         | an      error    |
           |           |         |         | estimate.        |
           +-----------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |gdop       | No      | numeric | Hyperspherical   |
           |           |         |         | dilution of      |
           |           |         |         | precision, a     |
           |           |         |         | dimensionsless   |
           |           |         |         |      factor      |
           |           |         |         | which should be  |
           |           |         |         | multiplied by a  |
           |           |         |         | base UERE to get |
           |           |         |         | an      error    |
           |           |         |         | estimate.        |
           +-----------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |xdop       | No      | numeric | Longitudinal     |
           |           |         |         | dilution of      |
           |           |         |         | precision, a     |
           |           |         |         | dimensionsless   |
           |           |         |         |      factor      |
           |           |         |         | which should be  |
           |           |         |         | multiplied by a  |
           |           |         |         | base UERE to get |
           |           |         |         | an      error    |
           |           |         |         | estimate.        |
           +-----------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |satellites | Yes     | list    | List of          |
           |           |         |         | satellite        |
           |           |         |         | objects in       |
           |           |         |         | skyview          |
           +-----------+---------+---------+------------------+
           Many devices compute dilution of precision factors but do nit
           include them in their reports. Many that do report DOPs report only
           HDOP, two-dimensial circular error.  gpsd always passes through
           whatever the device actually reports, then attempts to fill in
           other DOPs by calculating the appropriate determinants in a
           covariance matrix based on the satellite view. DOPs may be missing
           if some of these determinants are singular. It can even happen that
           the device reports an error estimate in meters when the
           corresponding DOP is unavailable; some devices use more
           sophisticated error modeling than the covariance calculation.

           The satellite list objects have the following elements:

           Table 3. Satellite object
           +-----+---------+---------+------------------+
           |Name | Always? | Type    | Description      |
           +-----+---------+---------+------------------+
           |PRN  | Yes     | numeric | PRN ID of the    |
           |     |         |         | satellite        |
           +-----+---------+---------+------------------+
           |az   | Yes     | numeric | Azimuth, degrees |
           |     |         |         | from true north. |
           +-----+---------+---------+------------------+
           |el   | Yes     | numeric | Elevation in     |
           |     |         |         | degrees.         |
           +-----+---------+---------+------------------+
           |ss   | Yes     | numeric | Signal strength  |
           |     |         |         | in dB.           |
           +-----+---------+---------+------------------+
           |used | Yes     | boolean | Used in current  |
           |     |         |         | solution?        |
           +-----+---------+---------+------------------+
           Note that satellite objects do not have a "class" field.., as they
           are never shipped outside of a SKY object.

           When the C client library parses a SKY response, it will assert the
           SATELLITE_SET bit in the top-level set member.

           Here's an example:

               {"class":"SKY","tag":"MID2","device":"/dev/pts/1","time":1118327688.280
                   "xdop":1.55,"hdop":1.24,"pdop":1.99,
                   "satellites":[
                       {"PRN":23,"el":6,"az":84,"ss":0,"used":false},
                       {"PRN":28,"el":7,"az":160,"ss":0,"used":false},
                       {"PRN":8,"el":66,"az":189,"ss":44,"used":true},
                       {"PRN":29,"el":13,"az":273,"ss":0,"used":false},
                       {"PRN":10,"el":51,"az":304,"ss":29,"used":true},
                       {"PRN":4,"el":15,"az":199,"ss":36,"used":true},
                       {"PRN":2,"el":34,"az":241,"ss":43,"used":true},
                       {"PRN":27,"el":71,"az":76,"ss":43,"used":true}]}

       ATT
           An ATT object is a vehicle-attitude report. It is returned by
           digital-compass and gyroscope sensors; depending on device, it may
           include: heading, pitch, roll, yaw, gyroscope, and magnetic-field
           readings. Because such sensors are often bundled as part of
           marine-navigation systems, the ATT response may also include water
           depth.

           The "class", "mode", and "tag" fields will reliably be present.
           Others may be reported or not depending on the specific device
           type.

