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NAME

     ieee80211_node -- software 802.11 stack node management functions

SYNOPSIS

     #include <net80211/ieee80211_var.h>

     struct ieee80211_node *
     ieee80211_find_rxnode(struct ieee80211com *,
         const struct ieee80211_frame_min *);

     struct ieee80211_node *
     ieee80211_find_rxnode_withkey(struct ieee80211com *,
         const struct ieee80211_frame_min *, ieee80211_keyix);

     struct ieee80211_node *
     ieee80211_ref_node(struct ieee80211_node *);

     void
     ieee80211_unref_node(struct ieee80211_node *);

     void
     ieee80211_free_node(struct ieee80211_node *);

     void
     ieee80211_iterate_nodes(struct ieee80211_node_table *,
         ieee80211_iter_func *f, void *arg);

     void
     ieee80211_dump_nodes(struct ieee80211_node_table *);

     void
     ieee80211_dump_node(struct ieee80211_node *);

DESCRIPTION

     The net80211 layer that supports 802.11 device drivers maintains a
     database of peer stations called the ``node table'' in the ic_sta entry
     of the ieee80211com structure.  Station mode vaps create an entry for the
     access point the station is associated to.  AP mode vaps create entries
     for associated stations.  Adhoc and mesh mode vaps create entries for
     neighbor stations.  WDS mode vaps create an entry for the peer station.
     Stations for all vaps reside in the same table; each node entry has a
     ni_vap field that identifies the vap that created it.  In some instances
     an entry is used by multiple vaps (e.g. for dynamic WDS a station
     associated to an ap vap may also be the peer of a WDS vap).

     Node table entries are reference counted.  That is, there is a count of
     all long term references that determines when an entry may be reclaimed.
     References are held by every in-flight frame sent to a station to insure
     the entry is not reclaimed while the frame is queued or otherwise held by
     a driver.  Routines that lookup a table entry return a ``held reference''
     (i.e. a pointer to a table entry with the reference count incremented).
     The ieee80211_ref_node() and ieee80211_unref_node() calls explicitly
     increment/decrement the reference count of a node, but are rarely used.
     Instead most callers use ieee80211_free_node() to release a reference
     and, if the count goes to zero, reclaim the table entry.

     The station table and its entries are exposed to drivers in several ways.
     Each frame transmitted to a station includes a reference to the
     associated node in the m_pkthdr.rcvif field.  This reference must be
     reclaimed by the driver when transmit processing is done.  For each frame
     received the driver must lookup the table entry to use in dispatching the
     frame ``up the stack''.  This lookup implicitly obtains a reference to
     the table entry and the driver must reclaim the reference when frame
     processing is completed.  Otherwise drivers frequently inspect the
     contents of the iv_bss node when handling state machine changes as
     important information is maintained in the data structure.

     The node table is opaque to drivers.  Entries may be looked up using one
     of the pre-defined API's or the ieee80211_iterate_nodes() call may be
     used to iterate through all entries to do per-node processing or
     implement some non-standard search mechanism.  Note that
     ieee80211_iterate_nodes() is single-threaded per-device and the effort
     processing involved is fairly substantial so it should be used carefully.

     Two routines are provided to print the contents of nodes to the console
     for debugging: ieee80211_dump_node() displays the contents of a single
     node while ieee80211_dump_nodes() displays the contents of the specified
     node table.  Nodes may also be displayed using ddb(9) with the ``show
     node'' directive and the station node table can be displayed with ``show
     statab''.

DRIVER PRIVATE STATE

     Node data structures may be extended by the driver to include driver-
     private state.  This is done by overriding the ic_node_alloc method used
     to allocate a node table entry.  The driver method must allocate a
     structure that is an extension of the ieee80211_node structure.  For
     example the iwi(4) driver defines a private node structure as:

           struct iwi_node {
                   struct ieee80211_node   in_node;
                   int                     in_station;
           };

     and then provides a private allocation routine that does this:

           static struct ieee80211_node *
           iwi_node_alloc(struct ieee80211vap *vap,
               const uint8_t mac[IEEE80211_ADDR_LEN])
           {
                   struct iwi_node *in;

                   in = malloc(sizeof (struct iwi_node), M_80211_NODE,
                           M_NOWAIT | M_ZERO);
                   if (in == NULL)
                           return NULL;
                   in->in_station = -1;
                   return &in->in_node;
           }

     Note that when reclaiming a node allocated by the driver the ``parent
     method'' must be called to ensure net80211 state is reclaimed; for
     example:

           static void
           iwi_node_free(struct ieee80211_node *ni)
           {
                   struct ieee80211com *ic = ni->ni_ic;
                   struct iwi_softc *sc = ic->ic_ifp->if_softc;
                   struct iwi_node *in = (struct iwi_node *)ni;

                   if (in->in_station != -1)
                           free_unr(sc->sc_unr, in->in_station);
                   sc->sc_node_free(ni);   /* invoke net80211 free handler */
           }

     Beware that care must be taken to avoid holding references that might
     cause nodes from being reclaimed.  net80211 will reclaim a node when the
     last reference is reclaimed in its data structures.  However if a driver
     holds additional references then net80211 will not recognize this and
     table entries will not be reclaimed.  Such references should not be
     needed if the driver overrides the ic_node_cleanup and/or ic_node_free
     methods.

KEY TABLE SUPPORT

     Node table lookups are typically done using a hash of the stations' mac
     address.  When receiving frames this is sufficient to find the node table
     entry for the transmitter.  But some devices also identify the sending
     station in the device state received with each frame and this data can be
     used to optimize lookups on receive using a companion table called the
     ``keytab''.  This table records a separate node table reference that can
     be fetched without any locking using the table index.  This logic is
     handled with the ieee80211_find_rxnode_withkey() call: if a keytab entry
     is found using the specified index then it is returned directly;
     otherwise a normal lookup is done and the keytab entry is written using
     the specified index.  If the specified index is IEEE80211_KEYIX_NONE then
     a normal lookup is done without a table update.

SEE ALSO

     ddb(9), ieee80211(9), ieee80211_proto(9)