           Table 4. ATT object
           +------------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |Name        | Always? | Type    | Description      |
           +------------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |class       | Yes     | string  | Fixed: "ATT"     |
           +------------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |tag         | Yes     | string  | Type tag         |
           |            |         |         | associated with  |
           |            |         |         | this GPS         |
           |            |         |         | sentence; from   |
           |            |         |         | an NMEA          |
           |            |         |         |      device this |
           |            |         |         | is just the NMEA |
           |            |         |         | sentence type..  |
           +------------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |device      | Yes     | string  | Name of          |
           |            |         |         | originating      |
           |            |         |         | device           |
           +------------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |time        | Yes     | numeric | Seconds since    |
           |            |         |         | the Unix epoch,  |
           |            |         |         | UTC. May have a  |
           |            |         |         |      fractional  |
           |            |         |         | part of up to    |
           |            |         |         | .01sec           |
           |            |         |         | precision.       |
           +------------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |heading     | No      | numeric | Heading, degrees |
           |            |         |         | from true north. |
           +------------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |mag_st      | No      | string  | Magnetometer     |
           |            |         |         | status.          |
           +------------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |pitch       | No      | numeric | Pitch in         |
           |            |         |         | degrees.         |
           +------------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |pitch_st    | No      | string  | Pitch sensor     |
           |            |         |         | status.          |
           +------------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |yaw         | No      | numeric | Yaw in degrees   |
           +------------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |yaw_st      | No      | string  | Yaw sensor       |
           |            |         |         | status.          |
           +------------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |roll        | No      | numeric | Roll in degrees. |
           +------------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |roll_st     | No      | string  | Roll sensor      |
           |            |         |         | status.          |
           +------------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |dip         | No      | numeric | Roll in degrees. |
           +------------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |mag_len     | No      | numeric | Scalar magnetic  |
           |            |         |         | field strength.  |
           +------------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |mag_x       | No      | numeric | X component of   |
           |            |         |         | magnetic field   |
           |            |         |         | strength.        |
           +------------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |mag_y       | No      | numeric | Y component of   |
           |            |         |         | magnetic field   |
           |            |         |         | strength..       |
           +------------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |mag_z       | No      | numeric | Z component of   |
           |            |         |         | magnetic field   |
           |            |         |         | strength..       |
           +------------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |mag_len     | No      | numeric | Scalar           |
           |            |         |         | acceleration.    |
           +------------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |acc_x       | No      | numeric | X component of   |
           |            |         |         | acceleration.    |
           +------------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |acc_y       | No      | numeric | Y component of   |
           |            |         |         | acceleration.    |
           +------------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |acc_z       | No      | numeric | Z component of   |
           |            |         |         | acceleration..   |
           +------------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |gyro_x      | No      | numeric | X component of   |
           |            |         |         | acceleration.    |
           +------------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |gyro_y      | No      | numeric | Y component of   |
           |            |         |         | acceleration.    |
           +------------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |depth       | No      | numeric | Water depth in   |
           |            |         |         | meters.          |
           +------------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |temperature | No      | numeric | Temperature at   |
           |            |         |         | sensir, degrees  |
           |            |         |         | centigrade.      |
           +------------+---------+---------+------------------+
           The heading, pitch, and roll status codes (if present) vary by
           device. For the TNT Revolution digital compasses, they are coded as
           follows:

           Table 5. Device flags
           +-----+----------------------------+
           |Code | Description                |
           +-----+----------------------------+
           |C    | magnetometer calibration   |
           |     | alarm                      |
           +-----+----------------------------+
           |L    | low alarm                  |
           +-----+----------------------------+
           |M    | low warning                |
           +-----+----------------------------+
           |N    | normal                     |
           +-----+----------------------------+
           |O    | high warning               |
           +-----+----------------------------+
           |P    | high alarm                 |
           +-----+----------------------------+
           |V    | magnetometer voltage level |
           |     | alarm                      |
           +-----+----------------------------+
           When the C client library parses a response of this kind, it will
           assert ATT_IS.

           Here's an example:

               {"class":"ATT","tag":"PTNTHTM","time":1270938096.843,
                   "heading":14223.00,"mag_st":"N",
                   "pitch":169.00,"pitch_st":"N", "roll":-43.00,"roll_st":"N",
                   "dip":13641.000,"mag_x":2454.000,"temperature":0.000,"depth":0.000}

       And here are the commands:

       ?VERSION;
           Returns an object with the following attributes:

           Table 6. VERSION object
           +------------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |Name        | Always? | Type    | Description      |
           +------------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |class       | Yes     | string  | Fixed: "VERSION" |
           +------------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |release     | Yes     | string  | Public release   |
           |            |         |         | level            |
           +------------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |rev         | Yes     | string  | Internal         |
           |            |         |         | revision-control |
           |            |         |         | level.           |
           +------------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |proto_major | Yes     | numeric | API major        |
           |            |         |         | revision level.. |
           +------------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |proto_minor | Yes     | numeric | API minor        |
           |            |         |         | revision level.. |
           +------------+---------+---------+------------------+
           The daemon ships a VERSION response to each client when the client
           first connects to it.

           When the C client library parses a response of this kind, it will
           assert the VERSION_SET bit in the top-level set member.

           Here's an example:

               {"class":"VERSION","version":"2.40dev","rev":"06f62e14eae9886cde907dae61c124c53eb1101f","proto_major":3,"proto_minor":1}

       ?DEVICES;
           Returns a device list object with the following elements:

           Table 7. DEVICES object
           +--------+---------+--------+------------------+
           |Name    | Always? | Type   | Description      |
           +--------+---------+--------+------------------+
           |class   | Yes     | string | Fixed: "DEVICES" |
           +--------+---------+--------+------------------+
           |devices | Yes     | list   | List of device   |
           |        |         |        | descriptions     |
           +--------+---------+--------+------------------+
           When the C client library parses a response of this kind, it will
           assert the DEVICELIST_SET bit in the top-level set member.

           Here's an example:

               {"class"="DEVICES","devices":[
                   {"class":"DEVICE","path":"/dev/pts/1","flags":1,"driver":"SiRF binary"},
                   {"class":"DEVICE","path":"/dev/pts/3","flags":4,"driver":"AIVDM"}]}

           The daemon occasionally ships a bare DEVICE object to the client
           (that is, one not inside a DEVICES wrapper). The data content of
           these objects will be described later in the section covering
           notifications.

       ?WATCH;
           This command sets watcher mode. It also sets or elicits a report of
           per-subscriber policy and the raw bit. An argument WATCH object
           changes the subscriber's policy. The responce describes the
           subscriber's policy. The response will also include a DEVICES
           object.

           A WATCH object has the following elements:

           Table 8. WATCH object
           +-------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |Name   | Always? | Type    | Description      |
           +-------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |class  | Yes     | string  | Fixed: "WATCH"   |
           +-------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |enable | No      | boolean | Enable (true) or |
           |       |         |         | disable (false)  |
           |       |         |         | watcher mode.    |
           |       |         |         | Default      is  |
           |       |         |         | true.            |
           +-------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |json   | No      | boolean | Enable (true) or |
           |       |         |         | disable (false)  |
           |       |         |         | dumping of JSON  |
           |       |         |         | reports.         |
           |       |         |         |      Default is  |
           |       |         |         | false.           |
           +-------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |nmea   | No      | boolean | Enable (true) or |
           |       |         |         | disable (false)  |
           |       |         |         | dumping of       |
           |       |         |         | binary           |
           |       |         |         |      packets as  |
           |       |         |         | pseudo-NMEA.     |
           |       |         |         | Default      is  |
           |       |         |         | false.           |
           +-------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |raw    | No      | integer | Controls 'raw'   |
           |       |         |         | mode. When this  |
           |       |         |         | attribute is set |
           |       |         |         | to 1      for a  |
           |       |         |         | channel, gpsd    |
           |       |         |         | reports the      |
           |       |         |         |      unprocessed |
           |       |         |         | NMEA or AIVDM    |
           |       |         |         | data stream from |
           |       |         |         | whatever device  |
           |       |         |         | is attached.     |
           |       |         |         |      Binary GPS  |
           |       |         |         | packets are      |
           |       |         |         | hex-dumped.      |
           |       |         |         | RTCM2 and RTCM3  |
           |       |         |         |         packets  |
           |       |         |         | are not dumped   |
           |       |         |         | in raw mode.     |
           +-------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |scaled | No      | boolean | If true, apply   |
           |       |         |         | scaling divisors |
           |       |         |         | to output before |
           |       |         |         |      dumping;    |
           |       |         |         | default is       |
           |       |         |         | false. Applies   |
           |       |         |         | only to AIS      |
           |       |         |         | reports.         |
           +-------+---------+---------+------------------+
           |device | No      | string  | If present,      |
           |       |         |         | enable watching  |
           |       |         |         | only of the      |
           |       |         |         | specified device |
           |       |         |         |      rather than |
           |       |         |         | all devices.     |
           |       |         |         | Useful with raw  |
           |       |         |         | and NMEA modes   |
           |       |         |         |      in which    |
           |       |         |         | device responses |
           |       |         |         | aren't tagged.   |
           |       |         |         | Has no effect    |
           |       |         |         | when      used   |
           |       |         |         | with             |
           |       |         |         | enable:false.    |
           +-------+---------+---------+------------------+
           There is an additional boolean "timing" attribute which is
           undocumented because that portion of the interface is considered
           unstable and for developer use only.

           In watcher mode, GPS reports are dumped as TPV and SKY responses.
           AIS and RTCM reporting is described in the next section.

           When the C client library parses a response of this kind, it will
           assert the POLICY_SET bit in the top-level set member.

           Here's an example:

               {"class":"WATCH", "raw":1,"scaled":true}

       ?POLL;
           The POLL command requests data from the last-seen fixes on all
           active GPS devices. Devices must previously have been activated by
           ?WATCH to be pollable, or have been specified on the GPSD command
           line together with an -n option.

           Polling can lead to possibly surprising results when it is used on
           a device such as an NMEA GPS for which a complete fix has to be
           accumulated from several sentences. If you poll while those
           sentences are being emitted, the response will contain the last
           complete fix data and may be as much as one cycle time (typically 1
           second) stale.

           The POLL response will contain a timestamped list of TPV objects
           describing cached data, and a timestamped list of SKY objects
           describing satellite configuration. If a device has not seen fixes,
           it will be reported with a mode field of zero.

           Table 9. POLL object
           +---------+---------+------------+-----------------+
           |Name     | Always? | Type       | Description     |
           +---------+---------+------------+-----------------+
           |class    | Yes     | string     | Fixed: "POLL"   |
           +---------+---------+------------+-----------------+
           |time     | Yes     | Numeric    | Seconds since   |
           |         |         |            | the Unix epoch, |
           |         |         |            | UTC. May have a |
           |         |         |            |      fractional |
           |         |         |            | part of up to   |
           |         |         |            | .001sec         |
           |         |         |            | precision.      |
           +---------+---------+------------+-----------------+
           |active   | Yes     | Numeric    | Count of active |
           |         |         |            | devices.        |
           +---------+---------+------------+-----------------+
           |fixes    | Yes     | JSON array | Comma-separated |
           |         |         |            | list of TPV     |
           |         |         |            | objects.        |
           +---------+---------+------------+-----------------+
           |skyviews | Yes     | JSON array | Comma-separated |
           |         |         |            | list of SKY     |
           |         |         |            | objects.        |
           +---------+---------+------------+-----------------+
           Here's an example of a POLL response:

               {"class":"POLL","timestamp":1270517274.846,"active":1,
                   "fixes":[{"class":"TPV","tag":"MID41","device":"/dev/ttyUSB0",
                             "time":1270517264.240,"ept":0.005,"lat":40.035093060,
                             "lon":-75.519748733,"track":99.4319,"speed":0.123,"mode":2}],
                   "skyviews":[{"class":"SKY","tag":"MID41","device":"/dev/ttyUSB0",
                                "time":1270517264.240,"hdop":9.20,
                                "satellites":[{"PRN":16,"el":55,"az":42,"ss":36,"used":true},
                                              {"PRN":19,"el":25,"az":177,"ss":0,"used":false},
                                              {"PRN":7,"el":13,"az":295,"ss":0,"used":false},
                                              {"PRN":6,"el":56,"az":135,"ss":32,"used":true},
                                              {"PRN":13,"el":47,"az":304,"ss":0,"used":false},
                                              {"PRN":23,"el":66,"az":259,"ss":0,"used":false},
                                              {"PRN":20,"el":7,"az":226,"ss":0,"used":false},
                                              {"PRN":3,"el":52,"az":163,"ss":32,"used":true},
                                              {"PRN":31,"el":16,"az":102,"ss":0,"used":false}
               ]}]}

               Note
               Client software should not assime the field inventory of the
               POLL response is fixed for all time. As gpsd collects and
               caches more data from more sensor types, those data are likely
               to find their way into this response.

       ?DEVICE
           This command reports (when followed by ';') the state of a device,
           or sets (when followed by '=' and a DEVICE object) device-specific
           control bits, notably the device's speed and serial mode and the
           native-mode bit. The parameter-setting form will be rejected if
           more than one client is attached to the channel.

           Pay attention to the response, because it is possible for this
           command to fail if the GPS does not support a speed-switching
           command or only supports some combinations of serial modes. In case
           of failure, the daemon and GPS will continue to communicate at the
           old speed.

           Use the parameter-setting form with caution. On USB and Bluetooth
           GPSes it is also possible for serial mode setting to fail either
           because the serial adaptor chip does not support non-8N1 modes or
           because the device firmware does not properly synchronize the
           serial adaptor chip with the UART on the GPS chipset whjen the
           speed changes. These failures can hang your device, possibly
           requiring a GPS power cycle or (in extreme cases) physically
           disconnecting the NVRAM backup battery.

           A DEVICE object has the following elements:

           Table 10. CONFIGCHAN object
           +----------+------------------+---------+--------------------+
           |Name      | Always?          | Type    | Description        |
           +----------+------------------+---------+--------------------+
           |class     | Yes              | string  | Fixed: "DEVICE"    |
           +----------+------------------+---------+--------------------+
           |path      | No               | string  | Name the device    |
           |          |                  |         | for which the      |
           |          |                  |         | control bits are   |
           |          |                  |         |      being         |
           |          |                  |         | reported, or for   |
           |          |                  |         | which they are     |
           |          |                  |         | to be applied.     |
           |          |                  |         | This               |
           |          |                  |         |         attribute  |
           |          |                  |         | may be omitted     |
           |          |                  |         | only when there    |
           |          |                  |         | is exactly one     |
           |          |                  |         |         subscribed |
           |          |                  |         | channel.           |
           +----------+------------------+---------+--------------------+
           |activated | At device        | numeric | Time the device    |
           |          | activation and   |         | was activated,     |
           |          | device close     |         |      or 0 if it is |
           |          | time.            |         | being closed.      |
           +----------+------------------+---------+--------------------+
           |flags     | No               | integer | Bit vector of      |
           |          |                  |         | property flags.    |
           |          |                  |         | Currently defined  |
           |          |                  |         | flags are:         |
           |          |                  |         |         describe   |
           |          |                  |         | packet types seen  |
           |          |                  |         | so far (GPS,       |
           |          |                  |         | RTCM2, RTCM3,      |
           |          |                  |         |      AIS). Won't   |
           |          |                  |         | be reported if     |
           |          |                  |         | empty, e.g. before |
           |          |                  |         |      gpsd has seen |
           |          |                  |         | identifiable       |
           |          |                  |         | packets      from  |
           |          |                  |         | the device.        |
           +----------+------------------+---------+--------------------+
           |driver    | No               | string  | GPSD's name for    |
           |          |                  |         | the device driver  |
           |          |                  |         | type. Won't be     |
           |          |                  |         | reported before    |
           |          |                  |         |      gpsd has seen |
           |          |                  |         | identifiable       |
           |          |                  |         | packets      from  |
           |          |                  |         | the device.        |
           +----------+------------------+---------+--------------------+
           |subtype   | When the daemon  | string  | Whatever version   |
           |          | sees a delayed   |         | information the    |
           |          | response to a    |         | device returned.   |
           |          | probe for        |         |                    |
           |          |      subtype or  |         |                    |
           |          | firmware-version |         |                    |
           |          | information.     |         |                    |
           +----------+------------------+---------+--------------------+
           |bps       | No               | integer | Device speed in    |
           |          |                  |         | bits per second.   |
           +----------+------------------+---------+--------------------+
           |parity    | Yes              | string  | N, O or E for no   |
           |          |                  |         | parity, odd, or    |
           |          |                  |         | even.              |
           +----------+------------------+---------+--------------------+
           |stopbits  | Yes              | string  | Stop bits (1 or    |
           |          |                  |         | 2).                |
           +----------+------------------+---------+--------------------+
           |native    | No               | integer | 0 means NMEA mode  |
           |          |                  |         | and 1 means        |
           |          |                  |         |      alternate     |
           |          |                  |         | mode (binary if it |
           |          |                  |         | has one, for SiRF  |
           |          |                  |         | and Evermore       |
           |          |                  |         | chipsets      in   |
           |          |                  |         | particular).       |
           |          |                  |         | Attempting to set  |
           |          |                  |         | this mode on a     |
           |          |                  |         | non-GPS            |
           |          |                  |         |      device will   |
           |          |                  |         | yield an error.    |
           +----------+------------------+---------+--------------------+
           |cycle     | No               | real    | Device cycle time  |
           |          |                  |         | in seconds.        |
           +----------+------------------+---------+--------------------+
           |mincycle  | No               | real    | Device minimum     |
           |          |                  |         | cycle time in      |
           |          |                  |         | seconds. Reported  |
           |          |                  |         | from               |
           |          |                  |         |      ?CONFIGDEV    |
           |          |                  |         | when (and only     |
           |          |                  |         | when) the rate is  |
           |          |                  |         | switchable. It is  |
           |          |                  |         |      read-only and |
           |          |                  |         | not settable.      |
           +----------+------------------+---------+--------------------+
           The serial parameters will be omitted in a response describing a
           TCP/IP source such as an Ntrip, DGPSIP, or AIS feed.

           The contents of the flags field should be interpreted as follows:

           Table 11. Device flags
           +-----------+-------+---------------------+
           |C #define  | Value | Description         |
           +-----------+-------+---------------------+
           |SEEN_GPS   | 0x01  | GPS data has been   |
           |           |       | seen on this device |
           +-----------+-------+---------------------+
           |SEEN_RTCM2 | 0x02  | RTCM2 data has been |
           |           |       | seen on this device |
           +-----------+-------+---------------------+
           |SEEN_RTCM3 | 0x04  | RTCM3 data has been |
           |           |       | seen on this device |
           +-----------+-------+---------------------+
           |SEEN_AIS   | 0x08  | AIS data has been   |
           |           |       | seen on this device |
           +-----------+-------+---------------------+
           When the C client library parses a response of this kind, it will
           assert the DEVICE_SET bit in the top-level set member.

           Here's an example:

               {"class":"DEVICE", "speed":4800,"serialmode":"8N1","native":0}

       When a client is in watcher mode, the daemon will ship it DEVICE
       notifications when a device is added to the pool or deactivated.

       When the C client library parses a response of this kind, it will
       assert the DEVICE_SET bit in the top-level set member.

       Here's an example:

           {"class":"DEVICE","path":"/dev/pts1","activated":0}

       The daemon may ship an error object in response to a syntactically
       invalid command line or unknown command. It has the following elements:

       Table 12. ERROR notification object
       +--------+---------+--------+----------------+
       |Name    | Always? | Type   | Description    |
       +--------+---------+--------+----------------+
       |class   | Yes     | string | Fixed: "ERROR" |
       +--------+---------+--------+----------------+
       |message | Yes     | string | Textual error  |
       |        |         |        | message        |
       +--------+---------+--------+----------------+

       Here's an example:

           {"class":"ERROR","message":"Unrecognized request '?FOO'"}

       When the C client library parses a response of this kind, it will
       assert the ERR_SET bit in the top-level set member.

AIS AND RTCM DUMP FORMATS

       AIS support is an extension. It may not be present if your instance of
       gpsd has been built with a restricted feature set.

       AIS packets are dumped as JSON objects with class "AIS". Each AIS
       report object contains a "type" field giving the AIS message type and a
       "scaled" field telling whether the remainder of the fields are dumped
       in scaled or unscaled form. Other fields have names and types as
       specified in the AIVDM/AIVDO Protocol Decoding[2] document; each
       message field table may be directly interpreted as a specification for
       the members of the corresponding JSON object type.

       RTCM2 corrections are dumped in the JSON format described in
       rtcm104(5).

GPS DEVICE MANAGEMENT

       gpsd maintains an internal list of GPS devices (the "device pool"). If
       you specify devices on the command line, the list is initialized with
       those pathnames; otherwise the list starts empty. Commands to add and
       remove GPS device paths from the daemon's device list must be written
       to a local Unix-domain socket which will be accessible only to programs
       running as root. This control socket will be located wherever the -F
       option specifies it.

       A device may will also be dropped from the pool if GPSD gets a zero
       length read from it. This end-of-file condition indicates that the'
       device has been disconnected.

       When gpsd is properly installed along with hotplug notifier scripts
       feeding it device-add commands over the control socket, gpsd should
       require no configuration or user action to find devices.

       Sending SIGHUP to a running gpsd forces it to close all GPSes and all
       client connections. It will then attempt to reconnect to any GPSes on
       its device list and resume listening for client connections. This may
       be useful if your GPS enters a wedged or confused state but can be
       soft-reset by pulling down DTR.

       To point gpsd at a device that may be a GPS, write to the control
       socket a plus sign ('+') followed by the device name followed by LF or
       CR-LF. Thus, to point the daemon at /dev/foo. send "+/dev/foo\n". To
       tell the daemon that a device has been disconnected and is no longer
       available, send a minus sign ('-') followed by the device name followed
       by LF or CR-LF. Thus, to remove /dev/foo from the search list. send
       "-/dev/foo\n".

       To send a control string to a specified device, write to the control
       socket a '!', followed by the device name, followed by '=', followed by
       the control string.

       To send a binary control string to a specified device, write to the
       control socket a '&', followed by the device name, followed by '=',
       followed by the control string in paired hex digits.

       Your client may await a response, which will be a line beginning with
       either "OK" or "ERROR". An ERROR reponse to an add command means the
       device did not emit data recognizable as GPS packets; an ERROR response
       to a remove command means the specified device was not in gpsd's device
       pool. An ERROR response to a ! command means the daemon did not
       recognize the devicename specified.

       The control socket is intended for use by hotplug scripts and other
       device-discovery services. This control channel is separate from the
       public gpsd service port, and only locally accessible, in order to
       prevent remote denial-of-service and spoofing attacks.

ACCURACY

       The base User Estimated Range Error (UERE) of GPSes is 8 meters or less
       at 66% confidence, 15 meters or less at 95% confidence. Actual
       horizontal error will be UERE times a dilution factor dependent on
       current satellite position. Altitude determination is more sensitive to
       variability in ionospheric signal lag than latitude/longitude is, and
       is also subject to errors in the estimation of local mean sea level;
       base error is 12 meters at 66% confidence, 23 meters at 95% confidence.
       Again, this will be multiplied by a vertical dilution of precision
       (VDOP) dependent on satellite geometry, and VDOP is typically larger
       than HDOP. Users should not rely on GPS altitude for life-critical
       tasks such as landing an airplane.

       These errors are intrinsic to the design and physics of the GPS system.
       gpsd does its internal computations at sufficient accuracy that it will
       add no measurable position error of its own.

       DGPS correction will reduce UERE by a factor of 4, provided you are
       within about 100mi (160km) of a DGPS ground station from which you are
       receiving corrections.

       On a 4800bps connection, the time latency of fixes provided by gpsd
       will be one second or less 95% of the time. Most of this lag is due to
       the fact that GPSes normally emit fixes once per second, thus expected
       latency is 0.5sec. On the personal-computer hardware available in 2005,
       computation lag induced by gpsd will be negligible, on the order of a
       millisecond. Nevertheless, latency can introduce significant errors for
       vehicles in motion; at 50km/h (31mi/h) of speed over ground, 1 second
       of lag corresponds to 13.8 meters change in position between updates.

       The time reporting of the GPS system itself has an intrinsic accuracy
       limit of 0.000,000,340 = 3.4x10-7 seconds. A more important limit is
       the GPS tick rate. While the one-per-second PPS pulses emitted by
       serial GPS units are timed to the GPS system's intrinsic accuracy
       limit,the satellites only emit navigation messages at 0.01-second
       intervals, and the timestamps in them only carry 0.01-second precision.
       Thus, the timestamps that gpsd reports in time/position/velocity
       messages are normally accurate only to 1/100th of a second.

USE WITH NTP

       gpsd can provide reference clock information to ntpd, to keep the
       system clock synchronized to the time provided by the GPS receiver.
       This facility is only available when the daemon is started from root.
       If you're going to use gpsd you probably want to run it -n mode so the
       clock will be updated even when no clients are active.

       Note that deriving time from messages received from the GPS is not as
       accurate as you might expect. Messages are often delayed in the
       receiver and on the link by several hundred milliseconds, and this
       delay is not constant. On Linux, gpsd includes support for interpreting
       the PPS pulses emitted at the start of every clock second on the
       carrier-detect lines of some serial GPSes; this pulse can be used to
       update NTP at much higher accuracy than message time provides. You can
       determine whether your GPS emits this pulse by running at -D 5 and
       watching for carrier-detect state change messages in the logfile.

       When gpsd receives a sentence with a timestamp, it packages the
       received timestamp with current local time and sends it to a
       shared-memory segment with an ID known to ntpd, the network time
       synchronization daemon. If ntpd has been properly configured to receive
       this message, it will be used to correct the system clock.

       Here is a sample ntp.conf configuration stanza telling ntpd how to read
       the GPS notfications:

           server 127.127.28.0 minpoll 4 maxpoll 4
           fudge 127.127.28.0 time1 0.420 refid GPS

           server 127.127.28.1 minpoll 4 maxpoll 4 prefer
           fudge 127.127.28.1 refid GPS1

       The magic pseudo-IP address 127.127.28.0 identifies unit 0 of the ntpd
       shared-memory driver; 127.127.28.1 identifies unit 1. Unit 0 is used
       for message-decoded time and unit 1 for the (more accurate, when
       available) time derived from the PPS synchronization pulse. Splitting
       these notifications allows ntpd to use its normal heuristics to weight
       them.

       With this configuration, ntpd will read the timestamp posted by gpsd
       every 16 seconds and send it to unit 0. The number after the parameter
       time1 is an offset in seconds. You can use it to adjust out some of the
       fixed delays in the system. 0.035 is a good starting value for the
       Garmin GPS-18/USB, 0.420 for the Garmin GPS-18/LVC.

       After restarting ntpd, a line similar to the one below should appear in
       the output of the command "ntpq -p" (after allowing a couple of
       minutes):

           remote       refid      st t when poll reach  delay    offset  jitter
           =========================================================================
           +SHM(0)     .GPS.      0 l   13   16  377    0.000    0.885   0.882

       If you are running PPS then it will look like this:

           remote       refid      st t when poll reach  delay    offset  jitter
           =========================================================================
           -SHM(0)     .GPS.      0 l   13   16  377    0.000    0.885   0.882
           *SHM(1)     .GPS1.     0 l   11   16  377    0.000   -0.059   0.006

       When the value under "reach" remains zero, check that gpsd is running;
       and some application is connected to it or the '-n' option was used.
       Make sure the receiver is locked on to at least one satellite, and the
       receiver is in SiRF binary, Garmin binary or NMEA/PPS mode. Plain NMEA
       will also drive ntpd, but the accuracy as bad as one second. When the
       SHM(0) line does not appear at all, check the system logs for error
       messages from ntpd.

       When no other reference clocks appear in the NTP configuration, the
       system clock will lock onto the GPS clock. When you have previously
       used ntpd, and other reference clocks appear in your configuration,
       there may be a fixed offset between the GPS clock and other clocks. The
       gpsd developers would like to receive information about the offsets
       observed by users for each type of receiver. Please send us the output
       of the "ntpq -p" command and the make and type of receiver.

USE WITH D-BUS

       On operating systems that support D-BUS, gpsd can be built to broadcast
       GPS fixes to D-BUS-aware applications. As D-BUS is still at a pre-1.0
       stage, we will not attempt to document this interface here. Read the
       gpsd source code to learn more.

SECURITY AND PERMISSIONS ISSUES

       gpsd, if given the -G flag, will listen for connections from any
       reachable host, and then disclose the current position. Before using
       the -G flag, consider whether you consider your computer's location to
       be sensitive data to be kept private or something that you wish to
       publish.

       gpsd must start up as root in order to open the NTPD shared-memory
       segment, open its logfile, and create its local control socket. Before
       doing any processing of GPS data, it tries to drop root privileges by
       setting its UID to "nobody" (or another userid as set by configure) and
       its group ID to the group of the initial GPS passed on the command line
       -- or, if that device doesn't exist, to the group of /dev/ttyS0.

       Privilege-dropping is a hedge against the possibility that carefully
       crafted data, either presented from a client socket or from a subverted
       serial device posing as a GPS, could be used to induce misbehavior in
       the internals of gpsd. It ensures that any such compromises cannot be
       used for privilege elevation to root.

       The assumption behind gpsd's particular behavior is that all the tty
       devices to which a GPS might be connected are owned by the same
       non-root group and allow group read/write, though the group may vary
       because of distribution-specific or local administrative practice. If
       this assumption is false, gpsd may not be able to open GPS devices in
       order to read them (such failures will be logged).

       In order to fend off inadvertent denial-of-service attacks by port
       scanners (not to mention deliberate ones), gpsd will time out inactive
       client connections. Before the client has issued a command that
       requests a channel assignment, a short timeout (60 seconds) applies.
       There is no timeout for clients in watcher or raw modes; rather, gpsd
       drops these clients if they fail to read data long enough for the
       outbound socket write buffer to fill. Clients with an assigned device
       in polling mode are subject to a longer timeout (15 minutes).

LIMITATIONS

       If multiple NMEA talkers are feeding RMC, GLL, and GGA sentences to the
       same serial device (possible with an RS422 adapter hooked up to some
       marine-navigation systems), a 'TPV' response may mix an altitude from
       one device's GGA with latitude/longitude from another's RMC/GLL after
       the second sentence has arrived.

       gpsd may change control settings on your GPS (such as the emission
       frequency of various sentences or packets) and not restore the original
       settings on exit. This is a result of inadequacies in NMEA and the
       vendor binary GPS protocols, which often do not give clients any way to
       query the values of control settings in order to be able to restore
       them later.

       If your GPS uses a SiRF chipset at firmware level 231, reported UTC
       time may be off by the difference between 13 seconds and whatever
       leap-second correction is currently applicable, from startup until
       complete subframe information is received (normally about six seconds).
       Firmware levels 232 and up don't have this problem. You may run gpsd at
       debug level 4 to see the chipset type and firmware revision level.

       When using SiRF chips, the VDOP/TDOP/GDOP figures and associated error
       estimates are computed by gpsd rather than reported by the chip. The
       computation does not exactly match what SiRF chips do internally, which
       includes some satellite weighting using parameters gpsd cannot see.

       Autobauding on the Trimble GPSes can take as long as 5 seconds if the
       device speed is not matched to the GPS speed.

       If you are using an NMEA-only GPS (that is, not using SiRF or Garmin or
       Zodiac binary mode) and the GPS does not emit GPZDA at the start of its
       update cycle (which most consumer-grade NMEA GPSes do not) and it is
       after 2099, then the century part of the dates gpsd delivers will be
       wrong.

       Generation of position error estimates (eph, epv, epd, eps, epc) from
       the incomplete data handed back by GPS reporting protocols involves
       both a lot of mathematical black art and fragile device-dependent
       assumptions. This code has been bug-prone in tbe past and problems may
       still lurk there.

FILES

       /dev/ttyS0
           Prototype TTY device. After startup, gpsd sets its group ID to the
           owner of this device if no GPS device was specified on the command
           line does not exist.

APPLICABLE STANDARDS

       The official NMEA protocol standard is available on paper from the
       National Marine Electronics Association[3], but is proprietary and
       expensive; the maintainers of gpsd have made a point of not looking at
       it. The GPSD website[4] links to several documents that collect
       publicly disclosed information about the protocol.

       gpsd parses the following NMEA sentences: RMC, GGA, GLL, GSA, GSV, VTG,
       ZDA. It recognizes these with either the normal GP talker-ID prefix, or
       with the GN prefix used by GLONASS, or with the II prefix emitted by
       Seahawk Autohelm marine navigation systems, or with the IN prefix
       emitted by some Garmin units. It recognizes some vendor extensions: the
       PGRME emitted by some Garmin GPS models, the OHPR emitted by
       Oceanserver digital compasses, the PTNTHTM emitted by True North
       digital compasses, and the PASHR sentences emitted by some Ashtech
       GPSes.

       Note that gpsd JSON returns pure decimal degrees, not the hybrid
       degree/minute format described in the NMEA standard.

       Differential-GPS corrections are conveyed by the RTCM-104 proocol. The
       applicable standard for RTCM-104 V2 is RTCM Recommended Standards for
       Differential NAVSTAR GPS Service RTCM Paper 194-93/SC 104-STD. The
       applicable standard for RTCM-104 V3 is RTCM Standard 10403.1 for
       Differential GNSS Services - Version 3 RTCM Paper 177-2006-SC104-STD.

       AIS is defined by ITU Recommendation M.1371, Technical Characteristics
       for a Universal Shipborne Automatic Identification System Using Time
       Division Multiple Access. The AIVDM/AIVDO format understood by this
       progeam is defined by IEC-PAS 61162-100, Maritime navigation and
       radiocommunication equipment and systems

SEE ALSO

       gps(1), libgps(3), libgpsd(3), gpsprof(1), gpsfake(1), gpsctl(1),
       gpscat(1), rtcm-104(5).

AUTHORS

       Remco Treffcorn, Derrick Brashear, Russ Nelson, Eric S. Raymond, Chris
       Kuethe. This manual page by Eric S. Raymond esr@thyrsus.com. There is a
       project site[4].

NOTES

        1. FAQ
           http://gpsd.berlios.de/faq.html

        2. AIVDM/AIVDO Protocol Decoding
           http://gpsd.berlios.de/AIVDM.html

        3. National Marine Electronics Association
           http://www.nmea.org/pub/0183/

        4. GPSD website
           http://gpsd.berlios.de/